Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN SPORT 1960-1971. CIVIL RIGHTS AND SPORTS THE AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN THE 1960s HAD TWO VERY DISTINCT AND SEPARATE BRANCHES… – THE NON-VIOLENT."— Presentation transcript:
CIVIL RIGHTS AND SPORTS THE AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN THE 1960s HAD TWO VERY DISTINCT AND SEPARATE BRANCHES… – THE NON-VIOLENT BRANCH OF M.L.K. – THE MILITANT BRANCH OF MALCOLM X AND OTHERS IN THE BLACK POWER MOVEMENT ATHLETES, INCLUDING MANY WHITES, USED SPORTS TO FORWARD THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. THESE ATHLETES WERE PART OF BOTH BRANCHES TO VARYING DEGREES IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE DECADE, BUT BECAME VERY MILITANT BY THE END OF THE DECADE.
CASSIUS CLAY / MUHAMMAD ALI BORN IN LOUISVILLE, KY (THE LOUISVILLE LIP) WON GOLD AT THE 1960 ROME OLYMPICS (LT. HVYWT DIVISION) WAS A BRASH, YOUNG FIGHTER WITH LITTLE POPULAR FOLLOWING, UNTIL HE BEAT SONNY LISTON IN 1964 THE NEXT DAY, HE ANNOUNCED HIS MEMBERSHIP IN THE NATION OF ISLAM
CLAY / ALI (cont.) CLAY IMMEDIATELY BECAME THE MOST DIVISIVE FIGURE IN AMERICAN SPORT, AND ARGUABLY IN ALL OF THE NATION BRIEFLY CALLED HIMSELF CASSIUS X, THEN CHANGED HIS NAME TO MUHAMMAD ALI
THE NAME DEBATE AMERICANS DIVIDED INTO TWO CAMPS BASED ON HOW THEY REFERRED TO THIS FIGHTER: – CLAY – MOSTLY WHITE; RESISTED THE CHANGES OF THE SIXTIES, ESP. THE MILITANCY; GENERALLY SUPPORTED THE VIETNAM WAR – ALI – BLACKS AND MORE PROGRESSIVE WHITES; ACTIVE IN THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT; GENERALLY OPPOSED THE VIETNAM WAR 1967 FIGHT vs ERNIE TERRELL – WHATS MY NAME! – I WANT TO TORTURE HIM.
ALI AND THE DRAFT Ali refused entry into the draft during Vietnam Was arrested for evading the draft – Stripped of titles – Possible 5 years in prison – Claimed to be a conscientious objector – Supreme Court eventually overturned lower court decision and decided in Alis favor
EXPANSION IN BASEBALL IN 1960 (AS WE ALREADY KNOW), THERE WERE 16 MAJOR LEAGUE TEAMS. MANY CITIES IN THE SOUTH AND WEST WERE GROWING IN POPULATION, AND SOUGHT TEAMS OF THEIR OWN. BRANCH RICKEY PROPOSED THE CONTINENTAL LEAGUE, A NEW 8-TEAM BASEBALL LEAGUE. THE MAJOR LEAGUES RESPONDED: – 1961: L.A. & WASHINGTON – 1962: N.Y.C. & HOUSTON – 1969: KANSAS CITY, SEATTLE, SAN DIEGO, MONTREAL THE 1960s ALSO SAW TEAMS MOVE TO MINNEAPOLIS, ATLANTA, DALLAS, AND OAKLAND.
RIVAL LEAGUES IN OTHER SPORTS AMERICAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE (A.F.L.) – BOSTON, N.Y., BUFFALO, KANSAS CITY, HOUSTON, DENVER, OAKLAND, L.A. [LATER MIAMI AND CINCINNATI] – ALL TEAMS EVENTUALLY BECAME MEMBERS OF THE N.F.L. AMERICAN BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION (A.B.A.) WORLD HOCKEY ASSOCIATION (W.H.A.) IN ADDITION TO BRINGING PROFESSIONAL SPORTS TO NEW CITIES, THESE LEAGUES ADDED NEW RULES TO THEIR SPORTS. – 2-POINT CONVERSION (FOOTBALL) – 3-POINT SHOT (BASKETBALL)
HOUSTON ASTRODOME MULTIPURPOSE (CIRCULAR) DOME ARTIFICIAL TURF (ASTROTURF)
GROWTH OF THE N.F.L. THE NFL USED THE MOMENTUM GAINED IN THE 1950s, ESP. FROM THE 1958 CHAMPIONSHIP, TO INCREASE ITS POPULARITY IN THE 1960s. PETE ROZELLE BECAME COMMISSIONER IN 1960. – NFL-AFL MERGER – TV CONTRACTS THE SUPER BOWL – ORIGIN OF THE NAME (LAMAR HUNTS DAUGHTER) – SUPER BOWL III – *NOTE*: THE FIRST FOUR SUPER BOWLS WERE CONTESTED BEFORE THE MERGER.
THE N.F.L. AND TELEVISION THE NFL SPLIT TV REVENUES EQUALLY BETWEEN ITS MEMBER FRANCHISES. BLACKOUT RULE (1973): GAME MUST BE SOLD OUT 72 HOURS IN ADVANCE OF KICKOFF IN ORDER TO BE TELEVISED LOCALLY.
TV NUMBERS 1962: CBS APPROX. $5 MILLION 1964: CBS $14 MILLION 1964 [AFL]: NBC $8.4 MILLION 1970: APPROX. $50 MILLION (FROM MULTIPLE NETWORKS) 1977: FOUR YEARS, $656 MILLION 1982: APPROX. $400 MILLION PER YEAR
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