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6/3/20141 Optimization of Swimming Performance Emotion- & Action-Centered Approaches Juri Hanin & Muza Hanina Research Institute for.

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Presentation on theme: "6/3/20141 Optimization of Swimming Performance Emotion- & Action-Centered Approaches Juri Hanin & Muza Hanina Research Institute for."— Presentation transcript:

1 6/3/20141 Optimization of Swimming Performance Emotion- & Action-Centered Approaches Juri Hanin & Muza Hanina (juri.hanin@kihu.fi) Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyväskylä, Finland Optimization of Swimming Performance Emotion- & Action-Centered Approaches Juri Hanin & Muza Hanina (juri.hanin@kihu.fi) Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyväskylä, Finland Swimming Coaches Seminar 28.12.2011 Riga, Lavia

2 Исследования и консультирование Спортсмены, тренеры, команды: n1967- 1990 - в России - 4 Oлимпиады n1991- 2011 - в Финляндии - 8 Oлимпиад Основные виды спорта: n: хоккей, футбол, волейбол, гребля nкомандные: хоккей, футбол, волейбол, гребля nиндивидуальные: л/атлетика, плавание. прыжки в воду, cтрельбагольф, sailing, лыжи, фиг-катание, гимнастика, oриентирование, теннис, etc. nиндивидуальные: л/атлетика, плавание. прыжки в воду, cтрельба, bowling, гольф, sailing, лыжи, фиг-катание, гимнастика, oриентирование, теннис, etc.

3 Спортивная психология - тенденции в прошлом Спортивная психология - тенденции в прошлом 1. Акцент на проблемах: стресс-реакции стресс-реакции тревога тревога мертвая точка мертвая точка коррекция недостатков коррекция недостатков 2. Групповые сравнения: акцент на средних, успешных и неуспешных, акцент на средних, успешных и неуспешных, игнорирование внутриинд. динамики игнорирование внутриинд. динамики

4 Спортивная психология сейчас Спортивная психология сейчас 1. Акцент на позитивном: выявление инд. ресурсов (strengths) выявление инд. ресурсов (strengths) использование стресса использование стресса оптимизация деятельности оптимизация деятельности 2. Главный акцент на индивиде: индивидуально лучший уровень индивидуально лучший уровень стабильность и внутри-инд. динамика стабильность и внутри-инд. динамика * Hanin, 2000, 2003

5 Психологическая подготовка - Психологическая подготовка - систематическое использование психологических процессов чтобы влиять на мысли, эмоции, мотивацию, поведение, действия, и общение спортсмена (или команды) в специфическом контексте. * Hanin, 1997 * Hanin, 1997

6 Психологическая подготовка Общая Общая умения и навыки умения и навыки качества качества черты черты Успех в спорте/жизни Общая Общая умения и навыки умения и навыки качества качества черты черты Успех в спорте/жизни Специальная готовность ситуативный успех выполнение задачи Стабильность Специальная готовность ситуативный успех выполнение задачи Стабильность

7 Optimal Performance: 1.Is based on own strengths 2.Uses personal resources effectively 3.Adjustable under different & difficult conditions 4.Provides tools for personal control 5.Helps to avoid trying too much 6.Involves a skill to deal with the unexpected 7.Helps to re-focus when distracted 8.Consistent performance (PB, SB, top 5) 77

8 8 Non-optimal performance in elite sport 1. 1.High performance variability in practices 2. 2.Good performance in practice, not in competition 3. 3.Good performance in a warm-up, not in competition 4. 4. Best results usually in minor competitions 5. 5.Stress-induced instability of technique 6. 6. Lost move syndrome (LMS) (a break-down ) 7. 7.Habitual (learned) performance errors 8. 8.Post-injury impact on skill execution 9. 9.Physical shape (over-development of qualities) 10. 10.Over-loaded by too many changes * Hanin & Hanina, 1999-2010

9 99 Optimization in Sport Emotion - centered Personal meaning Personal meaning Optimal goal setting Optimal goal setting Right focus Right focus Optimal energy level Optimal energy level Avoiding dysfunction Avoiding dysfunction Action - centered Action - centered Identify ind. optimal skill Identify ind. optimal skill Build up a skill chain Build up a skill chain Enhance awareness Enhance awareness Standardize skill in practice Standardize skill in practice Develop competition model Develop competition model Optimal state Optimal skill

