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A2 PE Comparative Studies History

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Presentation on theme: "A2 PE Comparative Studies History"— Presentation transcript:

1 A2 PE Comparative Studies History

2 Learning Objectives Understand how people spent their leisure time before the industrial revolution Relate how sport of pre-industrial Britain reflected the society of the time Be able to give example of popular recreation Understand the key characteristics of popular sports & recreations

3 Practical Name Sport S.P Judo E.D Netball C.G Dressage S.B Football
M.B Rugby M.H Basketball – DVD √

4 Focus Written communication Spelling Grammar Punctuation
Sentence construction Technical language Paragraphs

5 History Factors that have impacted physical activity
Thinking as a historian Social class and gender Popular recreation Social and cultural factors Pre-industrial Britain

6 History 1 Popular recreation; pre industrial
2 Rational recreation; post industrial 5. Drill, physical Ed in state 4. Case Studies 3 . 19th Century public schools

7 Remember the questions:-
WHERE is it? WHO is involved? WHEN is it taking place? WHY? HOW? Then and now, why and how?


9 Four aspects of Sports History Important to understand the characteristics of each century ~ Influence on each aspect Post-industrial Pre-industrial 18th century 19th century 20th century 1700 1800 1900 2000 Popular recreation Public school athleticism Rational recreation State elementary education

10 Social and Cultural factors of popular recreation (18th cent)
Life was difficult; High mortality rates, Public hangings (uncivilised) Low literacy amongst the poor, Poor communications (transport and communication), No technological advancements. Task: Think and draw the characteristics of popular recreation based on the above facts. Eg; Played locally due to poor transport.

11 Life in Pre-industrial Britain Societal background
Life expectancy was 35 Years Pre-Christian rituals often involved competition – hunts & fights. Mob games had origins in pagan times. Often ball games Ashbourne in Derbyshire & Alnwick in Northumberland. Others, such as Haxey Hood game, were based on folk tales.

12 Life in Pre-industrial Britain The medieval sporting year
Spring fertility festivals New Years Day & Plough Monday (1st Monday after Christmas Most at Easter - Shrove Tuesday popular for ‘mob games’, (football, tug of war & animal baiting). Before lent. May Day – men chased women, ritual of fertility. Whitsuntide – dancing & games Cotswold games in summer – running, jumping & throwing.

13 Life in Pre-industrial Britain The medieval sporting year
Population was totally rural Largest town had a population of 20,000 30 ‘holy’ days when sport could be played Gentry & peasants Some sports overlapped

14 16th – 17th Century Henry VIII did not wish to change religious, social or sporting habits when he broke with Rome After the Reformation (religious movement in the sixteenth century, reform of the Roman Catholic Church: Protestantism, Puritism) came an attack on sports and pastimes Puritans were fiercely opposed to the excess, unruliness, spontaneity, swearing and drinking associated with contemporary recreations Protestantism believed idleness and playfullness were sinful and that salvation could only be earned through a lofe of prayer and self discipline Bleak time for Popular Sports and pastimes Puritan ethic gave way to work ethic and spreading of Protestantism, where by leisure pursuits were acceptable only by restoring people for work Protestantism 1700 – 1800: provided feast days and space for gatherings Church criticised the excess violence linked with Pop Rec. Result was a decline in community participation

15 18th Century Life for peasants was tough
Sports and pastimes echoed this harshness Baiting and blood sports attracted large crowds Trained dogs attacked tethered bears or bulls Ratting contests saw dogs released into an enclosed pit to kill as many rats as possible Crowds would bet on the outcome Cock fighting saw prize birds with sharp spurs attached to their claws to ensure maximum damage to the opponent. This was comparatively well organised which would take place in an inn’s yard

16 18th century Village life
Pub or drinking house was central to village life Socialise Do business Find work Receive wages Organise political activity Stopping station for horse coaches Focus of leisure activities for the community It hosted bear and badger baiting Also, less barbaric pursuits such as quoits, bowls and billiards Landlords would provide prizes and popularity of these would boost profit A famous example of this is the public house in Hampshire at the Bat and Ball Inn. Hambledon Cricket Club was the nurturing home of cricket between

