2What emotions are most often displayed by: ControlWhat emotions are most often displayed by:Athletes?Coaches?Significant others?
3Emotions Can impact on performance Consideration of two aspects – coach and athlete displays of emotionCoach:Do you consider how your own emotions show around your athletes?Do you have any dominant emotions that you express?
4Athlete Emotions Anxiety a common and debilitative emotion Linked with increases in physiological arousalAthletes need to be able to control arousal:Increasing arousal (i.e., psyching up)Decreasing (i.e., increased pressure leading to anxiety and nervousness)
5Coping – Social Support Support from others can help athletes cope in sportSocial support has 4 dimensions:Emotional support - being there for comfort and securityEsteem support – bolstering person’s sense of competence of self-beliefInformational support – providing advice or guidanceTangible support – concrete instrumental assistanceMatching support type to needs of athlete at that time importantImportant that support does not undermine autonomy, competence and relatedness!
6Pep Talks Guidelines for a coach’s successful pregame talk Give them a plan.Make them believe they can win.Do not lie.Be yourself.Use humor.
7“Getting the Butterflies to Fly in Formation” Is arousal/anxiety debilitative or facilitative?Helping athletes understand arousal and its impact is importantRegular reviews of performancesControlling strategies:Relaxation techniques (e.g., progressive muscle relaxation)ImagerySelf talk
8What Is Coping?Coping is a process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands or conflicts appraised as taxing or exceeding one’s resources (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).Researchers differentiate between two types of coping: Problem-focused and emotion focused coping.
9Coping CategoriesProblem-focused coping: Efforts to alter or manage the problems that are causing stress (e.g., time management, problem solving)Emotion-focused coping: Regulating the emotional responses to the problem that causes the stress (e.g., through relaxation, mediation).(continued)
10Coping Categories Major problem-focused categories Information gatheringPrecompetition and competition plansGoal settingTime management skillsProblem solving(continued)
11Coping Categories Major problem-focused categories Increasing effort Self-talkAdhering to injury rehabilitation program(continued)
12Coping Categories Major emotion-focused categories Meditation RelaxationWishful thinkingReappraisalSelf-blame, mental and behavioral withdrawalCognitive efforts to change the meaning (but not the actual problem or environment) of the situation
13Coping in Sport Coping strategies frequently used by athletes Task focusRational thinking and self-talkPositive focus and orientationSocial supportMental preparation and anxiety managementTime managementTraining hard and smart
14Resiliency: Bouncing Back from Adversity Mental toughness and personal resources (e.g., determination, competitiveness, commitment) are keys for resilient performers to cope with adversity.Sociocultural influences such as social support (or lack of it) were seen as critical to being resilient.14
15Coping in SportGender, age, and pubertal status can influence both the type of coping strategy employed and its perceived effectiveness.Coping appears to be situation specific.There are great individual differences in coping strategies, and each athlete has to find what works best for him or her in specific situations.
16Beyond Anxiety: Coping with Emotions Self-statement modification: Change negative to positive statements.Imagery: Cope with negative emotions or use positive emotions.(continued)
17Beyond Anxiety: Coping with Emotions Socratic dialogueThought-provoking questions are asked so athletes can reevaluate their self-defeating thoughts.Corrective experiencesAthlete makes a conscious decision to engage in the behavior that is of concern, which can reduce anxiety and correct past mistakes.(continued)
18Beyond Anxiety: Coping with Emotions Vicarious learning:Modeling appropriate behaviors makes it more likely that behavior will be produced.Self-analysis:Monitor emotions in sport and thus increase self-awareness.
19Beyond Anxiety: Coping with Emotions Storytelling, metaphors, and poetry:Literary techniques encourage athletes to consider alternative ways of viewing and dealing with the situation (e.g., quotes or stories from sport stars).Reframing:Perspective taking involves viewing an important competition as just another game.
