Presentation on theme: "Sport as a Social Institution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sport as a Social Institution What’s a sport?Should chess or a game of dice be considered a sport?Could sport be considered a social institution like family or school?Why is competition such a big part of sport today? Are all forms of competition the same?
2 SportSport, according to Sociologists and Anthropologists, must meet 3 necessary conditions:Competitive games,Won or Lost on the basis of physical skills, and….Played according to specific rules
3 Sport as Competition 3 Types of Competition: Direct Competition Two individuals or teams engage each other physicallyEx. Baseball, Football, Ice Hockey, Soccer, Tennis, TrackIndirect CompetitionParticipants take turns at the same skillEx. Bowling, Ski Jumping, Field EventsAgainst a StandardIndividuals may compete indirectly, but performances are measured against a preset standardEx. Diving, Figure Skating, Gymnastics
4 ExpositorySelect a physical activity and write a brief explanation on why it is or it is not a sport. Consider the three conditions of sport when writing your essay.
5 History of Sports As old as the existence of people Mastery of skills useful for people to survive their environmentWhat were the basic skills needed for the survival of early human beings?
6 CAVE OF SWIMMERS (Libya) Interest in skills rather than functional tasks of staying alive
7 SKILLS BECOME SPORTSGladiators fought for enjoyment of audience; not defending the empire
8 SKILLS BECOME SPORTSYachting for enjoyment or competition rather than transport or trade
9 Sport as an Institution Social Institution: system of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more basic needs of societyEx. Family, Schools, Educational System, Legal System
10 Sport as a Social Institution Does sport provide something that other institutions like school and religion cannot provide?Does sport create equality or does it generate conflict and division in society?Are there any statuses and roles in the world of sport that are unnecessary? Can you think of any positions or jobs that are not necessary?Are we killing sport when we overanalyze it, or are we improving its condition?
11 Sport as an Institution Characteristics of Sport as Social institutionSecularizationEqualitySpecializationRationalizationQuantification
12 Secularization of Sport Sport moved from the sacred to the profane, through a process called secularizationSacred: supernatural, inspiring awe, respect and reverenceProfane: ordinary world, commonplace and familiar
13 Mesoamerican Ball Game - ōllamaliztli Early Sports - Chichen Itza in Mexico (Maya)
14 Secularization of Sport Tim Tebow StoryNational debate about whether sport is a place for religionWhat is the place that religion occupies today in sports?What is the place that religion occupies today in the world?
15 Equality in SportIn past societies, participation was based on ascribed rather than achieved characteristicsTodayIs competition open to everyone?Do the same rules apply to everyone?Does your school treat athletes of different gender in the same way?Does society treat people of different gender the same way?
16 Equality in Sport – Title IX What is Title IX? What was its original purpose?Do you think schools do a good job in keeping up with Title IX?
17 Specialization Individual concentrates on a single task Better chance of excelling in that task.Results from stress on achievementEx. Specialization in football: owners, managers, doctors, specialized playersSpecialization or Diversification? Which one do you think is better at an early age? Should kids specialize on one sport or try as many as they can when they are young?
18 Specialization or Diversification Specialization or Diversification? Which one do you think is better at an early age?
19 RationalizationEvery feature of human behavior is subject to calculation, measurement, and controlThere is a reason for everythingSport is played according to rules that are periodically modifiedRules are “official” and widely accepted
20 Rationalization“Rationalization is a process of not perceiving reality, but of attempting to make reality fit one’s emotions.”Analyze the quote.In your own words, what does it mean?Do you agree with it?Can you think of any examples that will ratify or debunk this quote?
21 Bureaucratization Bureaucratization Formal organization that develops and enforces rulesSettles disputesOrganizes competitions and keep official recordsIncludes International OrganizationsEx. NBA, NHL, NFL, FIFA
22 Quantification Methods of measurement get more sophisticated Comparison of PlayersQuantifiable ObjectivesQuantity over Quality?