Presentation on theme: "Sport, social identities and differences sport race and racism leisure, social problems and social divisions, women, youth, work etc. sport gender and."— Presentation transcript:
Sport, social identities and differences sport race and racism leisure, social problems and social divisions, women, youth, work etc. sport gender and sexism
Introduction Sport was created and is still largely dominated by white men. Many popular sports today have been in existence and played for over a century but the ideology of the traditional sportsman still exists. This presentation looks at how, multiple disadvantages combine to restrict different social groups from becoming professional competitors in sports today.
Sport,race and racism Vince Hilaire, footballer I was pushed into certain sports at school like athletics. The teachers naturally thought because your black, you must have some sort of athletic ability in you; but I didnt even want to do athletics at all.
Role Models… Realistic or dangerous fantasies… Sport thrives of the ambition of millions of wannabes. Olsen 1986 At most sport has led a few thousand African Americans out of the Ghetto but for hundreds of thousands it has substituted a meaningless dream.
Statistics % of population Involvement in sport USA (African American) % of NBA professionals UK (Afro Caribbean) 31 in 5 professional footballers Adapted from Cashmore, E (2005) Black sportsman.
Racism in football Gambian Goal keeper Pa Dembo Touray if you throw a banana at me, Im going to eat it Mario Balotelli, Italian striker who is an Italian citizen has become a target of racial abuse wherever he plays.
WOMEN – social differences and problems FEMINISTS: Looked at the area of sport Different kinds of leisure activities – not usually sport Recreationally disadvantaged Socially and geographically deprived
WOMEN – social differences and problems FEMINISTS: Challenge the idea that social class is important when looking at the access to and participation in leisure. Gender and race as important. Regardless of their income and resources all women are constrained by their position of in society.
WOMEN – social differences and problems Social policy example: Sports council campaign to promote womens participation in sports Gender and social class provide the central structuring for the division of labour in a patriarchal society and operates in constraining women against playing sport.
WOMEN – social differences and problems LEISURE FOR SHEFFIELD WOMEN Findings : womens access to free time and leisure opportunities are structured by social class and income levels, age and ethnic group, work and their domestic situation.
WOMEN – social differences and problems Conclusion Women are generally more financially poorer than men, and are more likely to be dependent Womens leisure is a low priority in household budgets Women are expected to choose their leisure time orientated around the family and being socially acceptable
Sport, Gender and Sexism Traditional notions about women and sport: Victorian ideal of women rejected them being involved in the majority of sports. Sport is physically demanding and women are not capable of exerting themselves strenuously. Men should participate in sport with female applause as reward (Pierre de Coubertin)
Womens Olympic Participation Influence of Pierre de Coubertin - Founder of International Olympic Committee and considered the founder of the modern Olympic Games - Female participation should be prohibited from the Olympics Women included in 1900 Olympic Games
World War Period Fragile image of women was challenged Women forced into areas of work traditionally occupied by men The gap in sport left by men away from home was filled by women
Post-War Sexism and Feminism Womens liberation feminism - K. V. Switzer - Billie-Jean King Idea of inferiority of women within sports spheres challenged Stereotypes of top female athletes and sports personalities
Consumerism and female athletes as sex-symbols Women as sex-symbols - Suzanne Lenglan and Esther Williams Female athleticism Sport shifted from a form of competition to entertainment and hence a consumable commodity
Conclusion Even though society has changed dramatically over the past century, it seems that the values and stereotypes that were around when professional sport started are still in effect today. However the image of sports personalities from different social identities is slowly changing with many notable efforts being made to challenge the divisions that are still existent in sports today.
Questions. It is clear that certain groups in society are still excluded in modern day sports. What are the key issues that maintain these disadvantages in sports today? Although there has been a recent increase in sport policy change (e.g. Kick racism out of football.) what further measures do you think could be brought in to create more equality in sports?