Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Problems and Issues in Sport Chapter 6 Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Problems and Issues in Sport Chapter 6 Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport."— Presentation transcript:

1 Problems and Issues in Sport Chapter 6 Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport

2 2 Sport Injuries Difficult to determine trends. Acute injuries (e.g., sprains contusions) result in approx. 4,00,000 ER visits per year. Overuse injuries are seen more in younger children (early age specialization likely contributes). New trend: Extreme sport injuries (i.e., higher risks >> increased risk of injury). Difficult to determine trends. Acute injuries (e.g., sprains contusions) result in approx. 4,00,000 ER visits per year. Overuse injuries are seen more in younger children (early age specialization likely contributes). New trend: Extreme sport injuries (i.e., higher risks >> increased risk of injury). Child and Youth Sport Problems (Contd.)

3 3 Sport Injuries (contd.) Duquin (1988): Sado-asceticism.... Trend by adults and coaches to redefine pain as discomfort, and pushing kids to work through the pain. Duquin (1988): Sado-asceticism.... Trend by adults and coaches to redefine pain as discomfort, and pushing kids to work through the pain. Child and Youth Sport Problems (Contd.)

4 4 Youth Sport Coaching Major dilemma: Attracting sufficient numbers of volunteer coaches, but not being able to require much in the form of certification. Improvement is occurring in terms of requiring background checks, providing volunteer workshops, and Code of Ethics. Major dilemma: Attracting sufficient numbers of volunteer coaches, but not being able to require much in the form of certification. Improvement is occurring in terms of requiring background checks, providing volunteer workshops, and Code of Ethics. Child and Youth Sport Problems (Contd.)

5 5 Youth Sport Coaching (Contd.) What little is known empirically, shows that youth sport coaches offer too much criticism, and little positive support. This produced the Coaching Effectiveness Training program (Smoll, 1986). What little is known empirically, shows that youth sport coaches offer too much criticism, and little positive support. This produced the Coaching Effectiveness Training program (Smoll, 1986). Child and Youth Sport Problems (Contd.)

6 6 Youth Sport Coaching (Contd.) Coaching Effectiveness Training program Philosophy: Coaching Effectiveness Training program Philosophy: Child and Youth Sport Problems (Contd.) Winning is an appropriate goal, but not the only one. Losing does not imply failure. Success comes in multiple forms. Success is related to effort as much as it is to outcome. Winning is an appropriate goal, but not the only one. Losing does not imply failure. Success comes in multiple forms. Success is related to effort as much as it is to outcome.

7 7 Impact of Sport on Family Life Sport directly alters family life patterns Child and Youth Sport Problems (Contd.) Transport kids to games and practices. Fewer, if any, family dinners at home. Increased expenditures on Sport (e.g., camps, club fees, gas, hotels etc.). Transport kids to games and practices. Fewer, if any, family dinners at home. Increased expenditures on Sport (e.g., camps, club fees, gas, hotels etc.).

8 8 Impact of Sport on Family Life Child and Youth Sport Problems (Contd.) Parents can get quite overzealous... Would you want your parents to behave like that? Examples of inappropriate parent behavior? What about the childrens view of their parents? (see also boxes 6.4 & 6.5) What about the childrens view of their parents? (see also boxes 6.4 & 6.5)

9 9 Unequal Access (SES) Opportunity & access to sport is skewed toward middle and upper-middle class children and youth (i.e., programs, facilities, equipment, coaching, etc.). Opportunity & access to sport is skewed toward middle and upper-middle class children and youth (i.e., programs, facilities, equipment, coaching, etc.). Child and Youth Sport Problems (Contd.) What will you do to level this playing field? Those most in need, are least likely to have access. Those most in need, are least likely to have access.

