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Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Psychological and Social influences of the dropout vs. sport.

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Presentation on theme: "Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Psychological and Social influences of the dropout vs. sport."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Psychological and Social influences of the dropout vs. sport commitment : the example of the female handballers Philippe Sarrazin & Emma Guillet Laboratoire dEtudes et Recherches sur lOffre Sportive J. Fourier University, Grenoble.

2 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Research Question Massive passion for the sport which one could observe these last years masks a paradox: a massive number of teenagers, particularly girls, drops out from sport every year (Sallis & Patrick, 1996). Why do some people develop strong commitment to continue their sport activity, while others drops out from sport every year ?

3 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Motivation... a key variable to look at when attempting to predict sport participation or withdrawal. Various motivational theories can be useful with respect to the study of sport dropout (see Gould, 1987; Weiss & Chaumeton, 1992; Guillet, Sarrazin & Cury, in press). Various motivational theories can be useful with respect to the study of sport dropout (see Gould, 1987; Weiss & Chaumeton, 1992; Guillet, Sarrazin & Cury, in press).

4 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Three levels of analysis of the social influences and the implied psychological processes: a targeted (micro) prospect on a privileged social actor, for example the coach. a targeted (micro) prospect on a privileged social actor, for example the coach. an " average (meso) " prospect which is interested to isolate several classes of factors to explain the sport commitment. an " average (meso) " prospect which is interested to isolate several classes of factors to explain the sport commitment. a broad prospect on a "cultural (macro)" level which apprehends influence of the gender role a broad prospect on a "cultural (macro)" level which apprehends influence of the gender role

5 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, Social influences from the micro point of view: context of the coach Coaches s behavior establish a « motivational climate » (Ames, 1992) which can have an important impact on athletes motivation. Coaches s behavior establish a « motivational climate » (Ames, 1992) which can have an important impact on athletes motivation. The Hierarchical Model of Vallerand (1997) seems particularly well suited to study the influence of the coach. The Hierarchical Model of Vallerand (1997) seems particularly well suited to study the influence of the coach.

6 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 The Hierarchical model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (Vallerand, 1997) Type of Motivation more or less self-determined Social factors : coachs behavior Consequences persistence dropout,... Psychological mediators : - perceived competence - perceived autonomy - perceived relatedness +

7 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Social influences from the micro point of view: context of the coach Sarrazin, Vallerand, Guillet, Pelletier, & Cury (submitted) Sarrazin, Vallerand, Guillet, Pelletier, & Cury (submitted) 335 female handballers between the ages of years 335 female handballers between the ages of years Prospective study over 21 months Prospective study over 21 months Measures at the middle of one season Measures at the middle of one season Sport Motivation Scale Sport Motivation Scale (Brière et al., 1995; Pelletier et al., 1995) Task- or Ego-involving climate of the coach Task- or Ego-involving climate of the coach (PMCSQ, Biddle et al., 1995; Cury et al., 1996) Motivational mediators Motivational mediators Future sport intentions Future sport intentions (Ajzen & Driver, 1992)

8 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Results (79)=204, p <.001 GFI =.99 CFI =.99 NFI =.99 RMSR =.08 TaskInvCl1TaskInvCl PercRELAT1PercRELAT SDmotiv1SDmotiv BehInt1BehInt PercAUTO1PercAUTO PercCOMP1PercCOMP2 EgoInvCl1 EgoInvCl (56)=68.61, p >.10 GFI = 1.00 CFI = 1.00 NFI = 1.00 RMSR =.04 Ego involving climate Task involving climate Perceived Relatedness Self- determined motivation R 2 =.78 Behavior dropout 21 months later R 2 =.31 Perceived Competence Perceived Autonomy Behavioral intention R 2 =.62

9 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, Social influences in a meso-prospect: the sport commitment model Commitment : a variable used by social psychologist to describe a set of factors that can explain why people stay in relationships or continue involvement in activities (e.g., Homans, 1961; Kelley, 1983; Rusbult & Farrell, 1983). Commitment : a variable used by social psychologist to describe a set of factors that can explain why people stay in relationships or continue involvement in activities (e.g., Homans, 1961; Kelley, 1983; Rusbult & Farrell, 1983). Scanlan and her colleagues (e.g., Carpenter, & Coleman, 1998; Scanlan, Carpenter, Schmidt, Simons & Keeler, 1993) modified Rusbult's model to examine sport commitment. Scanlan and her colleagues (e.g., Carpenter, & Coleman, 1998; Scanlan, Carpenter, Schmidt, Simons & Keeler, 1993) modified Rusbult's model to examine sport commitment.

