Presentation on theme: "A2 PE Comparative Studies History 11/1/13. Learning Objectives Understand how people spent their leisure time before the industrial revolution Relate."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Objectives Understand how people spent their leisure time before the industrial revolution Relate how sport of pre-industrial Britain reflected the society of the time Be able to give example of popular recreation Understand the key characteristics of popular sports & recreations
Four aspects of Sports History Important to understand the characteristics of each century ~ Influence on each aspect 170018001900 2000 Pre-industrial 18 th century Post-industrial 20 th century19 th century Popular recreation Public school athleticism Rational recreation State elementary education
Social and Cultural factors of popular recreation (18 th cent) Life was difficult; High mortality rates, Public hangings (uncivilised) Low literacy amongst the poor, Poor communications (transport and communication), No technological advancements. Task: Think and draw the characteristics of popular recreation based on the above facts. Eg; Played locally due to poor transport.
Life in Pre-industrial Britain Societal background Life expectancy was 35 Years Pre-Christian rituals often involved competition – hunts & fights. Mob games had origins in pagan times. Often ball games Ashbourne in Derbyshire & Alnwick in Northumberland. Others, such as Haxey Hood game, were based on folk tales. www.mercia.f9.co.uk/haxey_ hood.htm www.mercia.f9.co.uk/haxey_ hood.htm
Life in Pre-industrial Britain The medieval sporting year Spring fertility festivals New Years Day & Plough Monday (1 st Monday after Christmas Most at Easter - Shrove Tuesday popular for mob games, (football, tug of war & animal baiting). Before lent. May Day – men chased women, ritual of fertility. Whitsuntide – dancing & games Cotswold games in summer – running, jumping & throwing.
Life in Pre-industrial Britain The medieval sporting year Population was totally rural Largest town had a population of 20,000 30 holy days when sport could be played Gentry & peasants Some sports overlapped
16 th – 17 th Century Henry VIII did not wish to change religious, social or sporting habits when he broke with Rome After the Reformation (religious movement in the sixteenth century, reform of the Roman Catholic Church: Protestantism, Puritism) came an attack on sports and pastimes Puritans were fiercely opposed to the excess, unruliness, spontaneity, swearing and drinking associated with contemporary recreations Protestantism believed idleness and playfullness were sinful and that salvation could only be earned through a lofe of prayer and self discipline Bleak time for Popular Sports and pastimes Puritan ethic gave way to work ethic and spreading of Protestantism, where by leisure pursuits were acceptable only by restoring people for work Protestantism 1700 – 1800: provided feast days and space for gatherings Church criticised the excess violence linked with Pop Rec. Result was a decline in community participation
18 th Century Life for peasants was tough Sports and pastimes echoed this harshness Baiting and blood sports attracted large crowds – Trained dogs attacked tethered bears or bulls Ratting contests saw dogs released into an enclosed pit to kill as many rats as possible Crowds would bet on the outcome Cock fighting saw prize birds with sharp spurs attached to their claws to ensure maximum damage to the opponent. This was comparatively well organised which would take place in an inns yard
18 th century Village life Pub or drinking house was central to village life – Socialise – Do business – Find work – Receive wages – Organise political activity – Stopping station for horse coaches – Focus of leisure activities for the community It hosted bear and badger baiting Also, less barbaric pursuits such as quoits, bowls and billiards Landlords would provide prizes and popularity of these would boost profit A famous example of this is the public house in Hampshire at the Bat and Ball Inn. Hambledon Cricket Club was the nurturing home of cricket between 1750 - 1780
Characteristics of popular recreation Natural/Simple Lack of technology, Purpose-built facilities and money for the masses. Local Limited transport and communications. Played locally. Simple, unwritten rules Illiteracy, no National Governing Bodies. Cruel/violent Reflecting the harshness of 18 th cent rural life. Occasional Limited free time due to work. Free time on Holy days and annual holidays. Courtly/popular Pre-industrial Britain was a two-class system; Upper and peasant. Rural Before the Industrial Revolution, Britain was agricultural and rural. Occupational Work often became the basis of play. Wagering A chance to go from rags to riches
How many characteristics of Popular Recreation can you see? 18
How many characteristics of Popular Recreation can you see? 19
Remember the questions:- WHERE is it? (rural; urban; natural) WHO is involved? (class/gender) WHEN is it taking place? (occasional/regular) WHY are participants involved? Amateur; professional; entertainment; wager? HOW is it being performed? (simple? rules; cruelty? violence?; sportsmanship?)
Popular recreation Characteristics? P L O C R O W S
Popular recreation Characteristics? Popular/courtly Localised Occasional Cruel/Violent Rural Occupational (well look at this later) Wagering Simple/Un-written rules Simple/Natural
Popular/courtly Britain was a 2 class society: Aristocracy/ gentry/courtly; Upper class; these were the very wealthy; owned the land Peasantry; Lower class; Popular; extremely poor; worked on the land Both classes loved play; they rarely mixed (sometimes they did though) however so activities could be either popular or courtly. EXAMPLE: Courtly played Real Tennis; Popular played mob games
Local Many games/activities were localised to a region/town/village/area. Example: The Ashbourne football game was only played in Ashbourne, Derbyshire.
