2 Learning ObjectivesUnderstand how people spent their leisure time before the industrial revolutionRelate how sport of pre-industrial Britain reflected the society of the timeBe able to give example of popular recreationUnderstand the key characteristics of popular sports & recreations
3 Practical Name Sport S.P Judo E.D Netball C.G Dressage S.B Football M.BRugbyM.HBasketball – DVD √
4 Focus Written communication Spelling Grammar Punctuation Sentence constructionTechnical languageParagraphs
5 History Factors that have impacted physical activity Thinking as a historianSocial class and genderPopular recreationSocial and cultural factorsPre-industrial Britain
6 History 1 Popular recreation; pre industrial 2 Rational recreation; post industrial5. Drill, physical Ed in state4. Case Studies3 . 19th Century public schools
7 Remember the questions:- WHERE is it?WHO is involved?WHEN is it taking place?WHY?HOW?Then and now, why and how?
9 Four aspects of Sports History Important to understand the characteristics of each century ~ Influence on each aspectPost-industrialPre-industrial18th century19th century20th century1700180019002000Popular recreationPublic school athleticismRational recreationState elementary education
10 Social and Cultural factors of popular recreation (18th cent) Life was difficult;High mortality rates,Public hangings (uncivilised)Low literacy amongst the poor,Poor communications (transport and communication),No technological advancements.Task:Think and draw the characteristics of popular recreation based on the above facts.Eg; Played locally due to poor transport.
11 Life in Pre-industrial Britain Societal background Life expectancy was 35 YearsPre-Christian rituals often involved competition – hunts & fights.Mob games had origins in pagan times.Often ball games Ashbourne in Derbyshire & Alnwick in Northumberland.Others, such as Haxey Hood game, were based on folk tales.
12 Life in Pre-industrial Britain The medieval sporting year Spring fertility festivalsNew Years Day & Plough Monday (1st Monday after ChristmasMost at Easter - Shrove Tuesday popular for ‘mob games’, (football, tug of war & animal baiting). Before lent.May Day – men chased women, ritual of fertility.Whitsuntide – dancing & gamesCotswold games in summer – running, jumping & throwing.
13 Life in Pre-industrial Britain The medieval sporting year Population was totally ruralLargest town had a population of 20,00030 ‘holy’ days when sport could be playedGentry & peasantsSome sports overlapped
14 16th – 17th CenturyHenry VIII did not wish to change religious, social or sporting habits when he broke with RomeAfter the Reformation (religious movement in the sixteenth century, reform of the Roman Catholic Church: Protestantism, Puritism) came an attack on sports and pastimesPuritans were fiercely opposed to the excess, unruliness, spontaneity, swearing and drinking associated with contemporary recreationsProtestantism believed idleness and playfullness were sinful and that salvation could only be earned through a lofe of prayer and self disciplineBleak time for Popular Sports and pastimesPuritan ethic gave way to work ethic and spreading of Protestantism, where by leisure pursuits were acceptable only by restoring people for workProtestantism 1700 – 1800: provided feast days and space for gatheringsChurch criticised the excess violence linked with Pop Rec. Result was a decline in community participation
15 18th Century Life for peasants was tough Sports and pastimes echoed this harshnessBaiting and blood sports attracted large crowdsTrained dogs attacked tethered bears or bullsRatting contests saw dogs released into an enclosed pit to kill as many rats as possibleCrowds would bet on the outcomeCock fighting saw prize birds with sharp spurs attached to their claws to ensure maximum damage to the opponent. This was comparatively well organised which would take place in an inn’s yard
16 18th century Village life Pub or drinking house was central to village lifeSocialiseDo businessFind workReceive wagesOrganise political activityStopping station for horse coachesFocus of leisure activities for the communityIt hosted bear and badger baitingAlso, less barbaric pursuits such as quoits, bowls and billiardsLandlords would provide prizes and popularity of these would boost profitA famous example of this is the public house in Hampshire at the Bat and Ball Inn. Hambledon Cricket Club was the nurturing home of cricket between
17 Characteristics of popular recreation Natural/SimpleLack of technology,Purpose-built facilities and money for the masses.WageringA chance to go from rags to richesLocalLimited transport and communications. Played locally.OccupationalWork often became the basis of play.Characteristics of popular recreationSimple, unwritten rulesIlliteracy, no National Governing Bodies.RuralBefore the Industrial Revolution, Britain was agricultural and rural.Cruel/violentReflecting the harshness of 18th cent rural life.Courtly/popularPre-industrial Britain was a two-class system;Upper and peasant .OccasionalLimited free time due to work. Free time on Holy days and annual holidays.
18 How many characteristics of Popular Recreation can you see?
19 How many characteristics of Popular Recreation can you see?
24 Remember the questions:- WHERE is it? (rural; urban; natural)WHO is involved? (class/gender)WHEN is it taking place? (occasional/regular)WHY are participants involved? Amateur; professional; entertainment; wager?HOW is it being performed? (simple? rules; cruelty? violence?; sportsmanship?)
27 Popular recreation Characteristics? Popular/courtlyLocalisedOccasionalCruel/ViolentRuralOccupational (we’ll look at this later)WageringSimple/Un-written rulesSimple/Natural
28 Popular/courtly Britain was a 2 class society: Aristocracy/ gentry/courtly; Upper class; these were the very wealthy; owned the landPeasantry; Lower class; Popular; extremely poor; worked on the landBoth classes loved play; they rarely mixed (sometimes they did though) however so activities could be either popular or courtly.EXAMPLE: Courtly played Real Tennis; Popular played mob games
29 LocalMany games/activities were localised to a region/town/village/area.Example: The Ashbourne football game was only played in Ashbourne, Derbyshire.