20Keys to Generalizing Coping Strategies Recognition of stimulus generality:Understand that certain coping skills transfer to other life situations.Broad application of coping skills:Some skills are likely to generalize to non-sport situations, such as stress inoculation training and progressive relaxation.(continued)
21Keys to Generalizing Coping Strategies Personal significance of coping application:Coping skills that are important to an individual will typically transfer to other situations.Internal locus of control of coping skill:Coping skills become more transferable when an athlete claims ownership of the skill.Learned resourcefulness:Resourceful individuals realize that coping skills can apply to different aspects of life.
22On-Site Relaxation Tips Smile when you feel tension coming on.Have fun—enjoy the situation.Set up stressful situations in practice.Slow down; take your time.Stay focused on the present.Come prepared with a good game plan.
23Signs of Underarousal Moving slowly, not getting set Mind wandering, being easily distractedLack of concern about how one will performLack of anticipation or enthusiasmHeavy feeling in legs, no bounce
24Arousal-Inducing Techniques The goal is to get athletes at an optimal level of arousal.Often things such as pep talks and motivational speeches can over-arouse athletes.If arousal is to be raised, it should be done in a deliberate fashion with awareness of optimal arousal states.(continued)
25Arousal-Inducing Techniques (continued) Increase breathing rate.Act energized.Use mood words and positive statements.Listen to music.Use energizing imagery.Complete a pre-competition workout.
26“Flow”When experience is just right, athlete can have psychological experience which both results in high performance and personal ecstasy.9 defining characteristics of flow:Challenge/skill balanceMerging of action and awareness (sense of automaticity and spontaneity)Goals are clearly definedClear, unambiguous feedbackTotal concentration on the skill being performedSense of being in control without trying to be in controlLoss of self-awarenessLoss of time awarenessAutotelic experience (end result of all the above)
27“Flow” Facilitative of flow: Debilitative of flow: Development of positive mental attitudePositive precompetitive affectPositive competitive affectMaintaining appropriate attentional focusPhysical readinessUnity with team mates and/or coachDebilitative of flow:Experience physical problems and mistakesInability to maintain appropriate attentional focusNegative mental attitudeLack of audience response
28What does a confident person look like? ConfidenceWhat does a confident person look like?List these on the flip chart and refer to later during ‘sources of sport confidence’
29Confidence Self-confidence definition: State-like and trait-like “the belief that you can successfully perform a desired behaviour” (Wienberg & Gould, 2011)State-like and trait-likeConfidence can change depending on the proximity to certain eventsSome people more predisposed to confidenceSelf-fulfilling prophecyIf you think something will go wrong it willExample of overcoming this – Roger Bannister breaking the 4 minute mile
30Sources of Confidence Different types of sport-confidence: Confidence about ability to execute physical skillsConfidence about one’s ability to use psychological skillsConfidence to use perceptual skills (e.g. Decision making)Confidence in one’s level of physical fitnessConfidence in one’s learning potentialWhere does this confidence come from?
31Where Does My Confidence Come From? Type of ConfidenceSourcesFitnessTraining (improvements)Warm up and cool down routinesProper EquipmentAppropriate RestTechniqueTrainingCoach feedbackPrevious performancesEquipmentRecommendations – coaches and other athletesImprovements in performanceComfort
32How Would I Rate My Confidence, and Why? TypeSourcesRating (1-10)ReasonsFitnessTraining (improvements)Warm up and cool down routinesProper EquipmentAppropriate Rest6Recent injuryNo set routines during trainingNot enough trainingTechniqueTrainingCoach feedbackPrevious performances7Performances improvingPositive feedback from coachAlways room for improvementEquipmentRecommendations – coaches and other athletesImprovements in performanceComfort9Improvements in performance since changing equipmentRecommended by coach and colleaguesEquipment feels great to run in!
