Presentation on theme: "In Pursuit of Memory: A Lesson on the Basics of Brain Anatomy"— Presentation transcript:
1In Pursuit of Memory: A Lesson on the Basics of Brain Anatomy Power-point presentation for the “The Amazing Brain” competitionContent focus:The brain and memory
2“HELP! HELP! “Hey, I’m Dr. Bee, the brain anatomy of memory!” My name is H.M.After the removal of the medial regions of my temporal lobes, I suffer from severe memory deficit.People always say that I can’t remember recent events for just a few minutes!”“Hey, I’m Dr. Bee,an expert in brain anatomy, I think I know what is happening in your brain, but before the explanation, we first need to understandthe brain anatomy of memory!”
3Basically, we need to know three major regions of our brain that function for memory: 3. Cerebral Cortex1.Hippocampus2.Hippocampal Region
4Hippocampus Hippocampus Hippocampus is in the basal medial part of the temporal lobe.This part of the brain is important for learning and memory.
5Hippocampal Region Hippocampal Region Hippocampal region organizes and converts information from short-term memory to long-term memory for permanent storage of memories.
6Cerebral CortexParietal lobeFrontal lobeOccipital lobeTemporal lobeCerebral cortex is divided into right and left hemispheres.It lies over and around most of the structures of the brain, and stores different elements of a specific form of memory.
7“Well I see… there are different regions in the brain, and they have different functions. But how about my case, Dr. Bee?Can my memory deficit be attributed to the removal of the hippocampus?”
8Medial regions of the temporal lobe Well… that is actually a case of anterograde amnesia, in which you lose memories of events that happened after the brain surgery.The problem of anterograde amnesia is due to failure in transferring information from short-term memory to long-term memory.HM’s missing part:Medial regions of the temporal lobe
9Medial regions of the temporal lobe Though it may seem that your memory problem is due to the removal of hippocampus, contemporary researches now suggest that removal of other nearby structures (the hippocampal region & parahippocampal region) also contribute to memory deficits.HM’s missing part:Medial regions of the temporal lobe
10“Well… not exactly!” “Oh I see… that means memories are stored in hippocampal region & the adjacent areas!”“Well… not exactly!”
11According to contemporary view, the hippocampal region plays a key role in the consolidation of memories, i.e. the process of converting information to long-term memory.But…
12After memories are consolidated in the hippocampal region, they are then stored in diverse and widely distributed areas of the cerebral cortex .Therefore other than the hippocampal region,the cerebral cortex plays a critical role in memory.
13Some theorists even suggest that the hippocampal area only functions to bind together the individual elements of a specific form of memory that are stored in diverse and widely distributed areas of the cerebral cortex (cortical areas).
14Examples of Specific Forms of Memory in Cortical Areas Primary visual area, a functioning area of visual information encoded in the memory, is located in the occipital lobe.
15Examples of Specific Forms of Memory in Cortical Areas Primary somatosensory area, a functioning area of senses of body movements encoded in the memory, is located in the parietal lobe.
16Examples of Specific Forms of Memory in Cortical Areas Primary motor area, a functioning area of voluntary movements encoded in the memory, is located in the parietal lobe.
17Examples of Specific Forms of Memory in Cortical Areas Primary auditory area, a functioning area of auditory signals encoded in the memory, is located in the temporal lobe.
18Let me tell you the following facts about brain and memory.” “I get it… each part of the brain contributes differently to our permanent memory. How amazing the brain is!Dr. Bee, I’m much interested in knowing more about the brain and memory, could you tell me more?”“Sure…Let me tell you the following facts about brain and memory.”
19Nondeclarative Knowledge Declarative MemoryOur ability to learn and consciously remember everyday facts and events is called declarative memory.Memory is classified into two main types.They are declarative memory and nondeclarative memory.Semantic MemorySemantic Memory is a form of declarative memory.MemoryDeclarative MemorySemantic MemoryEpisodic memoryNondeclarative KnowledgeProcedural Memory
20Semantic memory is memory about general facts and data. Different cortical areas are involved in semantic memory, and no conclusion has been reached yet concerning the nature of cortical areas involved in semantic memory.Here are some examples:Octopus is a kind of organism.Football is a kind of sport.Thomas Müller is a German football player.
21Nondeclarative Knowledge Episodic Memory is another form of declarative memory.Episodic memoryMemoryDeclarative MemorySemantic MemoryEpisodic memoryNondeclarative KnowledgeProcedural Memory
22Episodic memory is memory of our specific personal experiences at a particular place and time. The parahippocampal region is involved in processing “what,” “where,” and “when” information about specific personal experiences, and then the hippocampus links the information together to be integrated in various cortical areas.Here is an example:I saw Octopus Paul living in the tank at the Sea Life Centre in Germany last night.WhatWhereWhen
23Nondeclarative Knowledge Nondeclarative Knowledge, the knowledge of how to do something, is expressed in skilled behavior and learnt habits.Nondeclarative KnowledgeProcedural MemoryProcedural Memory is a form of nondeclarative knowledge.MemoryDeclarative MemorySemantic MemoryEpisodic memoryNondeclarative KnowledgeProcedural Memory
24Procedural memory includes skilled behaviors and learnt habits. Right. The skill to play football is just what I said that belongs to procedural memory. And It is processed by the basal ganglia and cerebellum.Let say…Can you describe how the field players play football?They use their feet to kick to ball ,but sometimes they use their torso or head to intercept the ball in midair.
25“Thank you so much! That’s really amazing, and you are so informative. But… sorry…WHO ARE YOU ?!?!?OH GOSH!!!Why haven’t I thought of this??
26The End Thank you for your kind attention! In Pursuit of Memory: A Lesson on the Basics of Brain Anatomy