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Chapter 9: Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years). Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Chapter Objectives –To clarify the role of friendship in helping children.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years). Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Chapter Objectives –To clarify the role of friendship in helping children."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9: Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years)

2 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Chapter Objectives –To clarify the role of friendship in helping children to learn to take the point of view of others, be sensitive to the norms and pressures of the peer group, and experience closeness in relationships, and to clarify the negative consequences that result from social rejection and loneliness –To describe the development of concrete operational thought, including conservation, classification skills, combinatorial skills, and the childs ability to understand and monitor his or her own knowledge and understanding

3 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Chapter Objectives (cont.) –To explore skill learning, including the presentation of a model for the process of acquisition of complex skills such as reading and the examination of societal factors that provide the context within which skill learning occurs –To analyze the development of self-evaluation skills, including self-efficacy, and ways that social expectations of parents, teachers, and peers contribute to a childs self-evaluation

4 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Chapter Objectives (cont.) –To describe a new level of complexity in play as children become involved in team sports and athletic competition –To explain the psychosocial crisis of industry versus inferiority, the central process through which the crisis is resolved, education; the prime adaptive ego quality of competence, and the core pathology of inertia –To explore the impact of exposure to violence on development during middle childhood

5 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Friendship: Family Influences on Social Competence –Early family experiences contribute to a childs sociability and social competence, the process of becoming ready for friendship may begin in infancy –Children who have secure attachments are more popular and engage more freely in social interactions –A parents discipline techniques, the way she speaks to the child, and her parenting values are all linked to a childs social competence and popularity

6 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Friendship: Three Contributions of Friendship to Social Development –Perspective Taking and Cognitive Flexibility – As children interact with peers who see the world differently than they do, they begin to understand the limits of their own points of view Peers diminish one anothers self-centered or egocentric outlook –Social Norms and Peer-group Pressure The peer groups evolve norms for acceptance and rejection

7 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Friendship: Three Contributions of Friendship to Social Development (cont.) –Close Friends Close friends occur at a more intimate level of disclosure, trust, and supportiveness. Best Friends occur during these years The stability of close friendships is quite variable Close friendships are influenced by attractiveness, intelligence, classroom social status, and satisfaction with and commitment to the best friend

8 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Friendship: Loneliness –With the increased emphasis on friendship and peer acceptance comes the risk of peer rejection and feelings of loneliness

9 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Friendship: Loneliness (cont.) –Four social characteristics combine to increase a childs experiences of loneliness Peer rejection Children who have trouble forming close friendships that provide emotional closeness and companionship Among the children who are unpopular or rejected by peers, those who are withdrawn, victimized, or bullied report higher levels of loneliness than other unpopular children

10 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Friendship: Loneliness (cont.) –Four social characteristics combine to increase a childs experiences of loneliness (cont.) Children who tend to blame themselves for their lack of social acceptance feel more lonely and are possibly less likely to believe that they can do anything to improve their situation

11 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Friendship: Peer Rejection –Aggressive-rejected children, often referred to as gullies, are more likely than nonaggressive children to attribute hostile intentions to others –Withdrawn children tend to be inhibited, anxious and interpersonally reserved with a negative self-concept and these children tend to interpret negative peer reactions as resulting from their own personal failings

12 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Friendship: Peer Rejection (cont.) –Aggressive-withdrawn children tend to be the least well-liked of all three types of rejected children. They exhibit anxiety, poor self- control, and social withdrawal in addition to aggressive behavior

13 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Concrete Operations –Piaget suggested that at about age 6 or 7 a qualitatively new form of thinking develops –The word operation refers to an action that is performed on an object or a set of objects –Piaget argued that such transformations are built on some physical relationship that the younger child can perform but cannot articulate

14 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years)

15 Figure 9.1 Three Concepts that Contribute to Conservation

16 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Concrete Operations –Metacognition: a range of processes and strategies used to assess and monitor knowledge –Metacognition includes the ability to review various strategies for approaching a problem in order to choose the one that is most likely to result in a solution –Metacognition develops in parallel with other cognitive capacities

17 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Skill Learning: Features of Skilled Learning –The development of skill depends on a combination of sensory, motor, perceptual, cognitive, linguistic, emotional, and social processes –Skills are attained through the simultaneous integration of many levels of the component behaviors –Limits of the human system place constraints on an individuals capacity to perform skilled behavior –Skilled behavior requires the use of strategies

