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England Before and After the Wesleyan Revival by James Nickel B.A., B.Th., B.Miss., M.A. Copyright © 2009 www.biblicalchristianworldview.net.

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Presentation on theme: "England Before and After the Wesleyan Revival by James Nickel B.A., B.Th., B.Miss., M.A. Copyright © 2009 www.biblicalchristianworldview.net."— Presentation transcript:

1 England Before and After the Wesleyan Revival by James Nickel B.A., B.Th., B.Miss., M.A. Copyright © 2009

2 Government What do you think? What do you think? External. External.Civil Internal. Internal.Self Noah Websters 1828 Dictionary definition of government: Noah Websters 1828 Dictionary definition of government: 1. Control; restraint. Men are apt to neglect the government of their temper and passions. 1. Control; restraint. Men are apt to neglect the government of their temper and passions. Copyright © 2009

3 Government The self-governing Christian is a world changer–salt of the earth; light of the world. The self-governing Christian is a world changer–salt of the earth; light of the world. No salt? No salt? No light? No light? World plunged into darkness. World plunged into darkness. Copyright © 2009

4 Government Galatians 5:22, The fruit of the Spirit is... self-control. Galatians 5:22, The fruit of the Spirit is... self-control. II Corinthians 3:17, Where the Spirit of the Lord is there is liberty. II Corinthians 3:17, Where the Spirit of the Lord is there is liberty. Copyright © 2009

5 Government Government Self-government is the basis of civil government. Self-government is the basis of civil government. Copyright © 2009

6 Government Government John Adams, second president of the United States under the Constitution of 1787, We have no government armed with power capable of contending with human passions unbridled by morality and religion. Avarice, ambition, revenge, or gallantry would break the strongest cords of our Constitution as a whale goes through a net. Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate for the government of any other. John Adams, second president of the United States under the Constitution of 1787, We have no government armed with power capable of contending with human passions unbridled by morality and religion. Avarice, ambition, revenge, or gallantry would break the strongest cords of our Constitution as a whale goes through a net. Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate for the government of any other. Copyright © 2009

7 18 th Century England 18 th Century England Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities, It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us. Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities, It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us. Copyright © 2009

8 18 th Century England 18 th Century England James Viscount Bryce ( ), British jurist, historian, and politician, If the spiritual oxygen which has kept alive the attachment to Liberty and self-government in the minds of the people becomes exhausted, will not the flame burn low and perhaps flicker out?... Without Faith nothing is accomplished, and Hope is the mainspring of Faith. Throughout the course of history every winter of despondency has been followed by a joyous spring time of hope. James Viscount Bryce ( ), British jurist, historian, and politician, If the spiritual oxygen which has kept alive the attachment to Liberty and self-government in the minds of the people becomes exhausted, will not the flame burn low and perhaps flicker out?... Without Faith nothing is accomplished, and Hope is the mainspring of Faith. Throughout the course of history every winter of despondency has been followed by a joyous spring time of hope. (Modern Democracies, Vol. II, pp. 663 & 670) Copyright © 2009

9 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … Purge of Light. Purge of Light. Persecution of the Puritans (left for America). Persecution of the Puritans (left for America). After the Oliver Cromwell died, Charles II took the throne and by that time (1660), the mass Puritan exodus was completed. After the Oliver Cromwell died, Charles II took the throne and by that time (1660), the mass Puritan exodus was completed. Puritans = self-government. Puritans = self-government. No light, no salt, no prophetic word. No light, no salt, no prophetic word. Copyright © 2009

10 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … Ruling class: Ruling class: Many became members of the Hellfire Club. Many became members of the Hellfire Club. Systematically destroyed every kind of moral standard. Systematically destroyed every kind of moral standard. Known for their: Known for their: Loose living. Loose living. Love of liquor. Love of liquor. Weakness to bribery (special interest groups). Weakness to bribery (special interest groups). Copyright © 2009