30 OccasionalMany of these activities only took place on special Annual occasions or Saints Days.EXAMPLE: Ashbourne Football takes place during the Shrovetide holiday
31 Cruel/ViolentViolence between humans was commonplace; cruelty to animals was popular amongst both classes. Drinking was also excessive (and not considered ill-bred) and fuelled this behaviour.EXAMPLE: the ‘Cock Shy’; bear and bull baiting; bull running; the prize ring and ‘rampaging’!
32 RuralBritain was in a ‘pre-industrial’ state. Agriculture was the main industry and most activities took place on natural rural environments.EXAMPLE: Swimming and bathing in natural rivers; cricket on open fields
33 WageringGambling (you must call it wagering in Popular rec. contexts) was a compulsion amongst both the peasantry (to win money) and aristocracy (to demonstrate wealth and spice up mundane lifestyles). Huge sums were wagered. They bet on pretty much anything!
34 Simple Unwritten rules/Un-coded Many activities and local customs were past down by word of mouth. The lower classes were illiterate and only occasionally (specifically cricket and real tennis) were regulations written down.
36 “Pre-industrial popular recreation reflected the society, life and time in which it existed”
37 Pre-industrial society Two class system: feudal systemCottage/Agriculture industryLimited communication/transportPoor literacyHarsh society/poor law and orderLimited free timeRags to riches
38 Popular games and recreations of pre-industrial Britain This is to provide case studies of pastimes undertaken in this era.Real Tennis – sport confined to the gentryFootball – a game of the peasantsCricket – a game with some degree of social mix was permissible.
41 Effects on Health Varying opportunities for participation Class system Upper class and Lower classGenderClassPrepare a note presentation on the factors that differentiate opportunities for the varying classes and genders
43 Pop rec overview to be linked to rational recreation Seasonal timeLimited transport and communicationIlliteracyHarsh rural lifestyleFeudal system/ two-class societyAgriculturalUncivilised, lack of policing systemLack of technology
44 Games were occasional; Skill competency not developed in working class.More force used.Health benefits questionable.No rules = injury, mortality and recovery time.Male dominated.Some skill development in middle class, as they used equipment.Legacy of pop rec games is significant.Ashbourne football.Rural areas still have festivals.Surviving ethnic sports – Highland Games and Cheese Rolling (AS link).Blood sports banned. Fox hunting survived longer as favoured by upper class.
45 Rational recreationIndustrial revolution transformed society from a rural agricultural system to an urban factory systemMiddle class was developed in post-industrial Britain and became a dominant social and sporting forceMeanwhile, the rural peasants who had migrated to towns to find factory work became known as the working classWorking class opportunities and provision fell way below that of their social superiors. Long hours, low wages, anxiety, low age workers
50 How closely did mob football match pop. Rec. characteristics?
51 Mob football: Popular recreation Characteristics? Popular/courtly? Yes, how?Localised? Yes, how?Occasional? Yes, how?Cruel/Violent? Yes, how?Rural? Yes, how?Occupational (we’ll look at this later)Wagering? Yes, how?Simple/Un-coded? Yes, how?
52 The games of the court & the gentry Time availableEconomic reasonsSocial AdvantageThe horseSoldierLiteratureGambling (bowling, horse racing, cock fighting & archeryReasons for ruling classes having different activities.Horse – a symbol of authority, a necessity for travel & war. Knight or nobility – peasants watched.
53 The games and recreations of the populace Holy DaysLocalised (ready to hand materials)Recreations changedMass football or ‘stick games (hurling)Teams selected on simple criteria such as ‘Uppers’ & ‘downers’Few rulesIn summer strength tests & racesBaiting sports between dogs, cockerels, or dogs & bulls and bears.Military preparation1541 – archery practice, no ball games allowed (from Richard II in 1388 to Henry VIII in 1541)
54 Festivals and the role of the Church National CelebrationsUrbanisationThe Reformation – Puritanism, Sacrilegious to play on Sundays & Holy days, frivolous & non-productive.The Restoration – Return of King Charles II, Active Church approach to sport.‘The gates to salvation can only be opened by what a person believes, thinks or feels during their earthly life’.
55 Real Tennis Originated in France Popular in Britain in 14 Cent. Originated in FrancePopular in Britain in 14 Cent.Kings, Nobles & Merchants.Originally constructed from courtyardsNet was a rope or cord.Gloves then short handled rackets.
56 Real/Royal tennis?“The sophisticated exclusivity of real tennis was the exact opposite to the rustic simplicity of folk games”(Davis, 1997)
57 Some characteristics of Real/Royal Tennis? SophisticatedExclusiveSkill over forceRegulatedArtificial facilities(OHP)
58 So how does Real Tennis fit into our general characteristics of popular recreation?
59 Real tennis: Popular recreation Characteristics? Popular/courtly? Yes, how?Localised?Occasional?Cruel/Violent?Rural?Occupational?Wagering?Simple/Un-coded?
65 Football New & Shrovetide celebrations Referred to as street football – maintaining rights of wayAlnwick in Northumberland moved to fields – St. Michaels & St. Peter’s (parishes)Few rules, distinct teams & goals
66 Cricket Ancient origins Ancient Celts & Romans Weald of Southern England in 1700 – downland grass, a ball of wool & a crookBat & Ball Inn, Hambledon1744 published rules
67 Key Revision Points Pop rec took place in pre-industrial Britain Church calendar allowed regular time for leisure and sportSocial distinction between court & peasantry – mob, informal, large scale & violentCricket a game where classes could intermixAnimal sports were popular – baiting for lower classes, hunting for upper classes.
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