Presentation on theme: "Problems and Issues in Sport"— Presentation transcript:
1 Problems and Issues in Sport Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and SportChapter 6Problems and Issues in Sport
2 Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.) Sport InjuriesDifficult to determine trends.Acute injuries (e.g., sprains contusions) resultin approx. 4,00,000 ER visits per year.Overuse injuries are seen more in youngerchildren (early age specialization likelycontributes).New trend: Extreme sport injuries(i.e., higher risks >> increased risk of injury).
3 Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.) Sport Injuries (cont’d.)Duquin (1988): Sado-asceticism Trendby adults and coaches to redefine pain asdiscomfort, and pushing kids to work“through the pain.”
4 Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.) Youth Sport CoachingMajor dilemma: Attracting sufficientnumbers of volunteer coaches, but notbeing able to require much in the formof certification.Improvement is occurring in terms ofrequiring background checks, providingvolunteer workshops, and Code of Ethics.
5 Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.) Youth Sport Coaching (Cont’d.)What little is known empirically, shows thatyouth sport coaches offer too much criticism,and little positive support.This produced the “Coaching EffectivenessTraining” program (Smoll, 1986).
6 Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.) Youth Sport Coaching (Cont’d.)“Coaching Effectiveness Training” programPhilosophy:Winning is an appropriate goal, but not theonly one.Losing does not imply failure.Success comes in multiple forms.Success is related to effort as much as itis to outcome.
7 Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.) Impact of Sport on Family LifeSport directly alters family life patternsTransport kids to games and practices.Fewer, if any, family dinners at home.Increased expenditures on Sport (e.g., camps,club fees, gas, hotels etc.).
8 Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.) Impact of Sport on Family LifeParents can get quite overzealous. . .Examples of inappropriate parent behavior?What about the children’s view of their parents?(see also boxes 6.4 & 6.5)Would you want your parents to behave like that?
9 Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.) Unequal Access (SES)Opportunity & access to sport is skewedtoward middle and upper-middle classchildren and youth (i.e., programs, facilities,equipment, coaching, etc.).Those most in need, are least likely to haveaccess.What will you do to “level this playing field?”
10 Child and Youth Sport Problems (Cont’d.) Trends in Child & Youth Sport (Cont’d.). . . BUT, much remains to be done:Declines in public funding.Increase in private/commercial programs.Programs segregated by SES, race,and/or ethnicity.Less access and opportunity for lower-SES children.Children exploring other (less adult-dominated) activities.
11 Interscholastic Sport Unique to U.S. society.Scope of programs depends on schoolsize and funding.Often a strong binding force inespecially smaller rural communities(See also Box 6.6)
12 Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.) It does carry its own problem . . .Exclusion in the varsity model.Youth & interscholastic sport injuries.Eligibility and pass-to-play rules.Specialization.Performance enhancing supplements.Coaching issues.Funding: Pay-to-play / Booster clubs.
13 Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.) Varsity model: Exclusion.Little to no access or opportunity for thelesser skilled adolescents.“Where do I go if I still wantto play competitively?Internationally, the focus is onbroad-based programming foranyone (See Box 6.7)
14 Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.) Injuries.Centers for Disease Control (2006) study:(Across 9 sports & 425 High Schools)2, injuries.doctor visits.hospitalizations.Injury rate higher during games.Sprains, contusions, fractures,concussion are most common.
15 Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.) Injuries.Centers for Disease Control (2006) study:(Across 9 sports & 425 High Schools)Highest rate of injuries: Football, Wrestling,Soccer, & Girls’ Basketball.Sprains, contusions, fractures,concussion are most common.Lower number of injuries likely a resultof better equipment and conditioning.
16 Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.) Eligibility & pass-to-play rules.Students must meet eligibility standards to play,incl. pass-to-play criterion.Is Sport an extra-curricular activity, a privilege? . . .Or is it of basic educational importance for all?
17 Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.) Performance enhancing supplements.Increased media attention to use of dietarysupplements and steroids in professional sportand High Schools.Their health risks are documented for bothadolescents and adults.Random drug testing is nowmore common in High schools.
18 Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.) Performance enhancing supplements(Cont’d.).What the ethical obligations ofthose overseeing the sport andits athletes (i.e., coaches,athletic trainers, & parents)relative to such supplements?
19 Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.) Coaching Issues.Teacher-Coach role conflict: Balancing thedemands of both, each with different rewards.With schools being the venue, it follows thatcoaches would be teachers at the school . . .Not so Many are not directlyaffiliated with the school, and notrequired to be certified teachers.
20 Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.) Coaching Issues (Cont’d.).Coaches are paid using supplementarycontracts, that reflect a very low“hourly wage.”Never-ending dilemma in hiring:Are you hired to teach first and alsocoach or vice versa?