18 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Skill Learning: Reading –Reading provides access to new information, new uses of language, and new forms of thinking

19 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Skill Learning: Reading (cont.) –Parents influence their childs reading ability The value they place on literacy The emphasis they place on academic achievement The reading materials they make available at home The time they spend reading with their children The way they read with their children The opportunities they provide for verbal interaction in the home

20 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Skill Learning: The Social and Cultural Context of Skill Development –Progress in skill development is influenced by parental and school expectations regarding levels of performance in a specific culture –Societies differ in their level of literacy –The purpose of literacy varies from one culture to the next –The mark of a literate person varies by context

21 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Self-Evaluation –Children strive to match their achievements to internalized goals and external standards –The process of self-evaluation is further complicated because the peer group joins the adult world as a source of social comparison, criticism, and approval –Self-Evaluation takes place in two contexts Internal frame of reference External frame of reference

22 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Figure 9.2 Four Components of Self-Efficacy

23 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Case Study: Becca –Thought Questions How would you describe Beccas level of academic self-efficacy? How are the four factors of enactive attainments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physical states contributing to her self-efficacy? What would you say is missing from Banduras theory of self-efficacy that is illustrated in the case of Becca? What are some gender issues that may underlie this case? In what ways is Beccas situation made possible because of gender stereotypes?

24 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Case Study: Becca (cont.) –Thought Questions (cont.) How might teachers intervene to reverse this decline? What might be the likely outcome for Becca if this pattern of disengagement continues?

25 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Self-Evaluation: Social Expectations –Appraisals and expectations of others become incorporated into ones own self- evaluation –Teachers Expectations: Self-fulfilling prophecy refers to the idea that false or inaccurate beliefs can produce a personal reality that corresponds with them –Parents Expectations: Parents expectations about childrens capabilities also influence childrens perceptions of their abilities

26 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Self-Evaluation: Social Expectations (cont.) –Illusions of Incompetence: some children who perform well on tests on academic achievement (90th percentile or above) perceive themselves as below average in academic ability

27 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Team Play –Team play is a new dimension of childhood friendship during the middle childhood years –Interdependence is a condition in which systems depend on each other, or all the elements in a system rely on one another for their continued growth –Division of labor is the splitting of activities needed to accomplish a task between participants –Competition is a context between rivals

28 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years)

29 The Psychosocial Crisis: Industry versus Inferiority –Industry: an eagerness to acquire skills and perform meaningful work Cognitive Component Behavioral Component Affective Component –Inferiority: feelings of worthlessness and inadequacy come from two sources: the self and the social environment Organ inferiority Learned helplessness

30 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) The Central Process: Education –Every culture must devise ways of passing on the wisdom and skills of past generations to its young –Education is different from schooling

31 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) The Prime Adaptive Ego Quality and the Core Pathology –Competence: the exercise of skill and intelligence in the completion of tasks; the sense that one is capable of exercising mastery over ones environment An outcome measure Personality type Motivational system Composite of knowledge, skills, and abilities Belief in ones effectiveness –Inertia: a paralysis of thought and action that prevents productive work

32 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Figure 9.4 Students Use of Computers at School

33 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Applied Topic: Violence in the Lives of Children: Consequences of Exposure to Violence –Large numbers of children and youth are victims of violent crimes, with homicide the third leading cause of death for children ages 5 to 14 and the second leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 24 in the United States –The number of children who are themselves aggressive and violent –The disruption it produces in childrens cognitive functioning and mental health

34 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Applied Topic: Violence in the Lives of Children: Prevention Strategies –Prevent prenatal and perinatal conditions that cause neurological damage and increase the biological vulnerability for violent behaviors –Develop effective techniques for educating parents and teachers about socialization practices that help develop self-control, empathy, and perspective-taking –Develop effective techniques for teaching children alternative, non-aggress strategies to handle and respond to insults, threats, and frustration

35 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Applied Topic: Violence in the Lives of Children: Prevention Strategies (cont.) –Devise educational experiences that help children reframe cognitions and beliefs that lead them to interpret the behaviors of others as threatening –Reduce exposure to violence at home, in the neighborhood, and on television –Decrease childrens access to guns

36 Middle Childhood (6 – 12 Years) Applied Topic: Violence in the Lives of Children: Prevention Strategies (cont.) –Increase the sense of social control and cohesion in neighborhoods so that mutual trust is higher, people help one another more, and people are more willing too take steps to intervene when children are acting destructively


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