10 10 Trends in Child & Youth Sport (Contd.) Child and Youth Sport Problems (Contd.)... BUT, much remains to be done: Declines in public funding. Increase in private/commercial programs. Programs segregated by SES, race, and/or ethnicity. Less access and opportunity for lower- SES children. Children exploring other (less adult- dominated) activities. Declines in public funding. Increase in private/commercial programs. Programs segregated by SES, race, and/or ethnicity. Less access and opportunity for lower- SES children. Children exploring other (less adult- dominated) activities.

11 11 Unique to U.S. society. Interscholastic Sport Scope of programs depends on school size and funding. Scope of programs depends on school size and funding. Often a strong binding force in especially smaller rural communities (See also Box 6.6) Often a strong binding force in especially smaller rural communities (See also Box 6.6)

12 12 It does carry its own problem... Interscholastic Sport (Contd.) Exclusion in the varsity model. Youth & interscholastic sport injuries. Eligibility and pass-to-play rules. Specialization. Performance enhancing supplements. Coaching issues. Funding: Pay-to-play / Booster clubs. Exclusion in the varsity model. Youth & interscholastic sport injuries. Eligibility and pass-to-play rules. Specialization. Performance enhancing supplements. Coaching issues. Funding: Pay-to-play / Booster clubs.

13 13 Varsity model: Exclusion. Interscholastic Sport (Contd.) Little to no access or opportunity for the lesser skilled adolescents. Where do I go if I still want to play competitively? Internationally, the focus is on broad-based programming for anyone.... (See Box 6.7) Little to no access or opportunity for the lesser skilled adolescents. Where do I go if I still want to play competitively? Internationally, the focus is on broad-based programming for anyone.... (See Box 6.7)

14 14 Injuries. Interscholastic Sport (Contd.) Centers for Disease Control (2006) study: 2, injuries doctor visits hospitalizations. Injury rate higher during games. Sprains, contusions, fractures, concussion are most common. 2, injuries doctor visits hospitalizations. Injury rate higher during games. Sprains, contusions, fractures, concussion are most common. (Across 9 sports & 425 High Schools)

15 15 Injuries. Interscholastic Sport (Contd.) Centers for Disease Control (2006) study: Highest rate of injuries: Football, Wrestling, Soccer, & Girls Basketball. Sprains, contusions, fractures, concussion are most common. Highest rate of injuries: Football, Wrestling, Soccer, & Girls Basketball. Sprains, contusions, fractures, concussion are most common. (Across 9 sports & 425 High Schools) Lower number of injuries likely a result of better equipment and conditioning. Lower number of injuries likely a result of better equipment and conditioning.

16 16 Eligibility & pass-to-play rules. Interscholastic Sport (Contd.) Students must meet eligibility standards to play, incl. pass-to-play criterion. Students must meet eligibility standards to play, incl. pass-to-play criterion. Is Sport an extra-curricular activity, a privilege?... Or is it of basic educational importance for all? Is Sport an extra-curricular activity, a privilege?... Or is it of basic educational importance for all?

17 17 Performance enhancing supplements. Interscholastic Sport (Contd.) Increased media attention to use of dietary supplements and steroids in professional sport and High Schools. Increased media attention to use of dietary supplements and steroids in professional sport and High Schools. Their health risks are documented for both adolescents and adults. Their health risks are documented for both adolescents and adults. Random drug testing is now more common in High schools. Random drug testing is now more common in High schools.

18 18 Performance enhancing supplements (Contd.). Performance enhancing supplements (Contd.). Interscholastic Sport (Contd.) What the ethical obligations of those overseeing the sport and its athletes (i.e., coaches, athletic trainers, & parents) relative to such supplements? What the ethical obligations of those overseeing the sport and its athletes (i.e., coaches, athletic trainers, & parents) relative to such supplements?

19 19 Coaching Issues. Interscholastic Sport (Contd.) Teacher-Coach role conflict: Balancing the demands of both, each with different rewards. Teacher-Coach role conflict: Balancing the demands of both, each with different rewards. With schools being the venue, it follows that coaches would be teachers at the school... With schools being the venue, it follows that coaches would be teachers at the school... Not so... Many are not directly affiliated with the school, and not required to be certified teachers. Not so... Many are not directly affiliated with the school, and not required to be certified teachers.