11 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … Deism. Deism. God is the absentee landlord. God is the absentee landlord. God is the Alpha, but not the Omega or anywhere inbetween. God is the Alpha, but not the Omega or anywhere inbetween. Free thinkers. Free thinkers. Appealed to reason. Appealed to reason. Latitudinarianism = free from any restraints of belief. Latitudinarianism = free from any restraints of belief. Soon led to freedom from any restraints on behavior. Soon led to freedom from any restraints on behavior. Copyright © 2009

12 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … Influence of the success of science no need for God. Influence of the success of science no need for God. Absence of dependence upon God for everything. Absence of dependence upon God for everything. The ball is in man's court. The ball is in man's court. Copyright © 2009

13 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … A man with no eternal purpose has no present purpose. A man with no eternal purpose has no present purpose. Let us eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we die. Let us eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we die. Consumption oriented, not production oriented. Consumption oriented, not production oriented. Spend, not save. Spend, not save. John Maynard Keynes (20 th century economist), In the long run, we are all dead. John Maynard Keynes (20 th century economist), In the long run, we are all dead. Note the declining purchasing power of the dollar. Note the declining purchasing power of the dollar. Copyright © 2009

14 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … Slave trading: John Newton ( ). Slave trading: John Newton ( ). Labor problems. Labor problems. Ruling class despises middle class merchants. Ruling class despises middle class merchants. Horrors of Industrial revolution statistically skewed by the Lords to do these people in. Horrors of Industrial revolution statistically skewed by the Lords to do these people in. Looked for dirt and reported only dirt. Looked for dirt and reported only dirt. Lower classes desperately poor; had to rob in order to eat. Lower classes desperately poor; had to rob in order to eat. Copyright © 2009

15 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … Criminal laws and barbarous prison system. Criminal laws and barbarous prison system. John Wesley's Journal, I visited one in Marshalsea prison, a nursery of all manner of wickedness. O shame to man, that there should be such a place, such a picture of hell upon earth! John Wesley's Journal, I visited one in Marshalsea prison, a nursery of all manner of wickedness. O shame to man, that there should be such a place, such a picture of hell upon earth! 160 offenses for which you could be hung: picking pockets, grabbing food or goods and running, shoplifting, stealing fruit, snaring a rabbit on someone elses property. 160 offenses for which you could be hung: picking pockets, grabbing food or goods and running, shoplifting, stealing fruit, snaring a rabbit on someone elses property. Common scene: family having a picnic in Hyde Park watching the show at the gallows. Common scene: family having a picnic in Hyde Park watching the show at the gallows. Copyright © 2009

16 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … Loss of will to live. Loss of will to live. Why? No present purpose. Why? No present purpose. Average life expectancy: 40 years. Average life expectancy: 40 years. People died, not from lack of medicine, but from lack of proper care for themselves. People died, not from lack of medicine, but from lack of proper care for themselves. Infant mortality: from , 75% of the children died (most were fed bottles of gin). Infant mortality: from , 75% of the children died (most were fed bottles of gin). Copyright © 2009

17 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … The Gin Age. The Gin Age. Henry Fielding, On the late Increase of Robbers (1751), Should the drinking of this poison (gin) be continued at its present height during the next twenty years, there will, by that time, be very few of the common people left to drink it. Henry Fielding, On the late Increase of Robbers (1751), Should the drinking of this poison (gin) be continued at its present height during the next twenty years, there will, by that time, be very few of the common people left to drink it. William Hogarth's paintings. e.g., Gin Lane. William Hogarth's paintings. e.g., Gin Lane. Copyright © 2009

18 Public Domain Copyright © 2009

19 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … Pub (public) house. Pub (public) house. Payday: Sunday in the pub. Payday: Sunday in the pub. Every fourth building was a pub. Every fourth building was a pub. Drunk for 1 penny, dead drunk for 2 pennies and free straw. Drunk for 1 penny, dead drunk for 2 pennies and free straw. Good places advertised clean straw. Good places advertised clean straw. Copyright © 2009