10 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 The Sport Commitment Model Sport Commitment desire and resolve to continue sport participation Attractiveness of the most preferred alternatives available to a person - Cost / benefit ratio of the involvement anticipated positive and negative, material and psychological consequences + Personal Investments : resources that are put into the activity which cannot recovered if participation is discontinued + Social constraints : social expectations which create feelings of obligation to remain in the activity ?

11 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Social influences in a meso-prospect: the sport commitment model Guillet, Sarrazin, Trouilloud, & Cury () Guillet, Sarrazin, Trouilloud, & Cury (manuscript in preparation) 253 female handballers between the ages of years 253 female handballers between the ages of years Prospective study over 8 months Prospective study over 8 months Measures at the middle of one season Measures at the middle of one season Commitment Commitment Investments : number of years of practice Investments : number of years of practice Social constraints (e. g., I feel I have to play handball to please people important for me (my coach, my parents) Social constraints (e. g., I feel I have to play handball to please people important for me (my coach, my parents) Involvement alternatives Involvement alternatives Cost / benefice ratio : perceived competence, progress, affiliation, autonomy, coach's support, time of play. Cost / benefice ratio : perceived competence, progress, affiliation, autonomy, coach's support, time of play.

12 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Results Personal Investments Cost / benefit ratio of the involvement Behavior dropout 8 months later R 2 =.50 Social constraints alternatives Commitment R 2 = ns (66)=150, p >.15 GFI =.98 CFI =.98 NFI =.97 RMSR =.09 Competence Progress Affiliation Autonomy Coachs support Time of play Alt. 2 Alt. 1 SC 1 PI 1 Com 1Com 2 2 (54)=114, p >.15 GFI =.98 CFI =.98 NFI =.97 RMSR =.07

13 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, Social influences in a macro-prospect: conformity with the gender roles Sport remains one of those life areas which are clearly divided in the mens and womens worlds: there are appropriate sports for men and others for women (Salminen, 1990; Koivula, 1995) Sport remains one of those life areas which are clearly divided in the mens and womens worlds: there are appropriate sports for men and others for women (Salminen, 1990; Koivula, 1995) One of the explanations of the differences between boys and girls sport participation and commitment came from the socialization of gender-role (e.g., Eccles & Harold, 1991). One of the explanations of the differences between boys and girls sport participation and commitment came from the socialization of gender-role (e.g., Eccles & Harold, 1991).

14 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Social influences in a macro-prospect: conformity with the gender roles This socialization could lead the individuals to drop out a sport activity according to its conformity with their genders stereotypes. This socialization could lead the individuals to drop out a sport activity according to its conformity with their genders stereotypes. This phenomenon seems particularly salient among girls and boys who strongly wish to conform to their gender-role (i.e., sex-typed men and women) (Bem & Lenney, 1976; Koivula, 1995; Matteo, 1988). This phenomenon seems particularly salient among girls and boys who strongly wish to conform to their gender-role (i.e., sex-typed men and women) (Bem & Lenney, 1976; Koivula, 1995; Matteo, 1988). Females who want to be feminine should be less likely to continue sports sex-typed as male (e.g., handball). Females who want to be feminine should be less likely to continue sports sex-typed as male (e.g., handball).

15 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Social influences in a macro-prospect: conformity with the gender roles Guillet, Sarrazin, & Fontayne (manuscript in preparation) Guillet, Sarrazin, & Fontayne (manuscript in preparation) 336 female handballers between the ages of years 336 female handballers between the ages of years Longitudinal study over 30 months Longitudinal study over 30 months Measures at the middle of one season Measures at the middle of one season Sex-Role (BSRI; Fontayne, Sarrazin & Famose, in press) 4 gender identity groups (i.e., Feminine, Masculine, Androgynous, and undifferentiated subjects). Sex-Role (BSRI; Fontayne, Sarrazin & Famose, in press) 4 gender identity groups (i.e., Feminine, Masculine, Androgynous, and undifferentiated subjects). At each beginning of season, subjects were contacted by mail or telephone to know their statute (i.e., taking part vs. dropout). At each beginning of season, subjects were contacted by mail or telephone to know their statute (i.e., taking part vs. dropout).

16 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Results of survival analysis 2 (3) = 12.12, p <.001

17 Sarrazin & Guillet, International Conference of the French Society of Sport Psychology, 2000 Conclusion The sport dropout is a complex phenomenon. A more complete comprehension of the phenomenon requires the crossing of several theoretical models. The sport dropout is a complex phenomenon. A more complete comprehension of the phenomenon requires the crossing of several theoretical models. The stake is serious: to stop a phenomenon which in the long term could prove to be alarming on the level of the public health. The stake is serious: to stop a phenomenon which in the long term could prove to be alarming on the level of the public health.


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