Presentation on theme: "I N -G ROUPS VS. O UT -G ROUPS. R EASONS FOR R IVALRIES Geographic Proximity Frequent Meetings in Important Games Events that Increased tension between."— Presentation transcript:
I N -G ROUPS VS. O UT -G ROUPS
R EASONS FOR R IVALRIES Geographic Proximity Frequent Meetings in Important Games Events that Increased tension between groups Pre-existing Social and Political Tensions 10 Great Sporting Rivalries 10 Great Sporting Rivalries
F OOTBALL : FSU VS. UF Two Oldest Public Universities in Florida One or both of them often highly ranked (1994) Choke at Doak Game 28 Points from FSU in the last quarter to tie game The Comeback - FSU vs. UF The Comeback - FSU vs. UF
F EEDING AN O LD R IVALRY A UBURN VS. A LABAMA Roll Tide/War Eagle The Iron Bowl Alabama vs. Auburn 1893 SEC Division Rivalries and In-Group Bias.
C ASE S TUDY : B ARCELONA – R EAL M ADRID Barcelona - Real Madrid Why could this rivalry be considered more than just a soccer match? Provide details from the video. How has the rivalry changed over time?
C ASE S TUDY : AC M ILAN VS. I NTER M ILAN Italian Derby Inter first allowed players from other countries to play when AC Milan wouldnt Differences have dissipated since their first match in 1908, but tension remains.
C ASE S TUDY : T HE O LD F IRM C ELTIC F.C. VS. R ANGERS F.C. Celtic vs. Rangers - More than a Game Celtic vs. Rangers - More than a Game Location: Glasgow, Scotland Roots of Conflict National Identity: Native Scots (Rangers) – Scots Irish (Celtic) Religious Affiliation: Protestants (Rangers) – Catholics (Celtic) Video: The Football Wars
C ASE S TUDY : A LI VS. F RAZIER (1971)Fight of the Century Both undefeated Extension of tension in the country Ali came to represent the movement against Vietnam. Frazier became symbol for conservative America Frazier won. (1974) Rematch: Ali won. (1975) Final Fight: Ali won in the Philippines Frazier vs. Ali - Rivals
C ASE S TUDY : M IRACLE O N I CE Sport: Hockey U.S vs. Soviet Union Key Match: 1980 Winter Olympic Games Semifinal Importance: Cold War Era Competition between countries. U.S as the underdog story. Miracle On Ice Miracle On Ice
C ASE S TUDY : I NDIA VS. P AKISTAN S PORTS AS A MICROCOSM OF THE WORLD India-Pakistan Conflict Fight over region of Kashmir. Both countries have nuclear weapons Conflict Analysis - India vs. Pakistan Conflict Analysis - India vs. Pakistan Tension in the India/Pakistan border Tension rises in the Border Rivalry in Sports How do people live the rivalry? How do people live the rivalry?
G ROUP B EHAVIOR A FFECTS C ONFLICT : C ONFORMITY TO OUR G ROUP Important Studies: Solomon Asch Group Pressure Stanley Milgram Obedience to Authority Irving Janis Groupthink: the tendency of group members to conform by adopting a narrow view of some issue. How are group pressure, obedience to authority and groupthink part of our allegiance as fans to a team?
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65% of subjects administered what they thought was lethal voltage on the shock machine. Milgram described the dilemma as a conflict between conscience and authority.
I T HINK, Y OU T HINK, W E T HINK G ROUPTHINK Groupthink: the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an incorrect or deviant decision-making outcome. Characteristics of groupthink include: Illusion of invulnerability Collective rationalization Belief in inherent morality Stereotyped views of out-groups Direct pressure on dissenters Self-censorship Illusion of unanimity Self-appointed mindguards
G ROUPTHINK : I LLUSION OF I NVULNERABILITY Creates excessive optimism that encourages taking extreme risks.