20 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … Perverted conceptions of sport and entertainment: dogfights, bull baiting, cock fights. Perverted conceptions of sport and entertainment: dogfights, bull baiting, cock fights. Gambling: a national obsession. Gambling: a national obsession. In Tom Jones, immorality depicted as good sport. In Tom Jones, immorality depicted as good sport. Decadence of drama and theater. Decadence of drama and theater. Copyright © 2009

21 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … Ignorance, lawlessness, and savagery. Samuel Johnson, London (1738), Here malice, rapine, accident conspire, and now a rabble rages, now a fire; there ambush, here relentless ruffians lay, and here a fell attorney prowls for prey; there falling houses thunder on your head, and here a female atheist talks you dead. Ignorance, lawlessness, and savagery. Samuel Johnson, London (1738), Here malice, rapine, accident conspire, and now a rabble rages, now a fire; there ambush, here relentless ruffians lay, and here a fell attorney prowls for prey; there falling houses thunder on your head, and here a female atheist talks you dead. Copyright © 2009

22 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … From , England experienced a slow and certain drift to religious decay, public corruption, the profaneness [Latin, pro: before or outside, fanum: temple] disrespect for God's authority and laws. From , England experienced a slow and certain drift to religious decay, public corruption, the profaneness [Latin, pro: before or outside, fanum: temple] disrespect for God's authority and laws. Copyright © 2009

23 England Before Wesley … England Before Wesley … J. C. Ryle, Anglican bishop (1885), England seemed barren of all that is good. How such a state of things could have arisen in a land of free Bibles and professing Protestantism is almost past comprehension. Christianity seemed to lie as one dead.... Morality, however much exalted in pulpits, was thoroughly trampled under foot in the streets. J. C. Ryle, Anglican bishop (1885), England seemed barren of all that is good. How such a state of things could have arisen in a land of free Bibles and professing Protestantism is almost past comprehension. Christianity seemed to lie as one dead.... Morality, however much exalted in pulpits, was thoroughly trampled under foot in the streets. Copyright © 2009

24 Light Isaiah 60:1-3, Arise, shine, for your light has come! And the glory of the Lord is risen upon you. For behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and deep darkness the people; but the Lord will rise over you, and His glory will be seen upon you. The nations [Gentiles] shall come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your rising. Isaiah 60:1-3, Arise, shine, for your light has come! And the glory of the Lord is risen upon you. For behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and deep darkness the people; but the Lord will rise over you, and His glory will be seen upon you. The nations [Gentiles] shall come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your rising. Copyright © 2009

25 John Wesley ( ) Public Domain Copyright © 2009

26 John Wesley ( ) Small of stature (53, 128 lbs). Small of stature (53, 128 lbs). 1738: at Aldersgate, his heart was strangely warmed. 1738: at Aldersgate, his heart was strangely warmed. First sermon (April 1739) at a coal mine. As they listened to the message of the grace of God, tears made little white rivers down their black cheeks. First sermon (April 1739) at a coal mine. As they listened to the message of the grace of God, tears made little white rivers down their black cheeks. In the next 50 years, he preached 40,000 sermons (average of 3/day) and traveled an estimated 250,000 miles on horseback. In the next 50 years, he preached 40,000 sermons (average of 3/day) and traveled an estimated 250,000 miles on horseback. Copyright © 2009

27 John Wesley ( ) The world is my parish. The world is my parish. Gain all you can, save all you can, give all you can. Gain all you can, save all you can, give all you can. Copyright © 2009

28 John Wesley ( ) Christianity is essentially a social religion; to turn it into a solitary religion is indeed to destroy it. Christianity is essentially a social religion; to turn it into a solitary religion is indeed to destroy it. Not social gospel absolutized or personal gospel absolutized. Not social gospel absolutized or personal gospel absolutized. The gospel reforms man so that he might reform society. The gospel reforms man so that he might reform society. Copyright © 2009

