Presentation on theme: "9/12/2013 Traumatic brain injury and athletes: A Clinical Sport Psychological Perspective Kendra Ogletree Cusaac, Ph.D. Licensed Clinical Psychologist."— Presentation transcript:
19/12/2013Traumatic brain injury and athletes: A Clinical Sport Psychological PerspectiveKendra Ogletree Cusaac, Ph.D.Licensed Clinical PsychologistSport PsychologistUniversity of South Carolina
2OBJECTIVESTo understand the context of sport, TBI, and its importance in sportTo understand the psychological, emotional, and cognitive consequences of TBI on athletes and sport environmentTo understand the role of the clinical sport psychologist and other sport medicine personnel
3NFL to spend $765M to settle concussion lawsuits 9/12/2013NFL to spend $765M to settle concussion lawsuits
4A little history…. “No evidence” of concussions’ impact 1990s 9/12/2013A little history….“No evidence” of concussions’ impact1990sNew commissioner and increasing pressure2006Funding for research, major rule changes, new committee2009
5Sport CULTURE perspective Expectations of athletesHow concussions are perceivedWhich sports are most at risk?Developmental issues
6prevalenceThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 200,000 sports-related head injuries are treated in emergency departments annually within the United States and that sports related concussions accounts for approximately 20% of all TBIs per year.
7Boxing #1 sport FOR Mtbi incidence "Punch drunk" syndrome 1928"dementia pugilistica"1984Chronic Traumatic Encephelopathy(CTE)2000s
8PREVALENCEA history of concussion among athletes varies by sport (from highest upper estimates to lowest):Equestrian (3%-91%)Boxing (1%-70%)Rugby (2%-25%)Soccer (4%-22%)American football (2%-20%)
9Developmental issues TBI: Athletes vs. Nonathletes Concussions occur at all levels of playYoung athletes (under 18 years old) vs. older athletes (over 18 years old)Male athletes vs. female athletesNCAAMultiple ConcussionsSecond Impact SyndromeKROLL’S PERSONALITY PERFORMANCE PYRAMIDELITEOLYMPICNATIONALCOLLEGIATESCHOLASTICENTRANCE
10Multiple concussionsAthletes who have previously sustained a concussion are more than two times likely to sustain a second concussion and may be more likely to experience a greater number and perceived severity of post concussive symptoms.
119/12/2013Effects of Tbi360&locale=en_US&o=15527&chn=retail&ver=20&tpr=10Jim McMahon 10 minutes
12SIGNS OF TBI Signs are behaviors/events that are observable by others: Loss of consciousnessA dazed or vacant lookMotor incoordination/balance problemsOn-field confusion/disorientation
13PSYCHOLOGICAL/EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS OF TBISOMATICCOGNITIVEPSYCHOLOGICAL/EMOTIONALSLEEP DISTURBANCE
14Somatic symptoms OF TBI HeadacheNausea/vomitingBalance problemsDizzinessFuzzy/blurry visionLow energy/fatigueLight/noise sensitivity
15COGNITIVE SYMPTOMS OF TBI Memory DysfunctionAttention ProblemsMental “fogginess”Cognitive slowingFatigue
16Psychological/EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS OF TBI More emotionalSadnessAnxietyIrritabilityNegative/pessimistic attitudePersonality changes
17Sleep and other disturbances Difficulty falling asleepSleeping more/less than usualSexual disorders and problemsLoss of interest in sexRelationship difficultiesSubstance use and abuse
18ATHLETES VS. NONATHLETES AND TBI MotivationReturn to play pressures and desiresUnderreporting of symptoms/symptom minimization
19Assessment and management of tbi Acute evaluation on the fieldSideline or locker room evaluationFormal postacute neurocognitive assessmentGraded progression of physical exertionUnrestricted return to play
20Emotional sequelae of tbi in athletes The research reports on short- term emotional distress following concussion reveal transient depression, feelings of fatigue and reduced energy levels, confusion, and overall mood disturbance.DepressionPerceived FatigueAnxietyConfusion
21Psychologists’ responsibilities To educate athletes, their families, coaches, physicians, athletic trainers, and policy makers to recognize and appropriately manage this complex injury. In doing so, we will more effectively enhance player safety and prevent disabling symptoms.
22prevention Equipment New prototype helmets Rule changes Penalties and finesOn the field evaluationReturn to playSuccessive head traumaEducation: Athletes, Coaches, Parents