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Sport Management Sport Finance, Overview slides February 27, 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Sport Management Sport Finance, Overview slides February 27, 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sport Management Sport Finance, Overview slides February 27, 2007

2 Basics of Sport Finance Financial issues in sport -Mega-dollars -Stocks -Merger -Sport Apparel Industry -Sponsorship -Arenas and stadiums

3 Basic Financial Concepts Revenues and expenses Budgets Documentation Determining financial objectives Overview of accounting concepts

4 Financial Systems Financial Markets Financial Institutions Government Influence on Markets Environmental conditions

5 Business Structure in Sport Sole proprietorships General and Limited Partnerships Subchapter S Corporations C Corporations LLP and LLC

6 Financial Statements, Forecasts, and Planning Types Preparation Break-even analysis

7 Money and Time Value The worth of money Present and future value Annuities Risk

8 Financial Planning Examine future revenues and expenses Data gathering -Internal data -External data Process, 2 major elements -Forecasting revenues -Budgeting future expenses

9 More Planning Short term Long term Developing a pro forma budget

10 Sport Management Sport Finance, Specific slides February 27, 2007 Slides derived in part from Sport Finance by Fried, et al., 2003

11 Decision-making Process Sport Businesses make decisions similarly Often, more sophisticated, financial analysis Any business needs trained financial analysts -look at where the money is, or how to get it. Businesses usually take a different view of $$$ than individuals, however. -in most cases exist solely to make money -all businesses need to focus on the bottom- line, what comes in and what goes out.

12 Making and Managing Money Provides for future growth Aids in determining sales patterns/purchases Product launches Secure investors, venture capitalists Key to financial success, therefore is: Financial Planning

13 Constraints Decisions require comprehensive review of: Internal constraints External constraints Important to know and understand

14 How to make Money in Sport Ticket sales Licensing Television rights Lower costs Sell the team!

15 Asset backed security Why I asked you if you ever bought a car Collateral NFL offer (p. 12)

16 Most dynamic topic in 1990s Stadium construction deals Text focus is on pro stadiums, but… Image Other important aspects? Funded through municipal bonds

17 Basic Financial Concepts Will now look at basic terms and principles Distribute discussion items Write down ideas, information you read about in Chapter 2 of text. Then, as before, get with same group number Discuss and appoint spokesperson Share ideas with class

18 Revenues and Expenses List some revenues for a collegiate recreational sports department List some expenses for a collegiate recreational sports department Define financial debt -the owing of money to others When expenses exceed revenue…Then what R & E are often similar across industries

19 Budgets Includes revenues and expenses Used by all to help make decisions Several types, incremental, zero-based, etc. Critical analysis financial statements

20 Documentation Stockholder concerns Not end in itself, rather a tool Can get bogged down Often required by law Analyze financial Doability of projects Helps with backing Can you trust the numbers? -Thinking about buying a business?

21 Financial Objectives Primary might be making highest profit possible Keep stockholders happy -earnings per share -stock price appreciation or total earnings Increased stock value Example earnings vs. appreciated value

22 Other Factors of Interest to Investors How often dividends are paid Risk, uncertainty of future earnings Debt of company Corporate policies that influence decisions

23 Other Useful Analyses Considerations Where was the entity (financially) in the last year What is projected for the current year What its financial goals are Measurement of financial success vs. failure

24 Definition of Accounting According to Fried et al., accounting is defined as: the art of processing the revenue and expense numbers to develop appropriate reporting procedures upon which financial decisions are made (p. 28).

25 Some Basic Accounting Concepts Definition T-Accounts Understanding cash management (receiving and processing) Methods of tracking and monitoring

26 Basic Accounting Requirements Identification Measurement Recording Communication …of financial information associated with various critical events in the business.

27 Objective of Accounting Decisions about limited resources Effective directing and controlling the organizations human and material resources Maintaining and reporting on the custodianship of resources Contributing to the orgs. overall effectiveness

28 The Emphasis of Finance Recording Monitoring Controlling …the financial consequences of various activities within the business and analyzing the need for additional funds to meet current and future demands.

29 Controllers Mainly internal to business Accounting is most often performed by a controller -documents what happened, not what should have happened Focus is on accuracy and industry-defined rules Usually involved in Managerial Accounting

30 Managerial Accounting The process for forecasts and monitoring Data that facilitates communication between a business departments Facilitates internal success

31 Treasurer Focus mostly on external factors Bonds, stockholders, etc. Takes information from the accounting process Uses information as leverage Word of caution -note the glowing terms: linchpin (p. ix)

32 T-Accounts Right side is credit Left side is debit Key is to keep in mind what goes on left and on right (Debit=Left, Credit=Right) Multiple accounts are changing, referred to as double-entry bookkeeping

33 Cash vs. Accrual Basis GAAP Accrual is preferred technique -recognizes revenue when earned, recognizes expenses when incurred -key is record income when you perform the service whether it is paid for or not at the time Cash basis less likely to be used, less likely to be allowed by IRS -allowed to use when receiving and paying cash -does not recognize sales made on credit or bills owed until they are paid

34 Financial Systems Definition -mechanisms that allow anything of value to be exchanged between different parties (Fried, p. 36) Systems work in a cyclical manner Businesses work in a cyclical manner, also -constant exchange occurring, receiving and paying out money

35 Markets as part of Financial Systems Sometimes a sport business needs funds Several markets, discuss the primary listing -Tangible-Financial asset-Spot -Futures-Money-Capital -Mortgage-International-Primary -Secondary Use these to sell or obtain (buy) assets Sport business limited to certain ones? Y/N?