33What Can I Do To Improve My Confidence? TypeSourcesRating (1-10)ReasonsWhat Can I Do?FitnessTraining (improvements)Warm up and cool down routinesProper EquipmentAppropriate Rest6Recent injuryNo set routines during trainingNot enough trainingSee Physiotherapist about injuryPlan routines for warming up and cooling down, and use in trainingSet training plan for coming months (goal setting)TechniqueTrainingCoach feedbackPrevious performances7Performances improvingPositive feedback from coachAlways room for improvementIncreased trainingGet more coach feedback – ask more questionsReview previous performancesEquipmentRecommendations – coaches and other athletesImprovements in performanceComfort9Improvements in performance since changing equipmentRecommended by coach and colleaguesEquipment feels great to run in!Maintain equipment as best as possibleContinue enjoying equipmentKeep up to date with possible new equipment
34Self-Efficacy (Bandura, 1977) Situation-specific form of self-confidenceBelief in one’s ability to perform a specific taskUnderlying assumptionsIf someone has required ability and sufficient motivation, defining aspect of performance is self-efficacyHigh self effacious athletes tend to persevere, particularly under tough conditionsSelf-efficacy is task-specific, but can generalise to other similar skills or situationsSelf-efficacy is linked to goal setting – those who have high self efficacy tend to set more challenging goals
35Sources of Self Efficacy Athletic PerformanceEfficacy ExpectationsPerformance AccomplishmentsVicarious ExperienceVerbal PersuasionImaginal ExperiencesPhysiological StatesEmotional StatesPhysiological states – influence self efficacy when seen as either facilitative or debilitativeEmotional states – emotions (e.g., depression, anxiety) can influence efficacy feelings
37“A goal set properly is halfway reached” Abraham Lincoln Goal Setting“A goal set properly is halfway reached”Abraham Lincoln
38Goal Setting“...success and failure are not concrete events, they are psychological states consequent on perception of reaching or not reaching goals...” (Maehr & Nichols, 1980)
39Goal Setting In your groups: Define goal setting and goals List 5 different goals for the next year that your athletes have set
40What are goals? “What and individual is trying to accomplish” “ The object or aim of an action”Goals motivate individuals to take action by:Focussing attentionIncreasing effort and intensityPrompting development of new problem solving strategiesEncouraging persistence in the face of failure
41What is goal setting?Theory of motivation that energises athletes to become more productive and effective
42Objective vs. Subjective Goals Objective goals:Focus on achieving something within a certain timeE.g., reaching a certain weight in a certain amount of timeSubjective goals:General statements of intentE.g., “I want to do well”
43I want to win this tennis match I will keep my arms straight during my handstandI want to run this 100m sprint in 12.9sI want to make this hole in 3 shotsI want to beat this boxerI want to keep my elbow high through the strokeI want to score a hatrickI want the club to follow through after the shotI want to win this marathonOutcome – 1, 5, 9Performance – 3,4,7Process – 2, 6, 8
443 Types of Objective Goals (Kingston & Hardy, 1997) Outcome goalsFocus on outcome of eventsUsually involve comparisons with othersPerformance goalsEnd product of performanceIndependent of othersProcess goalsSpecific behaviours exhibited during performanceSkill and technique related
45Which Goal Type is Better? Outcome goals:May increase motivation away from competitionCan increase anxiety just before, or during, competitionPerformance and process goalsEasier to adjust than outcome goalsDepend less on performance of others
46Multiple Goal Strategy Focus on winningOutcome Goals:Focus on skill achievementPerformance Goals:Focus on skill techniqueProcess Goals:
47Why Does Goal Setting Work? Four basic ways goal setting influences performance (Locke et al, 1981)Directed attentionFocuses athlete attention on taskEffort mobilisationOnce attention is directed, athlete knows where to place their effortPersistenceGoal setting helps athletes direct their effort over long periods of timeDevelopment of new learning strategiesSetting new goals allows athlete to develop new methods of achieving these
