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Sport as a Social Institution

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1 Sport as a Social Institution
What’s a sport? Should chess or a game of dice be considered a sport? Could sport be considered a social institution like family or school? Why is competition such a big part of sport today? Are all forms of competition the same?

2 Sport Sport, according to Sociologists and Anthropologists, must meet 3 necessary conditions: Competitive games, Won or Lost on the basis of physical skills, and…. Played according to specific rules

3 Sport as Competition 3 Types of Competition: Direct Competition
Two individuals or teams engage each other physically Ex. Baseball, Football, Ice Hockey, Soccer, Tennis, Track Indirect Competition Participants take turns at the same skill Ex. Bowling, Ski Jumping, Field Events Against a Standard Individuals may compete indirectly, but performances are measured against a preset standard Ex. Diving, Figure Skating, Gymnastics

4 Expository Select a physical activity and write a brief explanation on why it is or it is not a sport. Consider the three conditions of sport when writing your essay.

5 History of Sports As old as the existence of people
Mastery of skills useful for people to survive their environment What were the basic skills needed for the survival of early human beings?

Interest in skills rather than functional tasks of staying alive

7 SKILLS BECOME SPORTS Gladiators fought for enjoyment of audience; not defending the empire

8 SKILLS BECOME SPORTS Yachting for enjoyment or competition rather than transport or trade

9 Sport as an Institution
Social Institution: system of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more basic needs of society Ex. Family, Schools, Educational System, Legal System

10 Sport as a Social Institution
Does sport provide something that other institutions like school and religion cannot provide? Does sport create equality or does it generate conflict and division in society? Are there any statuses and roles in the world of sport that are unnecessary? Can you think of any positions or jobs that are not necessary? Are we killing sport when we overanalyze it, or are we improving its condition?

11 Sport as an Institution
Characteristics of Sport as Social institution Secularization Equality Specialization Rationalization Quantification

12 Secularization of Sport
Sport moved from the sacred to the profane, through a process called secularization Sacred: supernatural, inspiring awe, respect and reverence Profane: ordinary world, commonplace and familiar

13 Mesoamerican Ball Game - ōllamaliztli
Early Sports - Chichen Itza in Mexico (Maya)

14 Secularization of Sport
Tim Tebow Story National debate about whether sport is a place for religion What is the place that religion occupies today in sports? What is the place that religion occupies today in the world?

15 Equality in Sport In past societies, participation was based on ascribed rather than achieved characteristics Today Is competition open to everyone? Do the same rules apply to everyone? Does your school treat athletes of different gender in the same way? Does society treat people of different gender the same way?

16 Equality in Sport – Title IX
What is Title IX? What was its original purpose? Do you think schools do a good job in keeping up with Title IX?

17 Specialization Individual concentrates on a single task
Better chance of excelling in that task. Results from stress on achievement Ex. Specialization in football: owners, managers, doctors, specialized players Specialization or Diversification? Which one do you think is better at an early age? Should kids specialize on one sport or try as many as they can when they are young?

18 Specialization or Diversification
Specialization or Diversification? Which one do you think is better at an early age?

19 Rationalization Every feature of human behavior is subject to calculation, measurement, and control There is a reason for everything Sport is played according to rules that are periodically modified Rules are “official” and widely accepted

20 Rationalization “Rationalization is a process of not perceiving reality, but of attempting to make reality fit one’s emotions.” Analyze the quote. In your own words, what does it mean? Do you agree with it? Can you think of any examples that will ratify or debunk this quote?

21 Bureaucratization Bureaucratization
Formal organization that develops and enforces rules Settles disputes Organizes competitions and keep official records Includes International Organizations Ex. NBA, NHL, NFL, FIFA

22 Quantification Methods of measurement get more sophisticated
Comparison of Players Quantifiable Objectives Quantity over Quality?

23 PowerPoint 13 – The End

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