10 10 Psychology in elite sport 4. Consistent excellence 4. Consistent excellence 3. Peak performance (winning) 3. Peak performance (winning) 2. Competing effectively (stress-free) Hanin, 1994, 2002 1. High quality practices (hard & smart)

11 11 Consistent Excellence Emotions Coping skills Personality Environment *Hanin, 2006

12 12 Myths about emotion in elite sport Negative emotions are always bad Positive emotions are always good Thus: more positive + less negative * Hanin, 1995 Positive emotions Well-being Negative emotions Ill-being P & N emotions Performance

13 13 Emotion-centered Coping To prevent overreaction to competitve stress To prevent overreaction to competitve stress To reinforce situational success To reinforce situational success To deal with unexpected distractions To deal with unexpected distractions To get psyched up & mobilized To get psyched up & mobilized To calm down after unexpected success To calm down after unexpected success To calm down after situational failure To calm down after situational failure To deal with potential problems To deal with potential problems

14 1414 I want I can I must Emotional State Task Execution Emotion Control Action Control Resources-based appraisals Outcomes

15 15 Pleasant helpful optimal facilitating Unpleasant helpful optimal facilitating Pleasant harmful dysfunctional debilitating Unpleasant harmful dysfunctional debilitating SuccessFailure Pleasure Displeasure P+ N+ P- N- * Hanin, 1992 Emotion content

16 16 Motivated Confident Energetic Excited Scared Panicky Discouraged Sluggish S u c c e s s P o o r P+N+P-N- * Hanin, 1997, 2003; Hanin & Syrjä, 1995 Idiosyncratic emotion labels P o o r Aggressive Concerned Anxious Intense Comfortable Calm Happy Satisfied Athlete # 1 Athlete # 2 Anxious Tired Depressed Sad Angry Worried Irritated Tense Willing Relaxed Sure Focused Nice Calm Pleased Content

17 17 Emotions in hockey (N=97) Emotions in hockey (N=97) Helpful (P+) Energetic Energetic Confident Confident Charged Charged Certain Certain Motivated Motivated Purposeful Purposeful Willing Willing Cheerful Cheerful Enthusiastic Enthusiastic Alert Alert * Hanin & Lukkarila, 1999 Harmful (P-) Easy-going Tranquil Satisfied Overjoyed Excited Pleasant Comfortable Calm Exalted Nice Positive Helpful (N+) Tense Tense Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Vehement Vehement Attacking Attacking Intense Intense Angry Angry Irritated Irritated Nervous Nervous Provoked Provoked Restless Restless Harmful: ( Harmful: (N-) Tired Tired Sluggish Sluggish Unwilling Unwilling Uncertain Uncertain Downhearted Downhearted Depressed Depressed Distressed Distressed Sorrowful Sorrowful Afraid Afraid Strained Strained Negative

18 18 N - Dejection Zone Unpleasant and dysfunctional emotions ______ _________________________________________________ Tired; Sluggish; Reluctant; Doubtful; Sad; Unhappy; Upset; Distressed; Fearful; Worried ________________________________________________________ I cant do it > I dont want to do it > Do I have to do it?

19 19 N+ Emergency zone Unpleasant but functionally optimal emotions _________________________________________ Tense; Dissatisfied; Furious; Attacking; Intense; Angry; Irritated; Nervous; Annoyed; Restless _________________________________________ I have to do it > I want to do it > I can do it

20 20 P+ Challenge zone Pleasant and functionally optimal emotions __________________________________________ Energetic; Confident; Charged; Willing; Motivated; Purposeful; Certain; Cheerful; Enthusiastic; Alert. __________________________________________ I want to do it > I can do it > I have to do it

21 21 P- Comfort, complacency zone Pleasant and dysfunctional emotions _______________________________________ Easy-going; Tranquil; Satisfied; Joyful; Happy; Pleased; Comfortable; Calm; Content; Relaxed ________________________________________ I have done it already > I was so good > I enjoyed doing it

22 22 ESP-20 Emotions & performance N- < N+ < P+ < P- Performance emotions ESP-20 N- > N+ > P+ > P- N- > N+ P- N- P+ > P- Good performance patterns Underperformance patterns

23 23 PAST PRESENT FUTURE nervous tense uncertain self-doubts ready excited confident in control action-oriented emergency fighting spirit angry complacency overconfidence trying too much trying too little regret disappointment depressed dejected overconfidence switched off satisfaction complacency

