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Peggy Gallant Professor Human Kinetics St. Francis Xavier University Coach experience - men and women, boys and girls, university, community, high school.

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Presentation on theme: "Peggy Gallant Professor Human Kinetics St. Francis Xavier University Coach experience - men and women, boys and girls, university, community, high school."— Presentation transcript:

1 Peggy Gallant Professor Human Kinetics St. Francis Xavier University Coach experience - men and women, boys and girls, university, community, high school - soccer, volleyball and basketball

2 Sport, a sex segregated institution, based on biological and physical differences.

3 Girls are deemed less talented, less coordinated, less skilled, less motivated, and less successful at sports than boys. At best, girls are thought to need special rules and remedial instruction; at worst, they are humiliated, discriminated against, or ignored.(TUCKER CENTRE, 2007) The Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport (2007). Executive Summary. The 2007 Tucker Center Research Report, Developing physically active girls: An evidence-based multidisciplinary approach. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

4 The Physiological and Metabolic Dimension

5 The Psychological Dimension

6 The Sociological Dimension

7 Some women and girls excel at sport and physical activity despite a variety of complex barriers affecting their participation and performance. A combination of factors allow them to cope with and overcome the barriers. (CAAWS, 2009)

8 Sex Differences in Sport and Exercise For decades, culture, athletic governing bodies, and PE curricula perpetuated the myth that girls and women should not compete in sport For decades, culture, athletic governing bodies, and PE curricula perpetuated the myth that girls and women should not compete in sport Last 30 to 40 years, girls and women have achieved great athletic feats Last 30 to 40 years, girls and women have achieved great athletic feats Sex differences in performance still exist Sex differences in performance still exist Separating biological versus other factors Separating biological versus other factors

9 Sex Differences Sex Differences Body size and composition Body size and composition Physiological responses/adaptations to acute exercise Physiological responses/adaptations to acute exercise Sport performance Sport performance Other Other

10 The Bicycle The invention of the bicycle revolutionized women in sport by changing womens clothing. The dress code remained one of the greatest obstacles to women's leisure until at least the 1930s.

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12 UNIFORMS

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20 Men and Uniforms

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24 Sport Performance Men outperform women by all objective standards of competition Men outperform women by all objective standards of competition Most noticeable in upper-body events Most noticeable in upper-body events Gap narrowing Gap narrowing Womens performance drastically improved over last 30 to 40 years Womens performance drastically improved over last 30 to 40 years Leveling off now Leveling off now Due to harder training Due to harder training

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27 Strength Muscle strength differs between sexes Muscle strength differs between sexes Upper body: women 40 to 60% weaker Upper body: women 40 to 60% weaker Lower body: women 25 to 30% weaker Lower body: women 25 to 30% weaker Due to total muscle mass difference, not difference in innate muscle mechanisms Due to total muscle mass difference, not difference in innate muscle mechanisms No sex strength disparity when expressed per unit of muscle cross-sectional area No sex strength disparity when expressed per unit of muscle cross-sectional area For given body weight, trained men have more FFM than trained women For given body weight, trained men have more FFM than trained women

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29 Q Angle

30 Q Angle Cont… Normal male = 13 degrees Normal female = 18 degrees Increase in female Q Angle is due to a wider pelvis Creates alignment problems with the knees causing females to: -experience excessive wear on the knees -have the quadriceps pull on the patella -experience pronation and flattening of the feet -have an increase in ACL injuries -experience the affects throughout the body

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33 Body Size and Composition Distinct female fat deposition pattern Distinct female fat deposition pattern Rapid storage on hips and thighs due to lipoprotein lipase activity Rapid storage on hips and thighs due to lipoprotein lipase activity