48Effective Goal Setting Make goals specific and measurableSet moderately difficult, but realistic, goalsSet long and short term goalsWrite down goals and monitor progress regularly
49Effective Goal Setting Use a mix of process, performance and outcome goalsUse short-range goals to achieve long-range goalsSet practice as well as competition goalsMake sure goals are internalised
51SMARTER Goals Specific Measurable Action-orientated Realistic Timely ElasticRepeatable
52Goal Setting Pitfalls Poorly written goal statements i.e., not using SMART goalsFailure to develop a goal-attainment strategyFailure to follow goal-attainment strategySetting too many goals too soonFailure to adjust goalsDue to injury especially
53Usefulness of Goal Setting Motivation:Athlete given ownership over training – AUTONOMYAthlete achieves goals – COMPETENCEAthlete sets goals with team mates/coach – RELATEDNESSConfidence:Athlete achieves goals – performance accomplishmentFlowClear goals – facilitative of flowControl & concentrationAbility to refocus on task – coping mechanism
55Imagery What is imagery? Image can be created in the mind in the absence of any external stimuliImagery involves one or all of the senses: visual, kinesthetic, auditory, tactile, olfactoryImagery involves moods and emotions
56Why does imagery work? Psycho neuromuscular Theory Imagery results in subliminal neuromuscular patterns identical to patterns used during actual movementNeuromuscular system “practices” movementResearch has shown increased electrical activity in passive muscles associated with imagery (Jowdy & Harris, 1990; Slade et al, 2002; Smith & Collins, 2004)Most plausible explanation of why imagery facilitates physical performance and learning (Cox, 2007)
57Why does imagery work? Symbolic learning theory: Imagery works because the individual plans their actions in advanceAttention and arousal set theory:Imagery improves performance in 2 ways:Imagery may help athlete attend to task at hand (cognitive)Imagery may help athlete adjust arousal level for optimal performance (physiological)
58Imagery Perspective Internal vs. external perspective Internal perspectiveAthlete imagines executing skill from within their own bodyVery natural, as we see the world this wayExternal perspectiveAthlete imagining self from outside their body – like watching a video of selfLess natural, but offers good opportunity to observe technique and form
59Imagery Modality Visual imagery Kinaesthetic Imagery Related to the visual processing of information“Seeing movement”Kinaesthetic ImageryRefers to sensory information from receptors throughout bodyInformation about body-part location and movement, objects in contact with body, movement of muscles, joints and tendons (Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2004)“Feeling movement”
60Perspective and Modality Cox (1998) suggests:“internal imagery is considered to be primarily kinaesthetic in nature, as opposed to visual” (p176)“external imagery is considered to be primarily visual in nature” (p176)Callow and Hardy (2004)Internal imagery considered superior to external due to association with kinaesthetic imagery
61Perspective and Modality Callow and Hardy (2004)Used VMIQ (Isaac et al, 1986) to measure internal/external imageryUsed MIQ (Hall et al, 1985) to measure visual/kinaesthetic imageryStudy 1Significant correlation between imagery perspective and imagery modalityStudy 2External imagery significantly correlated with kinaesthetic imagery, internal was not!Conclusion:External imagery has a stronger association with kinaesthetic imagery for tasks where form is important
62Perspective and Modality Athletes can form kinaesthetic imagery equally well from both internal and external perspectives (Gates et al, 2003; Hardy & Callow, 1999)Advanced performers capable of switching between perspectives, and speed of change may lead to athletes experiencing both perspectives at once (Holmes & Collins, 2001)New focus of researchExternal imagery perspective angle (Roberts et al, 2009)
63Models of Imagery Paivio’s Two-Dimensional Model of Imagery (1985) Imagery has both cognitive and motivational functions5 independent types of imagery:Motivational Specific (MS) – athlete imagines self in specific sport setting that is highly motivatingMotivational General – Mastery (MG-M) – athlete imagines self exhibiting ability to remain focussedMotivational General – Arousal (MG-A) – athlete imagines self exhibiting ability to control anxietyCognitive Specific (CS) – athlete imagines self correctly executing specific skillsCognitive General (CG) – athlete imagines self correctly executing strategies and game plans