29 John Wesley ( ) Do nothing as a gentleman [wanted to be served all the time]; ye are the servants of all. Do nothing as a gentleman [wanted to be served all the time]; ye are the servants of all. Copyright © 2009

30 John Wesley ( ) When He first the work began, small and feeble was His day; Now the word doth swiftly run, now it winds its widening way; More and more it spreads and grows, ever mighty to prevail; sin's strongholds it now overthrows, shakes the trembling gates of hell. When He first the work began, small and feeble was His day; Now the word doth swiftly run, now it winds its widening way; More and more it spreads and grows, ever mighty to prevail; sin's strongholds it now overthrows, shakes the trembling gates of hell. Copyright © 2009

31 George Whitefield ( ) Between 1736 and 1770, preached 18,000 sermons (mostly open air). Between 1736 and 1770, preached 18,000 sermons (mostly open air). Ben Franklin estimated that he could speak to 30,000 people in the open air and be heard clearly. Ben Franklin estimated that he could speak to 30,000 people in the open air and be heard clearly. Copyright © 2009

32 George Whitefield ( ) Both Whitefield and Wesley, as fellow Methodists, agreed to disagree amiably in their doctrinal differences (Wesley was Arminian Methodist and Whitefield was a Calvinist Methodist). Both Whitefield and Wesley, as fellow Methodists, agreed to disagree amiably in their doctrinal differences (Wesley was Arminian Methodist and Whitefield was a Calvinist Methodist). There was a country to save. There was a country to save. Copyright © 2009

33 George Whitefield ( ) Traveled to American thirteen times. Traveled to American thirteen times. God used him to unite this nation as one nation under God. God used him to unite this nation as one nation under God. He influenced the founding of over 50 colleges in America. He influenced the founding of over 50 colleges in America. He founded many orphanages. He founded many orphanages. Copyright © 2009

34 Restoration of Self-Government Sir C. Grant Robertson, England Under the Hanoverians, At a time when Bishop Butler asserted that Christianity was wearing out the minds of men, Wesley kept the English people Christian... It is certain that into the moral fibre of the English people, even in the classes most anxious to repudiate the debt, were woven new strands by the abiding influence of Methodism. Sir C. Grant Robertson, England Under the Hanoverians, At a time when Bishop Butler asserted that Christianity was wearing out the minds of men, Wesley kept the English people Christian... It is certain that into the moral fibre of the English people, even in the classes most anxious to repudiate the debt, were woven new strands by the abiding influence of Methodism. Copyright © 2009

35 Restoration of Self-Government Another historian noted that the early Methodists were like a cluster of chaste snowdrops growing on a foul rubbish heap. Another historian noted that the early Methodists were like a cluster of chaste snowdrops growing on a foul rubbish heap. Even secular historians grudgingly admit that this revival prevented a French Revolution type blood bath in England. Even secular historians grudgingly admit that this revival prevented a French Revolution type blood bath in England. This revival restored self-government to England. This revival restored self-government to England. Copyright © 2009

36 England After Wesley … Isaac Watts: 600 hymns (O God, Our Help in Ages Past, I Sing the Mighty Power of God, When I Survey the Wondrous Cross, At the Cross, Alas, and Did My Saviour Bleed, Am I a Soldier of the Cross?, Jesus Shall Reign, Joy to the World). Isaac Watts: 600 hymns (O God, Our Help in Ages Past, I Sing the Mighty Power of God, When I Survey the Wondrous Cross, At the Cross, Alas, and Did My Saviour Bleed, Am I a Soldier of the Cross?, Jesus Shall Reign, Joy to the World). Philip Doddridge: 370 hymns (Great God, We Sing That Mighty Hand). Philip Doddridge: 370 hymns (Great God, We Sing That Mighty Hand). William Cowper: There is a Fountain Filled with Blood. William Cowper: There is a Fountain Filled with Blood. Copyright © 2009