G ROUPTHINK : C OLLECTIVE R ATIONALIZATION Members discount warnings and do not reconsider their assumptions.
G ROUPTHINK : B ELIEF IN I NHERENT M ORALITY Belief that whatever the group does it will be right as they all know the difference between right and wrong. Tendency to overlook the consequences of what they decide. Are we born good people or is morality taught? Are we born good people or is morality taught?
G ROUPTHINK : S TEREOTYPED VIEWS OF OUT - GROUPS Negative views of those who are different creates conflict. Question: Are we born to hate or are we taught to hate?
G ROUPTHINK : D IRECT P RESSURE ON D ISSENTERS Members are under pressure not to express arguments against any of the groups views.
G ROUPTHINK : S ELF - CENSORSHIP Doubts and deviations from the perceived group consensus are not expressed Why could self- censorship be problematic on the long run?
G ROUPTHINK : I LLUSION OF UNANIMITY The majority view and judgments are assumed to be unanimous.
G ROUPTHINK : S ELF - APPOINTED MINDGUARDS Member of a group who serves as an informational filter, providing limited information to the group and, consciously or subconsciously, utilizing a variety of strategies to control dissent
IN-GROUPS AND OUT-GROUPS We all see only that which we are trained to see.
I N -G ROUPS AND O UT -G ROUPS Social Identity Social categorization divide world into in-group (us) and out-group (them)
I N -G ROUPS AND O UT - GROUPS Sport rivalries feed on the distinctions between in-groups and out-groups. So do other conflicts. An in-group is a social group commanding a members esteem and loyalty; it is the one we identify with. An out-group is a social group toward which one feels competition or opposition. In-group bias: view our own group more favorably
J ANE E LLIOTT ' S " BLUE EYES / BROWN EYES J ANE E LLIOTT ' S " BLUE EYES / BROWN EYES I N -G ROUPS VS. O UT -G ROUPS 3 rd Grade Teacher Jane Elliott Experiment conducted on the days after Martin Luther King assassination (1968) Wanted to explain discrimination to 8 year olds. Experiment deals with stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and the creation of in-group bias.
G LOSSARY Stereotypes - beliefs about attributes that are thought to be characteristic of members of particular groups. A mental image or judgment of a group based on opinion without regard to individual differences. They can be either positive or negative. ex. Women are nurturing, car salesmen are dishonest Prejudice - A negative judgment or opinion formed about a group without knowledge of the facts. Discrimination - Treating someone less favorably based on the group, class or category they belong to. Discrimination is prejudice in action.
J ANE E LLIOTT ' S " BLUE EYES / BROWN EYES J ANE E LLIOTT ' S " BLUE EYES / BROWN EYES I N -G ROUPS VS. O UT -G ROUPS 1) What did you learn? Did any part of the film surprise you? What scene or scenes do you think you'll still remember a month from now and why those scenes? 2) How was the exercise that Elliott designed a response to the children's question, "Why would anyone want to murder Martin Luther King?" Did the film provide an answer to the question? Can you answer the question? 3) What features did Elliott ascribe to the superior and inferior groups and how did those characteristics reflect stereotypes about blacks and whites? 4) What did the children's body language indicate about the impact of discrimination? 5) How did the negative and positive labels placed on a group become self-fulfilling prophecies?
J ANE E LLIOTT ' S " BLUE EYES / BROWN EYES J ANE E LLIOTT ' S " BLUE EYES / BROWN EYES I N -G ROUPS VS. O UT -G ROUPS 6) How are the results of the experiment different when it is done with adults? 7) In the prison seminar, one of the white women asserts that all people face some kind of discrimination. Another woman challenges her, claiming that whites can't really know what it's like to face discrimination every minute of every day. What do you think? 8) It's easy to understand why third-graders might not refuse to obey their teacher, but when the exercise is done with the prison guards, why don't any of the adults object?
J ANE E LLIOTT S D IVERSITY T RAINING Diversity Training