21 Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.) Funding: Pay-to-play / Booster Clubs.Pressures placed on HS athletes (andcoaches!) by parents, schooladministrators, and booster clubmembers can be enormous (see Box 6.8).If funding for HS athletics is dependent onfundraising by booster clubs, it addsadditional pressure.
22 Interscholastic Sport (Cont’d.) Pay-to-play ($2P) PlansThough ruled as discriminatory) againstthose who can least afford it, $2P plansare more common than ever.If not managed by the school district, it is theBooster club that oversees this program.It goes against court efforts to equalize fundingfor education.
23 Has become BIG BUSINESS for Universities (notably in Division I) Intercollegiate SportHas become BIG BUSINESS forUniversities (notably in Division I)
24 Intercollegiate Sport (Cont’d.) Problems may differ between DivisionI and III schools.Main problems:Recruiting violations and pressures.Drugs used to enhance performance.Economic disparities among top powers.Economic pressures to win.Treatment of athletes at the University.
25 Intercollegiate Sport (Cont’d.) Recruiting violations and pressures.Competition for talented athletes amongUniversities is not always fair.Violations often occur by way of alumni and“friends” exerting influence on athletes,coaches, and the University (e.g., gifts, cash, cars).
26 Intercollegiate Sport (Cont’d.) Drugs used to enhance performance.Increased size, weight, and speed amongathletes is the result of:Improved training and conditioning &Performance enhancing drug use
27 Intercollegiate Sport Drugs that enhance performance.Drug testing among Univ. athletes is a complexissue relative to the “right to privacy”, and itsconstitutionality (i.e., 4th Amendment).At what point is it considered a “reasonablesearch?What if your belongings were searched?
29 Intercollegiate Sport (Cont’d.) $$$ flows disproportionately to a selectfew programs.Main problems:“The rich get richer.”Aids in recruitment of new athletes.May lead to cheating in less-establishedprograms (absence of an equalizing draftsystem).
30 Intercollegiate Sport (Cont’d.) Economic pressures to win.Main problems:Large investments in facilities oftenproduce large deficits.Donors & alumni contributions.Also will encouragecheating.
31 Intercollegiate Sport (Cont’d.) Treatment of athletes at the University.Main problems:Exploiting of athletes.Poor “quality of life” (e.g., chronic fatigue, pooracademic performance, low graduation rates, injuries).
32 Equity Issues in Sport Women’s issues Inequity still lingers, but progress has beenmade.Title IX >> increasedparticipation amongfemales, across all levels.Overt vs. subtlediscrimination ?
33 Equity Issues in Sport (Cont’d.) Women’s issues (cont’d.)Coaching and leadership positions stillmostly filled by males today.Supreme court decisions have suppressedupward mobility of females inCollege sport.Females coaches, AD’s,and officials remain aminority (e.g. Motley & Lavine, 2001; Pastore, 1994).
34 Equity Issues in Sport (Cont’d.) Women’s issues (cont’d.)Breaking the stereotypes:Increased participation by girls in contact& strength sports.VS.
35 Equity Issues in Sport (Cont’d.) Women’s issues (cont’d.)Further advancing the status of women willrequire constant advocacy by all professionalsin Physical Education and Sport . . .. . . as 19th Century views stilllinger!
36 Which Sports still have few minority participants? Equity Issues in Sport (Cont’d.)Minority issues:1947: Jackie Robinson drafted by theBrooklyn Dodgers (MLB).Full racial integration for athletes onlyoccurred after court rulings (60s – 70s).Which Sports still have few minority participants?
37 Minority Issues (Cont’d.) Hires in leadership positions in bothcollegiate and pro Sportremain sparse (e.g., Lapchick, 2007).
38 Minority Issues (Cont’d.) Those in economically disadvantagedcommunities have less access andfewer opportunities for PA(. . . Despite evidence of its benefits!).How are problems of inequity inSport intertwined with society’sstructural inequities?
39 How would you describe the structure of the U.S. Sport System? Sport SystemsHow would you describe the structure of the U.S. Sport System?Levels of participation?Government involvement/regulation?Funding?Prevalence of Club Sport?Certification of Sport coaches?
40 What are (or should be) the goals of a Sport System? Alternative Goals for Sport SystemsWhat are (or should be) the goals of a Sport System?Direction of funding?Government funding of Olympic-calibertalents?Increase opportunities, better coaching forALL non-elite participants?Role of the private sector?
41 Sport in PerspectiveDespite its many problems Sport has enormous potential to influence youth and adults positively.An experience to be enjoyed . . .Sport is not a cure-all . . .Many organizations work hard to make it a positive, educational and fun experience.
42 Discussion QuestionsDo eligibility rules for sport participation in schools discriminate against less talented students?
43 Discussion Questions How early should athletes specialize? What are the benefits and problems of specialization at the high-school levels?
44 Discussion QuestionsIf you were making policy for the NCAA, what policies would you suggest for a) drug abuse, b) recruiting violations, and c) academic progress of athletes?