Occasional Many of these activities only took place on special Annual occasions or Saints Days. EXAMPLE: Ashbourne Football takes place during the Shrovetide holiday
Cruel/Violent Violence between humans was commonplace; cruelty to animals was popular amongst both classes. Drinking was also excessive (and not considered ill-bred) and fuelled this behaviour. EXAMPLE: the Cock Shy; bear and bull baiting; bull running; the prize ring and rampaging!
Rural Britain was in a pre-industrial state. Agriculture was the main industry and most activities took place on natural rural environments. EXAMPLE: Swimming and bathing in natural rivers; cricket on open fields
Wagering Gambling (you must call it wagering in Popular rec. contexts) was a compulsion amongst both the peasantry (to win money) and aristocracy (to demonstrate wealth and spice up mundane lifestyles). Huge sums were wagered. They bet on pretty much anything!
Simple Unwritten rules/Un-coded Many activities and local customs were past down by word of mouth. The lower classes were illiterate and only occasionally (specifically cricket and real tennis) were regulations written down.
Pre-industrial popular recreation reflected the society, life and time in which it existed
Pre-industrial society Two class system: feudal system Cottage/Agriculture industry Limited communication/transport Poor literacy Harsh society/poor law and order Limited free time Rags to riches
Popular games and recreations of pre- industrial Britain This is to provide case studies of pastimes undertaken in this era. Real Tennis – sport confined to the gentry Football – a game of the peasants Cricket – a game with some degree of social mix was permissible.
Effects on Health Varying opportunities for participation Class system Upper class and Lower class Gender Class Prepare a note presentation on the factors that differentiate opportunities for the varying classes and genders
Pop rec overview to be linked to rational recreation Seasonal time Limited transport and communication Illiteracy Harsh rural lifestyle Feudal system/ two-class society Agricultural Uncivilised, lack of policing system Lack of technology
Games were occasional; Skill competency not developed in working class. More force used. Health benefits questionable. No rules = injury, mortality and recovery time. Male dominated. Some skill development in middle class, as they used equipment. Legacy of pop rec games is significant. Ashbourne football. Rural areas still have festivals. Surviving ethnic sports – Highland Games and Cheese Rolling (AS link). Blood sports banned. Fox hunting survived longer as favoured by upper class.
Rational recreation Industrial revolution transformed society from a rural agricultural system to an urban factory system Middle class was developed in post-industrial Britain and became a dominant social and sporting force Meanwhile, the rural peasants who had migrated to towns to find factory work became known as the working class Working class opportunities and provision fell way below that of their social superiors. Long hours, low wages, anxiety, low age workers
The games of the court & the gentry Time available Economic reasons Social Advantage The horse Soldier Literature Gambling (bowling, horse racing, cock fighting & archery
The games and recreations of the populace Holy Days Localised (ready to hand materials) Recreations changed Mass football or stick games (hurling) Teams selected on simple criteria such as Uppers & downers Few rules In summer strength tests & races Baiting sports between dogs, cockerels, or dogs & bulls and bears. Military preparation
Festivals and the role of the Church National Celebrations Urbanisation The Reformation – Puritanism, Sacrilegious to play on Sundays & Holy days, frivolous & non- productive. The Restoration – Return of King Charles II, Active Church approach to sport. The gates to salvation can only be opened by what a person believes, thinks or feels during their earthly life.
Real Tennis Originated in France Popular in Britain in 14 Cent. Kings, Nobles & Merchants. Originally constructed from courtyards Net was a rope or cord. Gloves then short handled rackets. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wYvbHCM BxuU
Real/Royal tennis The sophisticated exclusivity of real tennis was the exact opposite to the rustic simplicity of folk games (Davis, 1997) ?
Some characteristics of Real/Royal Tennis? Sophisticated Exclusive Skill over force Regulated Artificial facilities (OHP)
So how does Real Tennis fit into our general characteristics of popular recreation?
Real tennis: Popular recreation Characteristics? Popular/courtly? Yes, how? Localised? Occasional? Cruel/Violent? Rural? Occupational? Wagering? Simple/Un-coded?
Football New & Shrovetide celebrations Referred to as street football – maintaining rights of way Alnwick in Northumberland moved to fields – St. Michaels & St. Peters (parishes) Few rules, distinct teams & goals
Cricket Ancient origins Ancient Celts & Romans Weald of Southern England in 1700 – downland grass, a ball of wool & a crook Bat & Ball Inn, Hambledon 1744 published rules
Key Revision Points Pop rec took place in pre-industrial Britain Church calendar allowed regular time for leisure and sport Social distinction between court & peasantry – mob, informal, large scale & violent Cricket a game where classes could intermix Animal sports were popular – baiting for lower classes, hunting for upper classes.