20 20 Coaching Issues (Contd.). Interscholastic Sport (Contd.) Coaches are paid using supplementary contracts, that reflect a very low hourly wage. Coaches are paid using supplementary contracts, that reflect a very low hourly wage. Never-ending dilemma in hiring: Are you hired to teach first and also coach or vice versa? Never-ending dilemma in hiring: Are you hired to teach first and also coach or vice versa?

21 21 Funding: Pay-to-play / Booster Clubs. Interscholastic Sport (Contd.) Pressures placed on HS athletes (and coaches!) by parents, school administrators, and booster club members can be enormous (see Box 6.8). Pressures placed on HS athletes (and coaches!) by parents, school administrators, and booster club members can be enormous (see Box 6.8). If funding for HS athletics is dependent on fundraising by booster clubs, it adds additional pressure. If funding for HS athletics is dependent on fundraising by booster clubs, it adds additional pressure.

22 22 Pay-to-play ($2P) Plans Interscholastic Sport (Contd.) Though ruled as discriminatory) against those who can least afford it, $2P plans are more common than ever. Though ruled as discriminatory) against those who can least afford it, $2P plans are more common than ever. If not managed by the school district, it is the Booster club that oversees this program. If not managed by the school district, it is the Booster club that oversees this program. It goes against court efforts to equalize funding for education. It goes against court efforts to equalize funding for education.

23 23 Has become BIG BUSINESS for Universities (notably in Division I) Has become BIG BUSINESS for Universities (notably in Division I) Intercollegiate Sport

24 24 Intercollegiate Sport (Contd.) Main problems: Problems may differ between Division I and III schools. Problems may differ between Division I and III schools. Recruiting violations and pressures. Drugs used to enhance performance. Economic disparities among top powers. Economic pressures to win. Treatment of athletes at the University. Recruiting violations and pressures. Drugs used to enhance performance. Economic disparities among top powers. Economic pressures to win. Treatment of athletes at the University.

25 25 Competition for talented athletes among Universities is not always fair. Competition for talented athletes among Universities is not always fair. Recruiting violations and pressures. Violations often occur by way of alumni and friends exerting influence on athletes, coaches, and the University (e.g., gifts, cash, cars). Violations often occur by way of alumni and friends exerting influence on athletes, coaches, and the University (e.g., gifts, cash, cars). Intercollegiate Sport (Contd.)

26 26 Increased size, weight, and speed among athletes is the result of: Increased size, weight, and speed among athletes is the result of: Drugs used to enhance performance. Improved training and conditioning... & Intercollegiate Sport (Contd.) Performance enhancing drug use

27 27 Drug testing among Univ. athletes is a complex issue relative to the right to privacy, and its constitutionality (i.e., 4 th Amendment). Drug testing among Univ. athletes is a complex issue relative to the right to privacy, and its constitutionality (i.e., 4 th Amendment). Drugs that enhance performance. Intercollegiate Sport At what point is it considered a reasonable search? What if your belongings were searched? At what point is it considered a reasonable search? What if your belongings were searched?

28 Illegal Creatine Creatine Blood doping Blood doping Steroids Steroids Diuretics Diuretics Stimulants Stimulants 28

29 29 Main problems: $$$ flows disproportionately to a select few programs. $$$ flows disproportionately to a select few programs. The rich get richer. Aids in recruitment of new athletes. May lead to cheating in less-established programs (absence of an equalizing draft system). The rich get richer. Aids in recruitment of new athletes. May lead to cheating in less-established programs (absence of an equalizing draft system). Intercollegiate Sport (Contd.)

30 30 Main problems: Economic pressures to win. Large investments in facilities often produce large deficits. Donors & alumni contributions. Also will encourage cheating. Large investments in facilities often produce large deficits. Donors & alumni contributions. Also will encourage cheating. Intercollegiate Sport (Contd.)