37 England After Wesley … John Newton, ex-slave trader wrote many well-known hymns: Glorious Things of Thee are Spoken, Amazing Grace. John Newton, ex-slave trader wrote many well-known hymns: Glorious Things of Thee are Spoken, Amazing Grace. James Montgomery: Angels from the Realms of Glory, Go to Dark Gethsemane. James Montgomery: Angels from the Realms of Glory, Go to Dark Gethsemane. Copyright © 2009

38 England After Wesley … John Wesley also wrote many hymns. John Wesley also wrote many hymns. Charles Wesley: over 6,500 hymns (Oh for a Thousand Tongues to Sing, Hark the Herald Angels Sing, Christ the Lord Is Risen Today, Rejoice, the Lord is King, Arise, My Soul, Arise!, Depth of Mercy! Can There Be, Love Divine, All Loves Excelling, Jesus, Lover of My Soul … Charles Wesley: over 6,500 hymns (Oh for a Thousand Tongues to Sing, Hark the Herald Angels Sing, Christ the Lord Is Risen Today, Rejoice, the Lord is King, Arise, My Soul, Arise!, Depth of Mercy! Can There Be, Love Divine, All Loves Excelling, Jesus, Lover of My Soul … Copyright © 2009

39 England After Wesley … … And Can It Be That I Should Gain) – v. 4: … And Can It Be That I Should Gain) – v. 4: Long my imprisoned spirit lay fast bound in sin and natures night; Thine eye diffused a quickening ray, I woke, the dungeon flamed with light; My chains fell off, my heart was free; I rose, went forth and followed Thee. Long my imprisoned spirit lay fast bound in sin and natures night; Thine eye diffused a quickening ray, I woke, the dungeon flamed with light; My chains fell off, my heart was free; I rose, went forth and followed Thee. Copyright © 2009

40 England After Wesley … Abolition of slavery peaceably and lawfully (slave owners reimbursed): William Wilberforce ( ). Abolition of slavery peaceably and lawfully (slave owners reimbursed): William Wilberforce ( ). Sunday laws: closed down pubs. Sunday laws: closed down pubs. Reform of penal code. Reform of penal code. Prison reform: John Howard ( ). Prison reform: John Howard ( ). Copyright © 2009

41 England After Wesley … Infant mortality. Infant mortality : 63% died : 63% died : 51.5% died : 51.5% died : 41.3% died : 41.3% died : 31.8% died : 31.8% died. No medical changes (will to live restored). No medical changes (will to live restored). Copyright © 2009

42 England After Wesley … Robert Raikes ( ): Sunday schools (1780). Robert Raikes ( ): Sunday schools (1780). Copyright © 2009

43 England After Wesley … From 1780 to 1870, the Church took the lead in education (most schools supported by churches and Christian individuals). From 1780 to 1870, the Church took the lead in education (most schools supported by churches and Christian individuals). 1811: Anglicans formed the National Society for Education. 1811: Anglicans formed the National Society for Education. 1814: British & Foreign School Society. 1814: British & Foreign School Society. Copyright © 2009

44 England After Wesley … Result? Result? According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Education in England (1861), A striking tribute to the sterling qualities of self- help and religious earnestness which were so characteristic of the Early Victorian period... According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Education in England (1861), A striking tribute to the sterling qualities of self- help and religious earnestness which were so characteristic of the Early Victorian period... Copyright © 2009

45 England After Wesley … In the vast work of social organization which is one of the dominant characteristics of nineteenth-century England, it would be difficult to over- estimate the part played by the Wesleyan revival. In the vast work of social organization which is one of the dominant characteristics of nineteenth-century England, it would be difficult to over- estimate the part played by the Wesleyan revival. Elie Halevy, A History of the English People (1815 vol.), p Copyright © 2009

46 England After Wesley … YMCA (George Williams). YMCA (George Williams). Salvation Army (William Booth). Salvation Army (William Booth). L.C.M. (London City Mission). L.C.M. (London City Mission). Copyright © 2009

47 England After Wesley … Animal protection (R.S.P.C.A. The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). Animal protection (R.S.P.C.A. The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). Children's orphanages. Children's orphanages. Health and sanitation improvement. Health and sanitation improvement. Copyright © 2009

