Exercise Biomechanics Reading Assignment Textbooks: –Kreighbaum pp , Chapter 8 (spinal exercises and resistive exercise equipment) Hamill pp , (conditioning, stresses, and injury potential of lower extremity) Journal article summaries by students –Porcari, J.P., et al (2005) The effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation training on abdominal strength, endurance, and selected anthropometric measures. Journal of Sport Science & Medicine, 4: (http://www.jssm.org/vol4/n1/9/v4n1-9pdf.pdf)http://www.jssm.org/vol4/n1/9/v4n1-9pdf.pdf –Porcari, J.P., et al (2000) Exercise response to elliptical trainers. Fitness Management. August, 1-3. (http://www.precor.com/pdf/articles/exercise_response.pdf) –Hinterman and Nigg(1998) Pronation in runners: Implications for injuries. Sports Medicine. 26: –OConner and Hamill (2002) Does running on a cambered road predispose a runner to injury? Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 18:3-14.
Exercise Biomechanics Outline Selected major areas of endeavor in exercise biomechanics Evaluating exercise equipment Biomechanics of resistive exercises & equipment –Strength-position curves –Use of cams in exercise equipment –Pelvic girdle balance and abdominal exercises –Back extension exercises –Posture and lifting guidelines Knee joint structure and loading Rearfoot movement and related issues Designing shoes to prevent injury Review of selected journal and review articles on ex biom
Biomechanical correlates of exercise – areas of interest, endeavor, & contribution Design and analysis of fitness programs Design of fitness exercises –Which exercises are most effective in meeting program ogjectives? –Which exercises are potentially, or inherently unsafe and to be either avoided or used with caution? –movements, forces, injury potential Analysis of fitness exercises –are exercises being executed properly? Design, selection, and analysis of fitness equipment –resistive equipment (e.g., thesis on abdominal ex equip) –aerobic equipment Relative merits of different exercise modes (e.g., stairclimber, bicycle, treadmill, rowing machine, elliptical exerciser) Running shoes
Methods of Evaluation of Ex Equip Source: (Jung, A.P. The evaluation of home exercise equipment claims. ACSMs Health and Fitness Journal. 4(5): 14-16, Check physiological and biomechanical principles and ACSM standards. Review research, if available –Critically review research – Are appropriate methods used? Who sponsored it? Where was research reported? Ask professors or other experts (Barstow, Harms, Gyurcsik, Estabrooks, Ferguson) Review product reviews in fitness magazines (Club Industry, Athletic Business, Fitness Management) Try it yourself. Interview professionals who have supervised its use. Design and conduct your own research. Note: guidelines for selection are on Federal Trade Commission Website (http://www.ftc.gov)http://www.ftc.gov
Criteria for evaluating aerobic exercises Degree of overload on cardiorespiratory system Relevance to fundamental movements and activities of daily living Proportion of total body musculature involved Degree of compressive stress on femoral head and lumbar vertebral bodies (sites of most osteoporotic fractures) Compressive stress on patella and knee joint Range of motion and torque at hip, knee, and lumbar spine Motivational features (comfort, user friendly, feedback, RPE) Likelihood of continued usage Cost Other?
Biomechanics of Resistive exercises Factors affecting force application –Force-velocity relationship –Strength-joint position relationship (combination of angle of pull and force/length relationship) Should we provide the same degree of overload throughout the movement? If so, how do we do it?
Use of Cams in Ex Equipment:
Pelvic Girdle Balance
Lumbar spinal shear force is directly related to pelvic girdle position
Spinal Flexion Exercises Effect of –Anchoring feet? –Bending knees? –Placement of hands and arms? –Inclined board?
Back Extension Exercises to Avoid: Good morning exercise: Hyperextended back:
Recommended Extension Exercise Effect of speed on effects of exercise: Torque = Wd + MOI x ang acc
Effect of posture on lumbar compression force:
Lifting quidelines: (1)bend knees (2)keep weight close to hips
Knee Joint Structure: 25% of Alpine skiing injuries are ligament injuries Peripatellar pain (runners knee) caused by imbalance of stress on patella
Lower Extremity Misalignment: Q angle is larger in females due to Wider hip structure, increasing potential for PFPS (Patellofemoral pain syndrome)
Quadriceps Tendon and Patella Force Lines Compressive force at PFJ is ½ body wt during normal walking, and over 3 times bw during stair climbing Comp force increases as knee flexion Angle increases
Knee Ligaments and cartilage
Knee loading summary Forces at tibiofemoral Joint –Shear stress is greater during open kinetic chain exercises such as knee extensions and knee flexions –Compressive stress is greater during closed kinetic chain exercises such as squats and weight bearing exercises. Forces at Patellofemoral Joint –With a squat, reaction force is 7.6 times BW on this joint. –Increases as knee is flexed
Movement of subtalar joint
Foot Pronation and Tibial Torsion:
Rearfoot Movement During Running:
Types of running injuries
Example of Double Density Midsole:
Effects of Rear- foot Double Density Midsole on rearfoot position:
Effects of Rearfoot & Forefoot Double Density Midsole on takeoff angle:
Designing shoes to prevent injury ( Sport Research Review,Nike, inc.) The primary function of an athletic shoe cushioning system is to reduce the potentially injurious effects of repeated impacts between the foot and the ground
Shoe design and injury, contd
Aerobic Dance Injuries ( Sport Research Review,Nike, inc.) Most injuries are to instructors and involve the shin and foot
Football shoes ( Sport Research Review, Nike, inc.) Change from seven ¾ cleats to fourteen ¾ cleats reduced knee injuries 50% and serious knee injuries 75-80% Stiff insert has dramatically reduced turf toe (sprain of the plantar capsule ligament complex of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ))
Sensory evaluation of shoes Purpose: assess product attributes and preferences Three main categories of sensory evaluation methods –Discrimination testing (use trained panels) Is product A noticeably different from product B? –Descriptive testing (use trained panels) What key sensory attributes characterize Products A,B,C? –Affective testing (trained panels or reps of target consumers) What level of liking does product A generate on one or more sensory attributes? Which product is preferred on the basis of these attributes?
Sensory evaluation applied to traditional forms of product testing ( Sport Research Review, Nike, inc.) Dynamic testing –Short-term, performance-based of functionality and likeability –One to four samples at a time Fit trials –Short-term –Mimic point-of-service purchase experience Long-term wear testing