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© 2007 Lloyd Rieber Rediscovering Gaming In Education New Opportunities for Ancient Ideas Lloyd Rieber Department of Educational Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2007 Lloyd Rieber Rediscovering Gaming In Education New Opportunities for Ancient Ideas Lloyd Rieber Department of Educational Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Rediscovering Gaming In Education New Opportunities for Ancient Ideas Lloyd Rieber Department of Educational Psychology & Instructional Technology

2 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Let me explain. No, there is too much. Let me sum up.

3 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber High Tech, Low Tech, and Everything In-Between

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9 Some Principles to Guide Teaching & Learning Otherwise, why should you even care about what I have to say?

10 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber The following is a tad oversimplistic, but... …Oh well!

11 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Constructivist Instructivist (objectivist) Nature of the learning experience Assessment Epistemology Cognitive processes

12 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Constructivist Instructivist (objectivist) Experiential Didactic Nature of the learning experience Cognitive processes Assessment Epistemology

13 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Constructivist Instructivist (objectivist) Experiential Didactic Inquiry Memorization Nature of the learning experience Assessment Epistemology Cognitive processes

14 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Constructivist Instructivist (objectivist) Experiential Didactic Inquiry Memorization Projects based on authentic & meaningful problems M/C tests Nature of the learning experience Assessment Epistemology Cognitive processes

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16 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Ive designed the perfect business training simulation. Unfortunately, it takes 30 years to play.

17 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Designing Learning Environments that Excite Serious Play Elusive, But Always Ready to Emerge We all play occasionally, and we all know what playing feels like. But when it comes to making theoretical statements about what play is, we fall into silliness. There is little agreement among us, and much ambiguity. Brian Sutton-Smith

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19 Dimensions of Human Activity

20 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Play Theory Confluence of anthropology, sociology, psychology, and education Misconceptions of play Only children play; Play is easy; Play is merely a diversion and is irrelevant to learning; All play is good Play attributes Voluntary; Intrinsically motivating; Involves active, sometimes physical, engagement; Distinct from other behavior by having a make-believe quality Play as Progress, Power, Fate, Fantasy, & Self

21 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Motivation & Flow Theory Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

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23 … when it is most needed. Understanding when instruction is not necessary, or…

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25 Experience first, Explain later.

26 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Did you say Games? The term game is a loaded term People tend to have a biased view about games – pro or con – few are neutral Games are like books and movies in that they refer to a general medium or art form Like books and movies, games can be inspiring, good, bad, or disgusting

27 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Defining a Game Harder than you might think But, heres the dictionary definition: –An activity providing entertainment or amusement; a pastime: party games; word games. –A competitive activity or sport in which players contend with each other according to a set of rules: the game of basketball; the game of gin rummy. –A period of competition or challenge: It was too late in the game to change the schedule of the project.

28 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Defining a Game An interactive medium in the sense that the path or outcome of the activity itself changes depending on a players input. (I dare you to try to define interactivity!) One of the best opportunities for serious play

29 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Learning in a Game: Affective Domain Motivation –Competition, random features –Intrinsic motivation: You create your own reasons for participating –Triggering challenge and curiosity –A feeling of control, but with an edge of uncertainty

30 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Learning in a Game: Cognitive Domain Meaningful, relevant context Active participation in an interactive story Organization, situation, goals, and feedback –Helps students to organize information, followed by putting knowledge to use Narrative: The power of stories –Myths & Archetypes (Joseph Campbell)

31 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Game Design Optimizing challenge –What is your favorite sport? –Change one rule or the parameter of one game object. –What is the impact of this change on the game?

32 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber 4.25 inches

33 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Center court = 36 inches Side posts = 42 inches

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35 Henry Jenkins MIT Comparative Media Studies Games-to-Teach Project Kurt Squire University of Wisconsin Learning World History through playing Civilization III James Gee University of Wisconsin What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy Sasha Barab University of Indiana Quest Atlantis High Tech Gaming in Education

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37 Quest Atlantis Triadic Foundation for Design –Education: Designing for Learning –Entertainment: Designing for Engagement –Social Commitments: Designing for Change

38 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Middle-Tech Gaming

39 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Microworlds A place to live, not just study, a domain –Mathland Takes full advantage of processing abilities of computers Matches students effectively on both cognitive & motivational dimensions Examples –MicroWorlds Project Builder, StageCast –Geometers Sketchpad, ThinkerTools, SimCalc, GenScope