34 Musculoskeletal Ankle sprains Flat feet Tibia vara Slipped capital femoral epiphysis Forearm fracture 34 Health Outcomes Ebbeling et al. Lancet 2002;360; Neurological Pseudotumour cerebri (idiopathic intracranial hypertension) Cardiovascular Hypertension Dyslipidemia Coagulopathy Chronic inflammation Endothelial dysfunction Endocrine Insulin Resistance Impaired fasting glucose or glucose intolerance Type 2 diabetes Precocious puberty Menstrual irregularities Polycystic ovary syndrome (females) Psychosocial Eating disorders Poor self-esteem Body image disorder Social isolation and stigmatization Depression Pulmonary Exercise intolerance Obstructive sleep apnea Asthma Gastrointestional Gallstones Gastro-oesophageal reflux Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Renal Glomerulosclerosis of Obesity

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36 Powerful womenPowerful women Unfeminine freaksUnfeminine freaks New womenNew women Gender BendersGender Benders Freaks of NatureFreaks of Nature

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39 Menstruation No reliable data indicate altered athletic performance across menstrual phases No reliable data indicate altered athletic performance across menstrual phases No physiological differences in exercise responses across menstrual phases No physiological differences in exercise responses across menstrual phases World records set by women during every menstrual phase World records set by women during every menstrual phase

40 Female Athlete Triad Syndrome of interrelated conditions Syndrome of interrelated conditions Energy deficit secondary amenorrhea low bone mass Energy deficit secondary amenorrhea low bone mass Disordered eating may (not) be involved Disordered eating may (not) be involved Three disorders can occur alone or in combination, must be addressed early Three disorders can occur alone or in combination, must be addressed early Treatment: caloric intake, activity (in some cases) Treatment: caloric intake, activity (in some cases)

41 Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa Anorexia nervosa Refusal to maintain minimal normal weight Refusal to maintain minimal normal weight Distorted body image, fear of fatness Distorted body image, fear of fatness Amenorrhea Amenorrhea Bulimia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Recurrent binge eating Recurrent binge eating Lack of control during binges Lack of control during binges Purging behaviors (vomiting, laxatives, diuretics) Purging behaviors (vomiting, laxatives, diuretics)

42 Eating Disorders Young women at highest risk Young women at highest risk Eating disorder versus disordered eating Eating disorder versus disordered eating Worse in certain sports Worse in certain sports Appearance sports: diving, figure skating, ballet Appearance sports: diving, figure skating, ballet Endurance sports: distance running, swimming Endurance sports: distance running, swimming Weight-class sports: jockeys, boxing, wrestling Weight-class sports: jockeys, boxing, wrestling Perfectionists, competitive, under tight control Perfectionists, competitive, under tight control Self-reporting underestimates prevalence Self-reporting underestimates prevalence

43 Impact of the Mass Media Impact of the Mass Media Magazine, T.V., & other mass media strategies alter behaviors & influence the body-images of women These strategies encourage an obsession with health & fitness

44 Belief that ones size is inadequate

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46 Environmental Factors Heat stress issues Heat stress issues Women: sweat production Women: sweat production No sex differences in thermal tolerance No sex differences in thermal tolerance Cold stress issues Cold stress issues Women: better insulated ( subcutaneous fat) Women: better insulated ( subcutaneous fat) Men: better shivering thermogenesis ( FFM) Men: better shivering thermogenesis ( FFM) Altitude stress issues Altitude stress issues VO 2max decreases VO 2max decreases No sex differences in altitude tolerance No sex differences in altitude tolerance

47 Sexualization of sport

48 Female Athletic Calendars

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54 Official Home of the Dallas Stars Ice Girls. (2013). Ice Girls. NHL.Com Network. (retrieved, April 2013)

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56 Women Athletes in Magazines No matter the reason, a female athlete's willingness to flaunt her beauty is a marketer's dream. After all, sports -- including women's sports -- are an industry run by and geared toward men. "The vast majority of the audience for sports is male," says Neal Pilson, the former president of CBS Sports…

57 Katarina Witt

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59 Danica Patrick

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66 Questions?

67 Recommendations for Best Practices, Programs, and Approaches


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