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In Pursuit of Memory: A Lesson on the Basics of Brain Anatomy Power-point presentation for the The Amazing Brain competition Content focus: The brain.

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Presentation on theme: "In Pursuit of Memory: A Lesson on the Basics of Brain Anatomy Power-point presentation for the The Amazing Brain competition Content focus: The brain."— Presentation transcript:

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2 In Pursuit of Memory: A Lesson on the Basics of Brain Anatomy Power-point presentation for the The Amazing Brain competition Content focus: The brain and memory

3 Dr. Bee Hey, Im Dr. Bee, an expert in brain anatomy, I think I know what is happening in your brain, but before the explanation, we first need to understand the brain anatomy of memory the brain anatomy of memory ! HELP! HELP! HELP! HELP! H.M. My name is H.M. severe memory deficit After the removal of the medial regions of my temporal lobes, I suffer from severe memory deficit. People always say that I cant remember recent events for just a few minutes!

4 Basically, we need to know three major regions of our brain that function for memory: 1.Hippocampus 2.Hippocampal Region 3. Cerebral Cortex

5 Hippocampus is in the basal medial part of the temporal lobe. This part of the brain is important for learning and memory. H HH Hippocampus Hippocampus

6 Hippocampal Region Hippocampal region organizes and converts information from short-term memory to long-term memory for permanent storage of memories. Hippocampal Region

7 C CC Cerebral Cortex Cerebral cortex is divided into right and left hemispheres. It lies over and around most of the structures of the brain, and stores different elements of a specific form of memory. Temporal lobe Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Occipital lobe

8 Well I see… there are different regions in the brain, and they have different functions. But how about my case, Dr. Bee? Can my memory deficit be attributed to the removal of the hippocampus?

9 anterograde amnesia Well… that is actually a case of anterograde amnesia, in which you lose memories of events that happened after the brain surgery. The problem of anterograde amnesia is due to failure in transferring information from short-term memory to long- term memory. HMs missing part: Medial regions of the temporal lobe

10 other nearby structures hippocampal region parahippocampal region Though it may seem that your memory problem is due to the removal of hippocampus, contemporary researches now suggest that removal of other nearby structures (the hippocampal region & parahippocampal region) also contribute to memory deficits. HMs missing part: Medial regions of the temporal lobe

11 Well… not exactly! Oh I see… hippocampal region the adjacent areas that means memories are stored in hippocampal region & the adjacent areas!

12 hippocampal region consolidation of memories According to contemporary view, the hippocampal region plays a key role in the consolidation of memories, i.e. the process of converting information to long-term memory. But…

13 consolidated in the hippocampal region, they are thenstored in diverse and widely distributed areas of the cerebral cortex. After memories are consolidated in the hippocampal region, they are then stored in diverse and widely distributed areas of the cerebral cortex. Therefore other than the hippocampal region, cerebral cortex the cerebral cortex plays a critical role in memory.

14 cortical areas Some theorists even suggest that the hippocampal area only functions to bind together the individual elements of a specific form of memory that are stored in diverse and widely distributed areas of the cerebral cortex (cortical areas).

15 Primary visual area occipital lobe Primary visual area, a functioning area of visual information encoded in the memory, is located in the occipital lobe. Examples of Specific Forms of Memory in Cortical Areas

16 Primary somatosensory area parietal lobe Primary somatosensory area, a functioning area of senses of body movements encoded in the memory, is located in the parietal lobe. Examples of Specific Forms of Memory in Cortical Areas

17 Primary motor area parietal lobe Primary motor area, a functioning area of voluntary movements encoded in the memory, is located in the parietal lobe. Examples of Specific Forms of Memory in Cortical Areas

18 Primary auditory area temporal lobe Primary auditory area, a functioning area of auditory signals encoded in the memory, is located in the temporal lobe. Examples of Specific Forms of Memory in Cortical Areas

19 I get it… each part of the brain contributes differently to our permanent memory. How amazing the brain is! brain and memory Dr. Bee, Im much interested in knowing more about the brain and memory, could you tell me more? Sure… Let me tell you the following facts about brain and memory.

20 Memory is classified into two main types. They are declarative memory and nondeclarative memory. Declarative Memory declarative memory. Our ability to learn and consciously remember everyday facts and events is called declarative memory. Semantic Memory Semantic Memory is a form of declarative memory.

21 Semantic memory Semantic memory is memory about general facts and data. Here are some examples: Octopus is a kind of organism. Football is a kind of sport. Thomas Müller is a German football player. Different cortical areas are involved in semantic memory, and no conclusion has been reached yet concerning the nature of cortical areas involved in semantic memory.

22 Episodic Memory Episodic Memory is another form of declarative memory. Episodic memory

23 Episodic memory Episodic memory is memory of our specific personal experiences at a particular place and time. Here is an example: I saw Octopus Paul living in the tank at the Sea Life Centre in Germany last night. What WhereWhen parahippocampal region hippocampus cortical areas The parahippocampal region is involved in processing what, where, and when information about specific personal experiences, and then the hippocampus links the information together to be integrated in various cortical areas.

24 Procedural Memory Procedural Memory is a form of nondeclarative knowledge. Nondeclarative Knowledge Nondeclarative Knowledge, the knowledge of how to do something, is expressed in skilled behavior and learnt habits. Nondeclarative Knowledge

25 Procedural memory Procedural memory includes skilled behaviors and learnt habits. Let say… Can you describe how the field players play football? They use their feet to kick to ball,but sometimes they use their torso or head to intercept the ball in midair. basal gangliacerebellum Right. The skill to play football is just what I said that belongs to procedural memory. And It is processed by the basal ganglia and cerebellum.

26 Thank you so much! Thats really amazing, and you are so informative. But… sorry… WHO ARE YOU ?!?!? OH GOSH!!! Why havent I thought of this??

27 The End Thank you for your kind attention! In Pursuit of Memory: A Lesson on the Basics of Brain Anatomy


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