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1 Chapter 8: Sports Injuries Outline: Biomechanical principles of injury Injury treatment and rehabilitation Pain: natures warning system Soft tissues.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 8: Sports Injuries Outline: Biomechanical principles of injury Injury treatment and rehabilitation Pain: natures warning system Soft tissues."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 8: Sports Injuries Outline: Biomechanical principles of injury Injury treatment and rehabilitation Pain: natures warning system Soft tissues injuries Dislocations Fractures Concussions Overuse injuries Injury prevention

2 2 4 Tissue Types: Each type of tissue possesses unique mechanical characteristics Epithelial Muscle ConnectiveNervous BIOMECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OF INJURY

3 3 Loading To best understand the biomechanical characteristics of tissue we examine its behaviour under ______________________ Under load a ____________________________ This change in shape (deformation) can be visualized through in the _________________________

4 4 A C B Deformation LargeSmall Load High Low Load Deformation Curve

5 5 A C B Elastic Region Plastic Region Ultimate Failure Elastic Limit Deformation LargeSmall Load High Low

6 6 A C B Elastic Region Plastic Region Ultimate Failure Elastic Limit Deformation LargeSmall Load High Low

7 7 A C B Elastic Region Plastic Region Ultimate Failure Elastic Limit Deformation LargeSmall Load High Low

8 8 A C B Elastic Region Plastic Region Ultimate Failure Elastic Limit Deformation LargeSmall Load High Low If load continues to increase to C Macro- or complete failure (e.g. torn ligament) Tissue becomes completely unresponsive to loads

9 9 A C B Elastic Region Plastic Region Ultimate Failure Elastic Limit Deformation LargeSmall Load High Low Area under the curve = Slope =

10 10 Tissues Response to Training Loads 1. Training load ____ elastic limit (B) –Positive training effect –Micro-failure –the microscopic injuries cause temporary muscle soreness and weakness therefore need a rest period (e.g. a day off) 2. Training load ___ elastic limit –Negative training effect –More severe * related to principles of training: overload (FITT), stress-rest intervals, overtraining *optimal training occurs when tissue is stressed________________________ ________________________________

11 11 Forces Acting on Tissue (pull)(squeeze) (twist) Other terms: Valgus: outward angulation (of distal part away from midline) Varus: inward angulation (..toward midline)

12 12 Injury Treatment –Received by patient from a health care professional -- versus Injury Rehabilitation –Therapists restoration of injured tissue –patient's __________________ –______________________________ –E.g. Athletic therapist (AT), Physiotherapist (PT), Occupational Therapist (OT), Massage Therapist (MT), Chiropractor, etc.

13 13 Inflammatory Response Phase (hours - 2 to 4 days) Inflammation begins at the time of injury Signs - Treatment (PRICE) - Protect - Rest - Ice (Cryotherapy- Decreases swelling, bleeding, pain, spasms) - Compression (decreases swelling) - Elevation ( above level of the heart to return blood to heart and decrease swelling etc) Healing Phases:

14 14 Fibroblastic Repair Phase (hours – 6 weeks) Injured tissue repair and scar formation Granulation _________ _____________ _________ fibres are deposited by fibroblasts Signs seen in the phase1 subside Treatment Rehab-specific exercises –Restore range of motion and strength Manual massage (friction) therapy and ultrasound –Help _____________ Protective _________ _______________

15 15 Maturation-Remodeling Phase Remodeling or ________________________ Treatment: More aggressive ______________________ –To organize the scar tissue along the lines of tensile stress Include sport-specific skills and activities

16 16 PainPain Pushing injured tissue closer to yield-level point Pushing injured tissue closer to yield-level point GastrointestinalcomplicationsGastrointestinalcomplications Pain Natures way of telling us something is wrong One of the best indicators of when the athlete is ready to resume activity Inability to participate at optimal level or at all

17 17 Injury Types: Overuse: Progressive _____________________________________ Heals slowly (months) _________: Caused by abrupt force Heals quickly __________: Repeated damage & inflammation due to neglected or mistreated overuse or acute injuries Accumulation of chronic _______________ Painful for tissue, pain-sensitive nerve endings Heals slowly (years if un/mistreated)

18 18 A: Soft Tissue Injuries: 1._____________ (a.k.a. Bruise) Compressing force crushes tissue E.g. charleyhorse – quadriceps _____________________________ ______________ = severe pooling of blood in bruise Can be life-threatening if in vital organs Signs:______________________ Treatment: P-R-I-C-E Myositis ossification – ____________ _______________________________

19 19 ____________ Tendon or muscle tissue is stretched or torn ____________ _________or the joint capsule is stretched or torn 2.Sprains and Strains

20 20 Grades of sprains and strains GRADE 1 (1 st degree, mild) Slightly stretched or torn; few muscle fibres (< ____% of fibres) Signs:_______________________, no limitation of muscle mobility or joint range of motion (ROM) GRADE 2 (2 nd degree, moderate) Stretch or tear more muscle fibres (___________% of fibres) Signs: tenderness,____________________, some limitation of muscle mobility or joint ROM GRADE3 (3 rd degree, severe) Stretch or tear ____________% of fibres (complete rupture) Signs: severe tenderness, swelling, bruising, __________________ of muscle mobility/ROM, gap in tissue can sometimes be felt in complete rupture ______________________ *See page 176 in text

21 21 Common Strains _____________ Adductors _____________ Hamstrings ________________

22 22 Occurs when great enough forces push the joint beyond its normal anatomical limits a)_____________________: Joint surfaces come completely apart e.g. ball of joint is forced out of socket as in a shoulder b)______________________(subluxation): When supporting structures (e.g. ligaments) are stretched or torn causing bony structures to partially separate (i.e. pops out then pops in) Most common in finger, shoulder Can become chronic B: Dislocations:

23 23 1. _____________________ –Stays within the surrounding soft tissue 2. Compound (open) fracture –_____________________ 3. ____________ fracture –Results from repeated low magnitude loads (e.g. runners who overtrain) –Begins as a _________________ ___________________________ –With continued use=weakened bone, complete cortical bone fracture 4. Avulsion fracture –Involves tendon or ligament __________ _________________________________ C: Fractures : A crack, break or complete shattering of a bone elbow Compound fracture

24 24 E: Overuse Injuries Due to –Repeated and accumulated microtrauma –Non-sufficient recovery Results from –_________________ –__________________ –___________________ *Note: words that end in itis = inflammation of the body part due to repetitive microtrauma (overuse) e.g. stress fractures, tendonitis, bursitis

25 25 Symptoms –Pain (aggravated by movement) –Tenderness –Stiffness near joint 1. Tendonitis: Inflammation of _______________________________________ ______________________ Tendonitis ) )

26 26 Injury Prevention: sport-specific activities 3. -especially during off-season -include flexibility activities Avoid overtraining -Get proper sleep -Cross-train in off-season


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