48 England After Wesley … Spread of good, Biblical literature through literature societies. Spread of good, Biblical literature through literature societies. The British and Foreign Bible Society. The British and Foreign Bible Society. The Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge (SPCK). The Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge (SPCK). Copyright © 2009

49 England After Wesley … Labor reform (child labor laws). Labor reform (child labor laws). Copyright © 2009

50 England After Wesley … 1776: Adam Smith ( ) wrote Wealth of the Nations. 1776: Adam Smith ( ) wrote Wealth of the Nations. Treatise on the outworkings and benefits of free enterprise economics. Treatise on the outworkings and benefits of free enterprise economics. A nation's wealth does not consist merely of gold and silver, but of the character of its people: their initiative, inventiveness, and willingness to work to produce the necessities of life. A nation's wealth does not consist merely of gold and silver, but of the character of its people: their initiative, inventiveness, and willingness to work to produce the necessities of life. Copyright © 2009

51 England After Wesley … Free trade movement: in 10 years, welfare abolished. Free trade movement: in 10 years, welfare abolished. Copyright © 2009

52 England After Wesley … Victorian era: Victorian era: England's greatest period of power and prosperity. England's greatest period of power and prosperity. Exporter to the world of quality education, science, inventions, technology, health, medicine (e.g., quinine from cinchona bark for the treatment of malaria), hospitals, highways, law, order, and, above all, self- government. Exporter to the world of quality education, science, inventions, technology, health, medicine (e.g., quinine from cinchona bark for the treatment of malaria), hospitals, highways, law, order, and, above all, self- government. Copyright © 2009

53 England After Wesley … Second Officer Charles Lightoller ( ) of the Titanic. Second Officer Charles Lightoller ( ) of the Titanic. Public Domain Copyright © 2009

54 England After Wesley … Senator Smith to Lightoller: From what you have said, you discriminated entirely in the interest of the passengers–first women and children–in filling these lifeboats? Senator Smith to Lightoller: From what you have said, you discriminated entirely in the interest of the passengers–first women and children–in filling these lifeboats? Mr. Lightoller: Yes, sir. Mr. Lightoller: Yes, sir. Copyright © 2009

55 England After Wesley … Senator Smith: Why did you do that? Because of the captain's orders, or because of the rule of the sea? Senator Smith: Why did you do that? Because of the captain's orders, or because of the rule of the sea? Mr. Lightoller: The rule of human nature... had no difficulty in filling the boat. The people were perfectly ready and quiet. There was no jostling or pushing or crowding whatever. The men all refrained from asserting their strength and from crowding back the women and children. They could not have stood quieter if they had been in church. Mr. Lightoller: The rule of human nature... had no difficulty in filling the boat. The people were perfectly ready and quiet. There was no jostling or pushing or crowding whatever. The men all refrained from asserting their strength and from crowding back the women and children. They could not have stood quieter if they had been in church. Copyright © 2009

56 England After Wesley … Colonel Archibald Gracie, survivor of the Titanic,... There was no man who asked to get in a boat with the single exception that I have already mentioned (Col. Astor's request to go aboard to protect his wife). No women even sobbed or wrung their hands, and everything appeared perfectly orderly. Lightoller was splendid in his conduct with the crew, and the crew did their duty. Colonel Archibald Gracie, survivor of the Titanic,... There was no man who asked to get in a boat with the single exception that I have already mentioned (Col. Astor's request to go aboard to protect his wife). No women even sobbed or wrung their hands, and everything appeared perfectly orderly. Lightoller was splendid in his conduct with the crew, and the crew did their duty. Copyright © 2009

57 England After Wesley … Captain James Cook ( explored the Pacific: his accounts of his voyages spurred the desire of William Carey ( ) to do all he could to take the gospel around the world. Captain James Cook ( explored the Pacific: his accounts of his voyages spurred the desire of William Carey ( ) to do all he could to take the gospel around the world. Copyright © 2009

