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OCR AS Physical Education

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1 OCR AS Physical Education
Social-Cultural Studies

2 Lesson Objectives To understand the characteristics of Australia and its preoccupation with sport. Australian Rules Football: its origins and factors which shaped its development including the media and commercialism.

3 Starter Activity. Name one single sport occasion and one multi-sport festival that could be classed as ‘surviving ethnic sports’ in the UK. Identify three characteristics of surviving ethnic sports. Describe two ways that 19th century public schools helped to promote and organise sports and games. Explain what is meant by the term ‘American Dream’ and how can this be achieved through sport? Describe the game of American Football.

4 Australia

5 Australia Australia is a comparatively young nation and until a few hundred years ago, it was inhabited solely by its indigenous aboriginal people. In 1770 James Cook sailed into Botany Bay and claimed Australia as a colony for Britain. Australia is massive and it takes 6 hours to fly from Perth to Sydney, i.e from one side of the country to the other across three time zones. It is sparsely populated with just 21 million people (compared to 60 million people in the UK and 300 million in the USA!). Australia consists of six states and two territories. With the vast majority of the country uninhabitable, the majority live in one of the eight capital cities which are located close to the coast. 85% of the population live in only just over 3% of the land.

6 Australia State Capital City States Territories
New South Wales, Darwin, Sydney, Perth, Victoria, Hobart, Australian Capital Territory, Canberra, Tasmania, Brisbane, Adelaide, Melbourne, Western Australia, Queensland, Northern Territory, South Australia.

7 Australia The Union Jack is still part of the Australian flag as a symbol of British colonialism. When colonialists arrived over 200 years ago, they brought the British way of life, government, education and judicial systems plus sports and games with them. Most schools have sports afternoons. Australia adopted many English games (unlike the US where there were adaptations and inventions) and a great sporting rivalry between the two countries developed which continues today.

8 Australia In 1901 Australia became an independent commonwealth country of the British Empire. Although historically, Australia is seeped in colonial values, it still took on new culture and identity from its colonialists. In the early days British convicts were sent to Australia, and European immigrants were transported to the colony. After the 2nd World War (post 1945) the Australian government launched a massive immigration campaign due to the perceived need to ‘populate of perish’. Britons emigrated for a better life ‘down under’ via a £10 one-way passage and we were known collectively as Ten Pond Poms.

9 Australia Since the abolition of the white Australian Policy in the early 1970s, multiculturalism has been promoted. The largest group of the 23% Australians born overseas are currently from the UK, New Zealand, Italy, Vietnam and China. For the last 40 years, Australia has embarked on a policy of reconciliation – aimed at ending the discrimination against the Aboriginal people which started in the Colonial Period.

10 Australia Draw a map of Australia and fill in its main characteristics.

11 Australia Key Words Colonialism: White Australia Policy:
Indigenous Population:

12 The nature of sport in Australia
Unlike America which invented its own sports because it wanted to be different and isolated, Australia was happy to adopt traditional British Sports, such as cricket and rugby.

13 The nature of sport in Australia
SPORT AS A NATIONAL PREOCCUPATION Sport is an integral part of Australia and its people and has helped to shape the identity of this relatively young country. Sport in Australia is a national passion or even obsession Census data shows that 90% of Australians participate in sport and that sport accounts for 15% of TV time Sporting articles appear regularly on the front page of National newspapers and nearly everyone is either directly involved in or at least interested in sport.   The Sydney Olympics of 2000 were an International triumph and Australia enjoys numerous victories in world events with particularly strong teams in cricket, hockey, netball, rugby league, rugby union and also performs well in cycling, rowing and swimming.

14 The nature of sport in Australia
Task - In pairs think of and write down reasons why it is that sport is such a high status national preoccupation in Australia

15 Social and cultural reasons for Australia’s ‘preoccupation’ with sport…

16 ‘Aussie Rules’ Football

17 Aussie Rules Football ORIGINS
This game is also known as Aussie Rules or simply ‘footy’ and is a game that clearly reflects Australian society and culture. Clips from Sky Sports or YouTube video sometimes give the wrong impression and elicit comments such as ‘There don’t seem to be many rules.’ ‘It’s just a big punch up on a cricket pitch.’ ‘It’s a bit like rugby with dodgy shorts and sleeveless vests’

18 Aussie Rules Football Argument continues about the games exact origins, but whatever the details, the game was the idea of English born Tom Wills and was originally intended as winter training for cricketers. Most argue that the game is genuinely Australian and that Wills combined an aboriginal leaping game with what he had seen in the English public schools. Others say that it is simply a mixture between Rugby and Gaelic Football. The game is more popular than rugby union, rugby league or association football (soccer) in most states and there has been a 42% increase in participation from 2001 and Although the game has not taken a very firm hold overseas and overseas players are a very small percentage of players worldwide, the game is growing in more than 20 countries. Whilst making up only 3% of the Australian population, aboriginals account for approximately 16% of the players in the AFL elite competition.


20 Factors shaping development of the game
Various factors have shaped the game’s development: Australians living or travelling abroad have spread the news Occasional festival exhibition matches attract interest Many players have also converted from other football codes and sports because of the money and celebrity status that the game attracts As the game is taught and played in Australian schools and has extensive pathway programmes, interest and involvement among young people has grown. The game appeals to all and can be played successfully by both sexes and by all body types from 6’10” ruckmen weighing 16 stone to 5’6” rovers weighing 9 stone. The Super Rules competition for players over 35 years of age, which limits body contact, has grown as have the participant numbers in junior and senior female competitions.

21 Commercialism and the impact of the media
Australian Rules Football is the most highly attended spectator sport in Australia and has blossomed as a result of commercialism. Interest in the game is at an all time high. Today it is a multi – million Australian Dollar business, with a National Competition and an extensive network of local and regional leagues and competitions. Similar to American Football, it is a good product for media promotion with regular commercial breaks. Business enterprise and financial backing have helped the sport which has produced high status stars who earn huge fees from advertising, sponsorships, endorsements and other commercial ventures.

22 Summarise 3 main points regarding commercialism and Aussie Rules:

23 Homework

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