31 31 Main problems: Treatment of athletes at the University. Exploiting of athletes. Poor quality of life (e.g., chronic fatigue, poor academic performance, low graduation rates, injuries). Exploiting of athletes. Poor quality of life (e.g., chronic fatigue, poor academic performance, low graduation rates, injuries). Intercollegiate Sport (Contd.)

32 32 Inequity still lingers, but progress has been made. Inequity still lingers, but progress has been made. Womens issues Equity Issues in Sport Title IX >> increased participation among females, across all levels. Title IX >> increased participation among females, across all levels. Overt vs. subtle discrimination... ? Overt vs. subtle discrimination... ?

33 33 Supreme court decisions have suppressed upward mobility of females in College sport. Supreme court decisions have suppressed upward mobility of females in College sport. Womens issues (contd.) Equity Issues in Sport (Contd.) Females coaches, ADs, and officials remain a minority (e.g. Motley & Lavine, 2001; Pastore, 1994). Females coaches, ADs, and officials remain a minority (e.g. Motley & Lavine, 2001; Pastore, 1994). Coaching and leadership positions still mostly filled by males today. Coaching and leadership positions still mostly filled by males today.

34 34 Increased participation by girls in contact & strength sports. Increased participation by girls in contact & strength sports. Equity Issues in Sport (Contd.) VS. Womens issues (contd.) Breaking the stereotypes:

35 35 Further advancing the status of women will require constant advocacy by all professionals in Physical Education and Sport as 19 th Century views still linger! Further advancing the status of women will require constant advocacy by all professionals in Physical Education and Sport as 19 th Century views still linger! Equity Issues in Sport (Contd.) Womens issues (contd.)

36 36 Minority issues: Which Sports still have few minority participants? Equity Issues in Sport (Contd.) 1947: Jackie Robinson drafted by the Brooklyn Dodgers (MLB). Full racial integration for athletes only occurred after court rulings (60s – 70s).

37 37 Minority issues (contd.) Minority Issues (Contd.) Hires in leadership positions in both collegiate and pro Sport remain sparse (e.g., Lapchick, 2007).

38 38 Minority Issues (Contd.) How are problems of inequity in Sport intertwined with societys structural inequities? How are problems of inequity in Sport intertwined with societys structural inequities? Minority issues (contd.) Those in economically disadvantaged communities have less access and fewer opportunities for PA (... Despite evidence of its benefits!).

39 39 Sport Systems How would you describe the structure of the U.S. Sport System? Levels of participation? Government involvement/regulation? Funding? Prevalence of Club Sport? Certification of Sport coaches? Levels of participation? Government involvement/regulation? Funding? Prevalence of Club Sport? Certification of Sport coaches?

40 40 Alternative Goals for Sport Systems What are (or should be) the goals of a Sport System? Direction of funding? Government funding of Olympic-caliber talents? Increase opportunities, better coaching for ALL non-elite participants? Role of the private sector? Direction of funding? Government funding of Olympic-caliber talents? Increase opportunities, better coaching for ALL non-elite participants? Role of the private sector?

41 41 Sport in Perspective Despite its many problems... Sport has enormous potential to influence youth and adults positively. An experience to be enjoyed... Sport is not a cure-all... Many organizations work hard to make it a positive, educational and fun experience. An experience to be enjoyed... Sport is not a cure-all... Many organizations work hard to make it a positive, educational and fun experience.

42 42 Discussion Questions 4. Do eligibility rules for sport participation in schools discriminate against less talented students?

43 43 Discussion Questions 5. How early should athletes specialize? What are the benefits and problems of specialization at the high-school levels? 5. How early should athletes specialize? What are the benefits and problems of specialization at the high-school levels?

44 44 Discussion Questions 6. If you were making policy for the NCAA, what policies would you suggest for a) drug abuse, b) recruiting violations, and c) academic progress of athletes?


Download ppt "Problems and Issues in Sport Chapter 6 Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google