Presentation on theme: "SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 1 Introduction Lavallee et al. (2004) Sport Psychology: Contemporary Themes (Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke)"— Presentation transcript:
SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 1 Introduction Lavallee et al. (2004) Sport Psychology: Contemporary Themes (Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke)
Introduction, History and Development What do we mean by the term sport and exercise psychology? A wide range of interpretations are available A sub-discipline of psychology that applies psychological theories and methods to an understanding of physical exercise in general, and competitive sport in particular
Introduction, History and Development Who is sport psychology for? The answer depends on who you ask Restricting ownership wont help the field develop There may be a need to adopt a more flexible and pragmatic approach Work – whether applied or academic – should be tailored to meet the needs of a variety of potential users both inside and outside the world of sport
Introduction, History and Development Early Influences Ancient Greek and Roman Cultures - Mens Sana in Corpore Sano Norman Tripletts (1898) archival and experimental research on dynamogism (social facilitation) among US cyclists Spectator psychology - work by Patrick (1903) and Howard (1912) 1920s - Coleman Griffith
Introduction, History and Development Coleman Robert Griffith (1893-1966) Originally trained as an educational psychologist Established the University of Illinois Athletic Research Laboratory (1925) Published The Psychology of Coaching (1926) and Psychology and Athletics (1928) Consultant sport psychologist (Chicago Cubs) Returned to educational psychology
Introduction, History and Development 1930s-1950s Characterised as period of stagnation in North America, with the exception of motor learning research Emergence of sport psychology in the Soviet Union in 1940s and 1950s Sport psychologists accompanying Eastern European teams by the time of the 1960 Olympics Sport psychologist works with Brazilian soccer World Cup champions (Sweden, 1958)
Introduction, History and Development 1960s-1970s International Society of Sport Psychology established and meets for first time, Rome 1965 European Federation of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC) and North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) both established in 1968 International Journal of Sport Psychology launched in 1970, followed by the Journal of Sport Psychology in 1979
Theories and Models Early years Sport psychology characterised by the adoption and application of theories and models from the psychology mainstream, e.g. –Hulls drive theory of motivation –Yerkes and Dodsons law –Atkinsons achievement motivation theory –Zajoncs drive theory
Theories and Models Early years cont. Adopted theories were often developed to consider phenomena in other applied contexts The justification for generalisation to sport and exercise was not always made clear, e.g. –Locke & Lathams work on goal setting in industry
Theories and Models Recent Years Sport-specific theories and models have emerged, tailored to sport and exercise contexts Draws on a more diverse literature and provides a greater breadth of coverage Compare recent and earlier editions of sport psychology textbooks, e.g. –Psychological Dynamics of Sport (Gill, 1986) –Psychological Dynamics of Sport and Exercise (Gill, 2000)
Theories and Models Pure and Applied Sport Psychology Friction between: – Those who are reluctant to practice or offer professional advice before developing a sounder research base – Those who are attracted by the practical results that they are able to achieve through immediate action or intervention This has been a longstanding problem NB Problem Athletes and How to Handle Them (Ogilvie & Tutko, 1966) Separate structures emerged: NB Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP)
Methods and Measures Psychology as a whole is characterised by methodological pluralism - employing a wide range of techniques for understanding, predicting and interpreting human behaviour and experience In the past sport psychology tended to rely on a restricted range of empirical methods and afforded primacy to traditional, quantitative procedures, e.g. trait measures of personality –See Directory of Psychological Tests in the Sport and Exercise Sciences (Ostrow, 1996)
Methods and Measures Psychometric Tests Important issues to consider prior to testing: Is there a sound rationale for using this particular test with this particular population? What is the theoretical perspective underpinning the research? What test to use? Who to test? When to test?
In recent years, evidence has indicated that the exclusive reliance on quantitative methods may be less strong Appeals for a more eclectic approach to data gathering may be having an effect However, qualitative techniques have yet to make significant inroads into the literature Nevertheless with ever-growing appreciation of these legitimate alternatives, the future looks promising Methods and Measures
Practical Issues and Interventions From Smocks to Jocks (Martens, 1979) Roles for sport psychologists (Singer, 1984) –Basic researchers –Educational sport psychologists –Clinical sport psychologists Counselling interventions
Study Questions 1. Discuss the early history of sport and exercise psychology 2. Provide some examples of how different countries around the world have contributed to the professional development of sport psychology as a field 3. With regard to the application of theories and models within the field, contrast the development in the 1960s and 1970s with that of the present-day 4. List and explain some of the issues that are important to understand prior to using psychological tests in sport contexts 5. List and describe the different roles of sport and exercise psychologists
Further Reading British Psychological Society (2002) Special Issue: Sport and Exercise Psychology, The Psychologist, vol. 15 (8) Buckworth, J. and Dishman, R.K. (2002) Exercise Psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Gill, D.L. (1997) Sport and Exercise Psychology,in J. Massengale and R. Swanson (eds), History of Exercise and Sport Science (pp. 293-320). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Lidor, R., Morris, T., Bardaxoglou, N. and Becker, B. (2001) (eds) The World Sport Psychology Sourcebook. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology. Singer, R.N., Hausenblas, H.A. and Janelle, C.M. (2001) (eds) Handbook of Sport Psychology (2 nd ed.). NY: John Wiley and Sons.
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