64Models of Imagery Four Ws Where and When? What? Most imagery takes place during training and competition (Munroe et al, 2000)Imagery used both in-season and during off-season, (Cummings and Hall, 2002)What?Smith and Holmes (2004) contrastedWritten script of successful puttingWatching video of self successfully puttingHearing ball dropping into holeControl conditionFound – watching self most effective
65Models of Imagery Four Ws What (cont) Direction of imagery – positive vs. negativeNordin & Cumming (2005) – debilitative imagery causes decrease in self-efficacy and performanceImagery and motivationWilson et al. (2003) – exercisers motivated for external rewards do not use imagery for improving technique, improving appearance or increasing energyImagery and goal perspectiveHarwood et al (2003) – athletes high on task and ego orientation exhibit highest imagery use for 5 types of imagery
66Models of Imagery Four Ws What (cont) Imagery speed Calmels and Fournier (2001) – imaged gymnastics routines shorter than actual practiced routinesReed (2002) – diver imagery speeds:Intermediate divers > novice divers > elite diversMcCann (2009) – slow motion/real time/fast motionNo impact on confidence or affectSlow motion lead to better timing of performance
67Models of Imagery Four Ws Why? Improving performance (Nordin & Cumming, 2005)Also shown to improve:Anxiety control, confidence and motivation amongst elite rugby players (Evans et al, 2004)Anxiety control and self-efficacy of novice rock climbers (Jones et al, 2002)Confidence of high-level badminton players (Callow et al, 2001)Attention abilities of softball players (Calmels et al, 2004)Cyclical relationship – more confident individuals use imagery more (Abma et al, 2002)
68Uses of Imagery Skill learning and practice: Tactical and game skills Skill acquisition, skill practice, error detection and correctionTactical and game skillsStrategy development, strategy learning, strategy practice, problem solvingCompetition and performanceFamiliarisation of location, mental warm-up, pre-performance routine, preview, review
69Uses of Imagery Psychological skills Coping with injury Arousal and anxiety control, improving concentration and attentionIncreasing self-awareness, building confidence and self-efficacyIncreasing motivation, developing interpersonal skillsCoping with injuryCoping with pain and injury, dealing with long term injury, recovering from injury
70Imagery Interventions PETTLEP (Holmes & Collins, 2001)Physical nature of task – what imagery is forEnvironment – use of stimulus materials that mimic real environmentTask – imagery represents the nature of skill to be performed and reflects level of imagerTiming – imagery being performed in real timeLearning – imagery content reviewed and revised as new skills are learnedEmotion – necessity for inclusion of emotional component to imageryPerspective – prioritises internal, but external used when appropriate
71Imagery Interventions Key components (Morris et al, 2005)Vivid and controllableInvolve all sensesRealismPositive performance and outcome focusBase images on memoriesUse stimulus and response propositionsStimulus propositions – references to the environment, equipment, performance actions (e.g. tempo), performance settingResponse propositions – responses to the environment, e.g. heart / breathing rate, muscular fatigue, sweating, etc
73Usefulness of Imagery Motivation Confidence Concentration and control Imagery used to preview/review performance – competenceAthlete responsible for image – autonomyConfidenceAthlete imagining perfect performance – performance accomplishmentAthlete ‘seeing’ others – vicarious experienceImaginal experiencesConcentration and controlImagery used as pre-performance routine – athlete getting into zone, or increasing arousalPsychological tool for use during play – maintaining or regaining focus
74Motivational vs. Instructional Self TalkInternal vs. ExternalMotivational vs. InstructionalInternalTalking to yourself in your own headPeople do it all the time!ExternalSpeaking out loud to yourselfE.g. Andy MurrayMotivationalCome on!!InstructionalTo do with techniqueDealing with distractions – focus!