24 24 Basic mental / psychological skills Relaxation Relaxation On-task attention focus, re-focus On-task attention focus, re-focus Visualization, imagery, mental rehearsal Visualization, imagery, mental rehearsal Becoming & staying energised Thought-stopping Thought-stopping Self-talk, Staying positive Self-talk, Staying positive Realistic goal-setting Realistic goal-setting Emotion control Emotion control Optimization of communication Optimization of communication Problem solving Problem solving Pre- & post-event de-briefing Pre- & post-event de-briefing

25 25 The Need for Action-centered Coping Underperformance in major competitions Underperformance in major competitions Unexpected skill breakdown Unexpected skill breakdown Lost move syndrome Lost move syndrome Physical shape (too much, too little) Physical shape (too much, too little) Habitual performance errors under stress Habitual performance errors under stress Change-induced problems with technique Change-induced problems with technique New ideas from outside New ideas from outside

26 26 Athletes typical comments: I dont know why it happened… I dont know why it happened… I was in my best ever shape… I was in my best ever shape… Something happened to my technique… Something happened to my technique… My technique just vanished My technique just vanished Whatever I tried, it did not help… Whatever I tried, it did not help… I tried too much… I tried too much… My focus was not clear… My focus was not clear… I was distracted by unimportnat details… I was distracted by unimportnat details… I was over-arouzed… I was over-arouzed…

27 27 Typical emotional response to problems in technique Disappointment, frustration, Disappointment, frustration, Self-doubts, low self-confidence Self-doubts, low self-confidence Drop in motivation, helplessness Drop in motivation, helplessness Fears, panick Fears, panick Questioning selected program Questioning selected program Relationships problems (coach, team) Relationships problems (coach, team)

28 28 The Identfication-Control-Correction (ICC)-program Motor task as a movement sequence/ chain Key components in the chain Functional links between these components Subjective perception of chain components Enhancing awareness of chain components Using key components to enhance self-control * Hanina & Hanin, 2002-08

29 Action-centered profiling nn. Action profile Self-description I. Action focus Internal-external, single-multiple, process-outcome II. Action components Self-generated movement sequence, a chain III. Effort dynamics Hard-easy, relaxed-tense (% max in start-release) IV. Action outcomes Qualitative (+ / -); quantitative (m, sec., points) 29 * Hanin & Hanina, 2009

30 30 N=15 elite Italian shooters (2f & 3m carbine & 5f & 5m pistol) Age 20-47 (M=27.9, SD=8.1) preparing for London 2012 Olympics Method: The ICC-based 4-step procedure to identify full shooting sequence & testing chain components in practice & during simulated competition. #1 Describe usual optimal sequence (chain of actions) of a single shot from start to follow-through. #2 Identify 3-4 most important ( & sensitive ) components (breathing control, gun alignment and sight, and trigger pull. #3 Self-assessments of accuracy & supervision of core components with minimum conscious control under optimal conditions in practices. #4 Assessment of core components under stress & fatigue to be mindully accepted. Attention is focused on individuals core components. * Bortoli, Bertollo, Hanin & Robazza (Submitted) Striving for excellence in shooting

31 31 1.Hand 2.Visualisation 3.Breath 4.Grip 5.Descent 6.Zoom 7.Follow through Outcome Shooting sequence in elite pistol shooter* * Adapted from Robazza,(2011) Breath Grip Zoom Outcome.63.70.61 Core componenets

32 32 The overall results of the intervention 1. Before the intervention most shooters were not fully aware of the core components of their action (H-1) 2. Accurately identified core components were related to shooting outcomes (H-2) 3. Accurate execution of the individual core components of the shooting action contrasts the dysfunctional effects of distress (H-3) 4. These beneficial effects were not observed in shooters who did not undergo the intevention (H-4) * Bortoli, Bertollo, Hanin & Robazza (Submitted).

33 Breast-stroke chain (JH) Ote kiinni (захват) Ote kiinni (захват) Kiihtyvä sisääntuonti (гребок с ускорением) Kiihtyvä sisääntuonti (гребок с ускорением) Suoraan palautukseen (возврат вперёд) Suoraan palautukseen (возврат вперёд) Vartalo jousi (верх тела стрелой) Vartalo jousi (верх тела стрелой) Sähäkkä potku (энергичный толчёк) Sähäkkä potku (энергичный толчёк) Jalat vartalon takana (ноги сзади) Jalat vartalon takana (ноги сзади) Teho (интенсивность) Teho (интенсивность) Toistuvuus (стабильность цикла) Toistuvuus (стабильность цикла) 33

