Presentation on theme: "Gender Role Stereotypes & Early Socialization"— Presentation transcript:
1 Gender Role Stereotypes & Early Socialization Chapter by Susan Greendorfer in Women In Sport, Greta Cohen, Ed.Notes from the Textbook
2 Title IXMost important single event in U.S. for women’s sport & social changeMore diverse educational and occupational opportunitiesFeminine images today not much different than those from past centuryGender roles remain and control women’s participation in sport
3 Socialization and Gender Roles Socialization: a social influence process mediated by individualsDepends upon conformity to an extraordinary degreeGender roles epitomize this social learningDifferential treatment of boys and girls: needed to preserve society?
4 Socialization Into Gender Roles and Sport Specific social learning mechanismsDifferential treatmentStereotyping and LabelingThese three mechanisms perpetuate the dominant ideological beliefs and social practices of a societyBiological sex controls the activities and opportunities we experience
5 Socialization Practices Taken For Granted We call the outcomes “normal”(“male behavior and interests differ from female behavior and interests.)Absent critical examination, we assume that superficial changes in behavior signal changes in society.Close examination reveals continued practices of gender discrimination
6 Child Rearing & Play Behavior Parental influence paramount in early childhood socializationChildren exposed to activities consonant with their genderReward and punishment used to strengthen so-called sex appropriate interests and behaviorNo research evidence to show change
7 Times Have Changed? Research evidence says, no. Stereotypic notions of masculinity and femininity continue to influence toy selection, play, physical activity, and sport behavior.
8 Ideology, Gender role Stereotyping & Play Process for values inculcation are virtually invisibleOutcomes are clearMost boys become involved in sport and most girls do notThis outcome is not due to biological differences, but rather subtle social learning
9 Gender Ideology Learned from Birth Pink and blueToy selectionWe’ve been persuaded that differential treatment is not discrimination, so we don’t challenge the system.Why should a father show a son how to hold, throw, or catch a ball but not teach similar skills to his daughter?
10 Toys Influence Play Style Boys are given trucks, guns, tractors, and manipulative toys and therefore develop a preference for these toysBy the time children reach elementary school age they have determined for themselves that active sports are masculine and not feminine.
11 Gender Hierarchy Develops A system that ranks meanings about power, worth, and valueChildren learn to perceive that masculine sports and games have a higher prestige value.What boys and girls learn from becoming physically active?
12 Sex Differences in Children’s Games Boys more rigidly sex-typed than girls(Some girls play boys’ games)Theoretical Concepts may influence these outcomes:Hegemony – a lived system of meanings and values which when experienced as practices become reciprocally confirming and accepted as natural
13 Patriarchy & IdeologyPatriarchy – the ideological belief in male superiority and privilegeIdeology - the belief system that conveys meanings an ideas about social live and about how things should be
14 Assumptions Made Re: What children Learn From Play Boys play is outdoors complex, large groups, and so boys learn: goal setting, interdependent roles; advanced techniques of performance; how to adjust rules of the game, settle disputes, and abide by compromiseGirls – indoors, small group, repetitive, taking turns, less challenging
15 Socialization into Sport vs. Sport Socialization Assumption by researchers that certain outcomes follow sport participation: pro-social behavior, cognitive, social and personal growth,cooperation, positive interpersonal relations, moral development, and good citizenship.Don’t know if/how/ why of life lessons
16 Questions We Ought To Ask Do socialization outcomes actually occur?What outcomes actually occur?When, and under what circumstances?How are socialization outcomes related to the manner, nature, and type of influences that occurred during sport involvement?
17 Tentative FindingsFamily and peers clearly more influential than the school in childhoodAt adolescence family becomes less influential and same sex peers more influentialMore school opportunities for girls may provide a more conducive environment for girls competitive sport experience
18 Questions to StudyAre parents aware of how their daily activities and practices undermine the principle of equal treatment?Have trends in parental behavior changed substantially or not?How do daughters who become involved in sport view their parents’ sport behavior?
19 Sex Differences in Sport Socialization In the early years, more similar than differentiatedActive parents have active children, with boys being more activeParents who enjoy physical activity encourage their childrenBy Grade 1, children “know” their sport ability, enjoyment, and usefulness
20 Differences Continued By Grade 1, children monitor parents’ cues for importance of doing wellChildren’s perceptions of competence related to parents perceptionsLower parental pressure r.elated to higher enjoyment
21 Differences, Continued Parents encourage sons more than daughters & that affects child’s competence perceptionAdolescents spend little time in sports even though sport is one of the most positive activities they experienceAdolescent activities continue to be highly gender stereotyped
22 Older women & Sport Socialization Beliefs about potential risks of vigorous exercise may limit participationResearch findings indicate that women are more durable than men from a physiological standpoint.One of the certain benefits of physical activity is health improvement
23 Old Age and The Aging Process Women seem to internalize false notionsSociety reinforces those notionsSo, even in older years, women are subject to gender role stereotypes.
24 ConclusionsThe issue of female sport socialization has greater social and political implications than mere research findings of studies in micro-sociology or psychology.Female participation in sport is related to the core ideas society holds about gender, equality, hierarchy, and physicality.