17 Characteristics of popular recreation
Natural/Simple Lack of technology, Purpose-built facilities and money for the masses. Wagering A chance to go from rags to riches Local Limited transport and communications. Played locally. Occupational Work often became the basis of play. Characteristics of popular recreation Simple, unwritten rules Illiteracy, no National Governing Bodies. Rural Before the Industrial Revolution, Britain was agricultural and rural. Cruel/violent Reflecting the harshness of 18th cent rural life. Courtly/popular Pre-industrial Britain was a two-class system; Upper and peasant . Occasional Limited free time due to work. Free time on Holy days and annual holidays.

18 How many characteristics of Popular Recreation can you see?

19 How many characteristics of Popular Recreation can you see?

20 Popular Recreation

21 Tracing the developments

22 Tracing the developments

23 Pre-Industrial Britain?
Transport Industry…

24 Remember the questions:-
WHERE is it? (rural; urban; natural) WHO is involved? (class/gender) WHEN is it taking place? (occasional/regular) WHY are participants involved? Amateur; professional; entertainment; wager? HOW is it being performed? (simple? rules; cruelty? violence?; sportsmanship?)

25 The Village Ba’ Game

26 Popular recreation Characteristics?

27 Popular recreation Characteristics?
Popular/courtly Localised Occasional Cruel/Violent Rural Occupational (we’ll look at this later) Wagering Simple/Un-written rules Simple/Natural

28 Popular/courtly Britain was a 2 class society:
Aristocracy/ gentry/courtly; Upper class; these were the very wealthy; owned the land Peasantry; Lower class; Popular; extremely poor; worked on the land Both classes loved play; they rarely mixed (sometimes they did though) however so activities could be either popular or courtly. EXAMPLE: Courtly played Real Tennis; Popular played mob games

29 Local Many games/activities were localised to a region/town/village/area. Example: The Ashbourne football game was only played in Ashbourne, Derbyshire.

30 Occasional Many of these activities only took place on special Annual occasions or Saints Days. EXAMPLE: Ashbourne Football takes place during the Shrovetide holiday

31 Cruel/Violent Violence between humans was commonplace; cruelty to animals was popular amongst both classes. Drinking was also excessive (and not considered ill-bred) and fuelled this behaviour. EXAMPLE: the ‘Cock Shy’; bear and bull baiting; bull running; the prize ring and ‘rampaging’!

32 Rural Britain was in a ‘pre-industrial’ state. Agriculture was the main industry and most activities took place on natural rural environments. EXAMPLE: Swimming and bathing in natural rivers; cricket on open fields

33 Wagering Gambling (you must call it wagering in Popular rec. contexts) was a compulsion amongst both the peasantry (to win money) and aristocracy (to demonstrate wealth and spice up mundane lifestyles). Huge sums were wagered. They bet on pretty much anything!

34 Simple Unwritten rules/Un-coded
Many activities and local customs were past down by word of mouth. The lower classes were illiterate and only occasionally (specifically cricket and real tennis) were regulations written down.


36 “Pre-industrial popular recreation reflected the society, life and time in which it existed”

37 Pre-industrial society
Two class system: feudal system Cottage/Agriculture industry Limited communication/transport Poor literacy Harsh society/poor law and order Limited free time Rags to riches

38 Popular games and recreations of pre-industrial Britain
This is to provide case studies of pastimes undertaken in this era. Real Tennis – sport confined to the gentry Football – a game of the peasants Cricket – a game with some degree of social mix was permissible.