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49 Using Homemade Online Database Games in Teaching

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51 The story unfolds…

52 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber …and you are an archaeologist. You are part of a team that has uncovered a lost civilization which appears to be from around the turn of the 21st century, a period for which historians have a huge gap in their understanding. As part of the "dig", you have uncovered a large underground room housing a series of ancient documents, referred to during the time period as "letters". These documents are all fairly intact and the language appears to be a recognizable form of ancient English. Of course, many of words are completely unknown to you. But, it is clear that each of these letters describe how to perform very specific ancient tasks and rituals. It is your job to identify what task each of the letters describes. It is the year 4028…

53 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber What task or skill is this? 1.Grab one bacle in each hand. 2.Pull the bacles tight with a vertical pull. 3.Cross the bacles. 4.Pull the front bacle around the back of the other. 5.Put that bacle through the liger. 6.Tighten the bacle with a horizontal pull. 7.Make a charm. 8.Tighten the charm.

54 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber What task or skill is this? 1.Grab one bacle in each hand. 2.Pull the bacles tight with a vertical pull. 3.Cross the bacles. 4.Pull the front bacle around the back of the other. 5.Put that bacle through the liger. 6.Tighten the bacle with a horizontal pull. 7.Make a charm. 8.Tighten the charm. bacle = lace liger = hole charm = bow

55 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Low-Tech Gaming

56 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Math Target Games Throw away

57 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Low-Tech Gaming Designing Your Own

58 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Which of these defines the Pythagorean Theorem? a cb d e f a + b = c d + e = f a + b = c 2 d + e = f 22 2 I really dont know

59 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber What is the significance of the Battle of Saratoga? 1.Led to fateful encampment at Valley Forge 2.Brought France's support of the American effort 3.Exposed Benedict Arnold's role as a traitor 4.Established Washington's role as commander-in-chief

60 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber How well did we do?

61 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Implications? Is direct instruction enough? Is direct instruction appropriate for all learning? Is direct instruction an appropriate model for learning?

62 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Knowledge as Design Four Design questions: from David Perkins (1986) –1. What is its purpose? "What's it for?" –2. What is its structure? "What's it like? What's it made of? What are its parts?" –3. What are model cases? "What's an example?" –4. What are the arguments to support it? "How is it supposed to work? Does it do a good job?" If you can't answer all four, the knowledge you have acquired may be "inert."

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64 Learning by Designing If you want to learn something well, teach it! Teaching is but one form of designing Design activities take time! The challenge is to find design activities that students find authentic and compelling Our research shows that game design is an excellent strategy for students as young as fourth grade

65 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Designing a Game Part art (creativity) and part science (analytic) Similar to story writing Weaving the educational content and game together into a meaningful whole Lends itself to team work

66 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Designing Games Game Fantasy –Where will the game take place? –Give your game a title. –Write a story for your game. Game Objects –What/who are the game characters and game objects? Game Goal –How does someone win the game? –Will anything special happen when someone wins or loses? Game Rules –What are the 2 or 3 most important rules of the game? Game Directions –The goal of the game is to… –To play the game you have to… –To win the game you have to… Artwork

67 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Its better because its homemade! Lloyd Rieber & Gretchen Thomas The University of Georgia

68 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Using PPT for Educational Games Why PowerPoint? –Almost ubiquitous software application –Teachers love it: Higher probability for adoption and scalability –Hyperlinking feature has lots of gaming potential –Excellent way to package and deliver a game

69 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Teacher finds existing PPT templates and inserts his/her own content (Jeopardy, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, etc.) Teacher adapts another teachers PPT game Teacher makes an original PPT game Students create or adapt their own! Instructionist Constructionist

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73 Who Stole the Bacon?

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75 Universal Design for Learning and Instruction: More than ALT Tags Lloyd Rieber & Michele Estes Department of Educational Psychology & Instructional Technology Center for Teaching and Learning

76 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Universal Design (UD) Coined by Dr. Ron Mace of NCSU Design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design (Ron Mace, Center for Universal Design, North Caroline State University)

77 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber So, in conclusion…

78 © 2007 Lloyd Rieber Its not the distance traveled that matters, its the direction in which you are going.


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