58 Public Domain Copyright © 2009

59 England After Wesley … William Carey founded The Baptist Missionary Society (BMS) in William Carey founded The Baptist Missionary Society (BMS) in Wrote An Enquiry into the Obligation of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens. Wrote An Enquiry into the Obligation of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens. Expect great things from God, attempt great things for God. Expect great things from God, attempt great things for God. Took the Gospel to India. Took the Gospel to India. Copyright © 2009

60 England After Wesley … LMS: London Missionary Society (1795). LMS: London Missionary Society (1795). Robert Morrison: to China. Robert Morrison: to China. David Livingston: to Africa. David Livingston: to Africa. GMMS: General Methodist Missionary Society (1796). GMMS: General Methodist Missionary Society (1796). CMS: Church Missionary Society [Anglican] (1799). CMS: Church Missionary Society [Anglican] (1799). Copyright © 2009

61 England After Wesley … The Great Century of Foreign Missions ( ). The Great Century of Foreign Missions ( ). From , 19 out of every 20 missionaries to Africa died within two years of reaching the field. From , 19 out of every 20 missionaries to Africa died within two years of reaching the field. The early missionaries to Africa packed their belongings in a coffin. The early missionaries to Africa packed their belongings in a coffin. David Livingston, You can bury my body in England, but bury my heart in Africa. David Livingston, You can bury my body in England, but bury my heart in Africa. Copyright © 2009

62 England After Wesley … Greatest age of expansion of Christian belief since the first century. Greatest age of expansion of Christian belief since the first century. Copyright © 2009

63 Conclusions The self-governing Christian is a world changer: salt of the earth; light of the world. The self-governing Christian is a world changer: salt of the earth; light of the world. No salt? No salt? No light? No light? World plunged into darkness. World plunged into darkness. Galatians 5:22, The fruit of the Spirit is... self-control. Galatians 5:22, The fruit of the Spirit is... self-control. Copyright © 2009

64 Conclusions What do we learn from history? What do we learn from history? Never give up; arise and shine. Never give up; arise and shine. Copyright © 2009

65 Conclusions Robert E. Lee, The truth is this. The march of providence is so slow and our desires so impatient, the work of progress is so immense and our means of aiding is so feeble, the life of humanity is so long, that of the individual so brief, that we often tend to see only the ebb of the advancing wave and are discouraged. It is history that teaches us to hope. Robert E. Lee, The truth is this. The march of providence is so slow and our desires so impatient, the work of progress is so immense and our means of aiding is so feeble, the life of humanity is so long, that of the individual so brief, that we often tend to see only the ebb of the advancing wave and are discouraged. It is history that teaches us to hope. Copyright © 2009

66 Conclusions In a letter written shortly before his death, a Confederate soldier wrote, Men who saw night coming down about them could somehow act as if they stood on the edge of dawn. In a letter written shortly before his death, a Confederate soldier wrote, Men who saw night coming down about them could somehow act as if they stood on the edge of dawn. Copyright © 2009

67 Conclusions Yes, it is a time of turmoil, war, economic catastrophe, cynicism, lawlessness, and distress. Yes, it is a time of turmoil, war, economic catastrophe, cynicism, lawlessness, and distress. Copyright © 2009

68 Conclusions But, it is also a time of heightened challenge and creativity, and of intense vitality. But, it is also a time of heightened challenge and creativity, and of intense vitality. Because of the intensification of the issues, and their worldwide scope, never has an era faced a more demanding and exciting crisis. Because of the intensification of the issues, and their worldwide scope, never has an era faced a more demanding and exciting crisis. Copyright © 2009

69 Conclusions This then above all else is: This then above all else is: a great a glorious era to live in, a great a glorious era to live in, a time of opportunity, a time of opportunity, one requiring fresh and vigorous thinking, one requiring fresh and vigorous thinking, indeed a glorious time to be alive. indeed a glorious time to be alive. Copyright © 2009


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