41 Effects on Health Varying opportunities for participation Class system
Upper class and Lower class Gender Class Prepare a note presentation on the factors that differentiate opportunities for the varying classes and genders

42 Then and Now, why and how?

43 Pop rec overview to be linked to rational recreation
Seasonal time Limited transport and communication Illiteracy Harsh rural lifestyle Feudal system/ two-class society Agricultural Uncivilised, lack of policing system Lack of technology

44 Games were occasional;
Skill competency not developed in working class. More force used. Health benefits questionable. No rules = injury, mortality and recovery time. Male dominated. Some skill development in middle class, as they used equipment. Legacy of pop rec games is significant. Ashbourne football. Rural areas still have festivals. Surviving ethnic sports – Highland Games and Cheese Rolling (AS link). Blood sports banned. Fox hunting survived longer as favoured by upper class.

45 Rational recreation Industrial revolution transformed society from a rural agricultural system to an urban factory system Middle class was developed in post-industrial Britain and became a dominant social and sporting force Meanwhile, the rural peasants who had migrated to towns to find factory work became known as the working class Working class opportunities and provision fell way below that of their social superiors. Long hours, low wages, anxiety, low age workers

46 Case study information

47 Mob/folk games – mob football

48 Mob/folk games – Case Studies
Ashbourne Shrovetide Football

49 Mob/folk games – Case Studies
The Ba’ Game

50 How closely did mob football match pop. Rec. characteristics?

51 Mob football: Popular recreation Characteristics?
Popular/courtly? Yes, how? Localised? Yes, how? Occasional? Yes, how? Cruel/Violent? Yes, how? Rural? Yes, how? Occupational (we’ll look at this later) Wagering? Yes, how? Simple/Un-coded? Yes, how?

52 The games of the court & the gentry
                       Time available Economic reasons Social Advantage The horse Soldier Literature Gambling (bowling, horse racing, cock fighting & archery Reasons for ruling classes having different activities. Horse – a symbol of authority, a necessity for travel & war. Knight or nobility – peasants watched.

53 The games and recreations of the populace
Holy Days Localised (ready to hand materials) Recreations changed Mass football or ‘stick games (hurling) Teams selected on simple criteria such as ‘Uppers’ & ‘downers’ Few rules In summer strength tests & races Baiting sports between dogs, cockerels, or dogs & bulls and bears. Military preparation 1541 – archery practice, no ball games allowed (from Richard II in 1388 to Henry VIII in 1541)

54 Festivals and the role of the Church
National Celebrations Urbanisation The Reformation – Puritanism, Sacrilegious to play on Sundays & Holy days, frivolous & non-productive. The Restoration – Return of King Charles II, Active Church approach to sport. ‘The gates to salvation can only be opened by what a person believes, thinks or feels during their earthly life’.

55 Real Tennis Originated in France Popular in Britain in 14 Cent.
Originated in France Popular in Britain in 14 Cent. Kings, Nobles & Merchants. Originally constructed from courtyards Net was a rope or cord. Gloves then short handled rackets.

56 Real/Royal tennis ? “The sophisticated exclusivity of real tennis was the exact opposite to the rustic simplicity of folk games” (Davis, 1997)

57 Some characteristics of Real/Royal Tennis?
Sophisticated Exclusive Skill over force Regulated Artificial facilities (OHP)

58 So how does Real Tennis fit into our general characteristics of popular recreation?

59 Real tennis: Popular recreation Characteristics?
Popular/courtly? Yes, how? Localised? Occasional? Cruel/Violent? Rural? Occupational? Wagering? Simple/Un-coded?






65 Football New & Shrovetide celebrations
Referred to as street football – maintaining rights of way Alnwick in Northumberland moved to fields – St. Michaels & St. Peter’s (parishes) Few rules, distinct teams & goals

66 Cricket Ancient origins Ancient Celts & Romans
Weald of Southern England in 1700 – downland grass, a ball of wool & a crook Bat & Ball Inn, Hambledon 1744 published rules

67 Key Revision Points Pop rec took place in pre-industrial Britain
Church calendar allowed regular time for leisure and sport Social distinction between court & peasantry – mob, informal, large scale & violent Cricket a game where classes could intermix Animal sports were popular – baiting for lower classes, hunting for upper classes.

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