34 Turn chain (JH) osuminen seinään (касание стенки) osuminen seinään (касание стенки) nopea pyöräminen (быстрый поворот) nopea pyöräminen (быстрый поворот) vahva ponnistus (сильный толчок) vahva ponnistus (сильный толчок) purevat potkut (энергичная рабта ног) purevat potkut (энергичная рабта ног) hyvä pintautuminen (выход на поверхность) hyvä pintautuminen (выход на поверхность) kokonaisuus (целостность) kokonaisuus (целостность) 34

35 Components of Optimal Swimming Vartalo (тело) Vartalo (тело) Käsiveto (гребок) Käsiveto (гребок) Siisteys ja kokonaisuus (точность и целостность) Siisteys ja kokonaisuus (точность и целостность) Taktiikka (тактика) Taktiikka (тактика) * Hengitys kuulu kiinteänä osana jokaiseen viikkoon Работа по оптимизации дыхания включена постоянно, не зависимо от главной темы 35

36 36 Optimal - Effort - Focus Optimal - Effort - Focus Maximum Shape Maximum Shape Skill Best results Poor results Success => Optimal Shape + Skill * Hanin & Hanina, 2009

37 a mistake, or inaccuracy, or incorrectness (in action, activity) the condition of deviating from accuracy, correctness, or some standard of a task execution (Collins English Dictionary. 3rd Ed., 1991, p. 528) Performance Errors

38 Two strategies in learning motor tasks Error & trial strategy * errors are ignored * errors are not discouraged, * errors are not punished, * errors are encouraged * new learning opportunities * new experiences (+ -) Error-free strategy * errors are immediately noticed * errors are discouraged * errors are punished * errors are minimized * errors are avoided * errors are prevented Expected outcomes: + Learning to adjust, + Benefit in future situations (transfer) + Learning based on natural strengths - Errors can become consistent Expected outcomes: - Getting it right the 1st time? - No need for adjustment ? - Learning the right way? - Less problem with correction?

39 1. Explain what & why the athlete is doing wrong 2. Improve the athletes awareness of doing wrong 3. Show the right way & explain why this way is better 4. Ask the athlete to copy it 5. Provide corrective feedback and reinforcement 6. Get the athlete to practice, practice, and practice Conventional skill correction Maschette (1985): Re-teaching pattern

40 Conventional error correction Wrong Old Correct New

41 Retention and forgetting Proactive inhibition (PI) is a negative effect of a learned task on retention of a new task Retroactive inhibition (RI) is a condition when a recently learned task impairs the retention of an older learned tasks 1 Old 2 New PI RI

42 Old way / New way in error correction WrongCorrect

43 Learning Trial in Practice 1. Error analysis (coach + athlete) Consistent vs. random, Major - unimportant, Single-multiple

44 Learning Trial in Practice 2. Learning Trial Session Developing awareness of own old way Developing awareness of the new way The practice of differences The practice of the new way

45 Learning Trial in Practice 3. Summary + home work Explaining mechanisms Expected results Handling spontaneous recovery

46 Extended intervention procedure: Error identification from best-worst performances Error identification from best-worst performances Old Way as an erroneous movement pattern Old Way as an erroneous movement pattern Causes & effects of the Old Way are identified Causes & effects of the Old Way are identified New Way as an individually optimal movement pattern New Way as an individually optimal movement pattern Learning Trial (LT) for a rapid & permanent change Learning Trial (LT) for a rapid & permanent change Post-LT standardization & stabilization of a New Way Post-LT standardization & stabilization of a New Way

47 47 The ICC applications (2002-11): 1.Running (100m, 400m) 2.Jumping (high, long, pole-vault) 3.Throwing (javelin, hammer, shot-put) 4.Swimming (starts, breast-stroke) 5.Diving (1m & 3m springboard) 6.Volley-ball (ball reception) 7.Soccer (free kick) 8.Pistol & rifle shooting 9.Car-racing (F-1; DBT; FPA) 10.Sailing 11.Bowling 12.Free-style skiing

48 Ведущая проблематика 1.Психологическая подготовка 2.Стресс и тревога 3.Решение проблемных ситуаций 4.Оптимизация эмоциональных состояний 5.Прогнозирование деятельности 6.Анализ выступлений 7.Оптимизация деятельности 8.Коррекция ошибок 9.Межличное общение игроков и тренеров 10.Тренер как руководитель и лидер 11. Карьера игроков и тренеров 12. Клуб и сборная


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