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Readings: Bercovitz, A critical analysis of Canadas Active Living: science or Politics, Critical Public Health, (2002), 19-39. Canada, The Physical Activity.

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Presentation on theme: "Readings: Bercovitz, A critical analysis of Canadas Active Living: science or Politics, Critical Public Health, (2002), 19-39. Canada, The Physical Activity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Readings: Bercovitz, A critical analysis of Canadas Active Living: science or Politics, Critical Public Health, (2002), Canada, The Physical Activity and Sport Act, Kidd, Canada, in Wilson and Derse (Eds.), Doping in Elite Sport, The ethical turn and the Physical Activity and Sport Act 2003

2 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto The crisis of the 1980s: BJ, Dubin and the crisis of values Ben Johnson, an exemplar of the Canadian Sport System expelled for steroids in Seoul Government immediately appointed a Royal Commission under Ontario Chief Justice Charles Dubin to investigate

3 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto The critique of the status quo Dubin heard: A strong critique of the ideology of excellence A strong plea for athletes rights A strong appeal for a much more equitable and accessible sport system

4 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto The outcome: value-based sport Strengthened emphasis upon values: the athletes who march behind the flag should uphold the values of that flag. Creation of the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport and strict anti-doping protocol

5 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto The athlete centered system A broader, more health and educationally focused goal for training and competition Strengthened voice and vote for athletes, through Athletes CAN; today virtually every NSO/MSO has a position for an elected athlete representative on its board

6 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto A renewed commitment to equity Gender equity and anti-harassment policies; new protections for athletes

7 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Questions: How well were the post-Dubin reforms implemented? To what extent does Canadian sport actually walk the talk with respect to the values articulated by the post-Dubin reforms? What would be useful performance measures?

8 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto The crisis of the 1990s: running on fumes The system began to unravel after 1996: Huge cutbacks to Sport Canada, ParticipACTION Canada, and many provincial and municipal programs, reduced opportunities at all levels Canadian Sport and Recreation Centre disbanded Participation in sport and sports leadership declined Weariness with bidding for international games as strategy of domestic sport development Note: important exceptions in Alberta and Quebec

9 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto By 2001 Disappointing Sydney results Alarming trends in participation: Adult participation in sport fell from 45% in 1992 to 34% in Participation in physical activity leveled off at about 38% of the population. Children 40% less active than 30 years earlier. Prevalence of overweight children grew among boys from 15% in 1981 to 35.4% in 1996 and among girls from 15% to 29.2%. Canadas Olympic teams drawn from a narrower, upper-class base than 30 years earlier. Yet public opinion polling indicated that support for physical education and sport was at record highs. Torontos bid for 2008 Olympics unsuccessful

10 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto In response, a new effort to revitalize public policy Initiated by charismatic Secretary of State for Amateur Sport (Denis Coderre) with ambition to become PM Astute, experienced, committed Quebec-based sports leaders

11 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Coderres hopes for new national legislation Reunite responsibility for sport and fitness Increase funding Elevate sport and fitness portfolio in the governments agenda Harmonize Canadian anti-doping with WADA Address participants rights through ADR Protect Canada Games through mandated obligations

12 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto The outcomes 1. The Canadian Sport Policy, an agreement between the federal, provincial and territorial governments, signed April 6, 2002, with a subsequent Federal-Provincial/Territorial Priorities for Collaborative Action 2002–2005, to jointly realize the following goals by 2012:

13 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Enhanced participation A significantly higher proportion of Canadians from all segments of society are involved in quality sport activities at all levels and in all forms of participation A major priority to be given to the revitalization of physical education in the public school system.

14 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Enhanced excellence The pool of talented athletes has expanded and Canadian athletes and teams are systematically achieving world-class results at the highest levels of international competition through fair and ethical means

15 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Enhanced capacity The essential components of an ethically- based, athlete/participant-centered development system are in place and are continually modernized and strengthened as required

16 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Enhanced interaction The components of the sport system are more connected and coordinated as a result of the committed collaboration and communication amongst the stakeholders

17 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto The outcomes 2. Bill C-12 The Physical Activity and Sport Act (introduced and steered through Parliament by Coderres successor, Paul DeVillers), proclaimed on March 19, 2003.

18 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Bill C-12 Changed the nomenclature from Fitness and Amateur Sport to Physical Activity and Sport

19 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Bill C-12 Revised objectives re physical activity: Promote physical activity as a fundamental element of health and well-being Encourage all Canadians to improve health by integrating PA into their daily lives Assist in reducing barriers that prevent them from being active

20 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Bill C-12 Revised objectives re sport To increase participation and to support the pursuit of excellence To build capacity

21 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Bill C-12 Inserted a strong statement of values: The Government of Canadas policy is founded on the highest ethical standards and values, including doping-free sport, the treatment of all persons with fairness and respect, the full and fair participation of all persons in sport and the fair, equitable, transparent and timely resolution of disputes.

22 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Bill C-12 Created Sport Dispute Resolution Centre of Canada: Non-profit NGO, with board appointed by the minister upon advice of sport community ADR for appeals and disputes Panel of independent, sport-knowledgeable arbitrators/mediators Resource centre for policies, procedures

23 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto The outcomes 3. New funding to sport: E.g. in , Sport Canada budget was $140M, the highest ever Harper Government has promised much more 1% of health budget or $435M

24 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Yet Responsibilities for sport and fitness remain under different ministries Increased funding still leaves Canada behind traditional competitors Little new money for broadly based physical activity: $140M to sport while PA gets $5M Little new money for capital construction (capacity) Government did not include the gender equity provision amendment recommended by CAAWS; instead, DeVillers promised to establish a new accountability mechanism within Sport Canada

25 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto The outcomes 4. National Advisory Council met for a year, completed a comprehensive report, then thanked and disbanded

26 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Questions: Is half a loaf better than none? What would constitute an excellent national sports policy and an excellent national sport act? What is missing? What are the best examples of sport legislation elsewhere?

27 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto The Canadian context To what extent have Canadians concern about the future of medicare (compulsory insurance for medical and hospital treatment of disease) The much greater popularity of professional sport The neo-liberal attack on the public sector weakened the lobby for public programs in sports?

28 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto Vancouver 2010 To what extent will the Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games stimulate/distort the realization of the Canadian Sports Policy?

29 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto The international context To what extent has the accelerating Americanization and commercialization of Canadian culture undermined the case for publicly supported sports? How have the FTA, NAFTA, and the WTO weakened the ability of Canadian governments to intervene in sports?

30 Faculty of Physical Education and Health University of Toronto The importance of intervention Scholars and students played a role throughout the process, as researchers and advocates. Whatever the outcome, it will be important for scholars and activists to insert themselves into the ongoing development of federal legislation and its implementation, studying the implications, holding/attending public meetings to discuss it, and meeting with elected federal representatives to express their views.


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