36 Money Paper/metal money Needed monetary vehicle, instruments In place of money Checks, credit cards More modern: EFT Deeds Ownership of stocks, bonds: marketable securities

37 Marketable Securities Widely accepted, like cash Liquidity of common stock Hard assets are opposite extreme: factory A/R and inventory are marketable Factoring makes some assets more liquid -selling assets -without recourse -with recourse More expensive than bank borrowing

38 Marketable Securities (continued) Liquid because of: -shorter maturity period (CD) -ability to sell on a daily basis (stock) -relatively risk free (govt. securities) Text examples of more common M.S.s -T-bills-Treasury notes -Government agency securities -CDs-Commercial paper

39 Financial Institutions Entities facilitate the transfer of capital Banks, long history -can influence markets -finite amount of cash in system -capital, think of as money on hand -capital reserve, prevent run (A Wonderful Life?) -borrowing, banks borrow, too -The Fed, raise or lower bank reserves -Not Alan Greenspan -Ben Bernanke, 1 st anniversary

40 Sole Proprietorship Owned by a single person No formal paperwork to start up Cost of organizing is low Control and profits are not shared Limited ability to raise capital Unlimited personal liability No support, you are alone Ends at death

41 In Sport Many businesses are sole proprietorship Sporting goods, bowling alleys, etc. Independent contractors Can incorporate

42 General/Limited Partnerships More than one person running business Minimal formation costs Few Governmental regulations Limited ability to raise capital Unlimited liability for all partners Immediate termination with death/withdrawal Two types: General and Limited

43 General Combine resources Share operating, managing and controling Share in profits and liabilities Greater access to capital Profits taxed only once Enhanced business decision making Limited longevity Joint liability Still have limited access to capital Limited human resource talent

44 Limited One general partner who manages One or more financial only partners Limited shares profits, but not management Liability is only financial, an incentive Ability for greater capital than sole prop. Profits not taxed until reported Allows for even more investments Lacks managerial involvement General still subject to unlimited liability

45 Subchapter S Corporations Many organized under this structure Up to 35 shareholders Can own subsidiaries Tax-exempt can own shares Income flows to shareholders who pay taxes Avoids double taxation Insulated from liability through sub. Owner One form of stock Based in US, no foreign investment, corporation ownership, partnerships Can not own 80% or more of anothers stock

46 C Corporations The Corporation Delaware friendliest state to Corporations More than half formed in DE Increased value of Delaware companies Corporation takes on liability Double taxation; profits and shareholders Government compliance, organization Shareholder rebellion

47 LLC Agile, inexpensive, timely Gaining favor in US because of simplicity Classification as partnership for tax reasons Liability protection given corporations Can be owned by corp. or partnership Newness, few standards, each state governs File articles of partnership in state SEC keeps their distance, unless publicly held

48 Financial Statements Balance sheet -financial state at given point Income Statement -profit/loss over a given time Statement of Cash Flows -change in cash position over given time

49 Balance Sheet Snapshot of business at single point Assets = Liabilities + Capital prov. by owners Listed according to length of time to liquidate Asset = nature of business Current Assets = Most liquid, 1 yr or less -cash, short-term assets -accounts receivable -inventory

50 Balance Sheet (cont.) Fixed assets -Least liquidity -Real estate -Plant -Equipment Not normally converted to cash for day-to-day …Lets visit Nike now

51 Balance Sheet (cont.) Liabilities -listed in the order they must be paid -current, pay in one year or less -long-term, time period? -reflection of decisions like debt vs. equity

52 Income Statement Measures profitability over given time period Income = Revenue – Expenses Balance sheet provides snapshot -income sheet, performance between the snapshots

53 Statement of Cash Flows Direct cash flow into business Changes in a companys cash holdings over given period of time Three primary sources -from operating activities -from investing activities -from financing activities Difference between brought in and paid out

54 Cash Flow from Operating Activities Positive and negative cash flow Result from company basic operating activity Equal to all operating revenues less all operating expenses other than non-cash Earn = positive Pay = Negative

55 Cash Flow from Investing Activity Additions to current or fixed assets Purchases of same lead to negative flow Selling leads to positive Increased liabilities increases cash flow here

56 Cash Flow from Financing Activity Flows to and from creditors and owners Changes in the firms debt and equity Increased borrowing increases cash flow Paying dividends results in negative Stock issue increases flow (like a loan?)

57 Types of Financial Ratios Why calculate ratios? Financial Scorekeeping Liquidity ratios -ability to meet short-term $$$ obligations Activity ratios -effectiveness in managing assets Financial leverage ratios -extent to which company relies on loans Profitability -ability to make enough to grow, also keep shareholders happy

58 Worth of a Business Market Value -Price per share of common stock X the average number of outstanding shares Book Value -Total Assets – Total Liabilities Book Value per Share -Owners equity / Total outstanding shares PE Ratio -Price per share / Earnings per share

59 Time Value of Money (Ch. 6) Money is sensitive to time How are changes in value calculated Time constraints Money received today worth more Time value of money: money decreases in value over time

60 An investment over time Better to have safe investment, or risk? Look at CD vs. junk bond -CD more secure, needs to outpace inflation -such return would exceed the time value of $ Consider another example, similar to text: Concept of Future Value (FV) Concept of Present Value (PV)

61 Perpetuities and Annuities Wouldnt even mention, except for Nike, ex. -former discussion of FDIC, $$$ protection -consols are something Nike, Microsoft might consider Annuities -problem with pensions, dont know term -more commonly used in U.S.

62 Financial Planning (C. 7) Examine income and expenses, future So, its trying to predict, provide appropriate solutions to financial issues How does one go about it?

63 Steps Gather data -Internal (sound familiar?), primary -External (sound familiar?), secondary Develop a process -history -short-term planning -Long-term planning Pro Forma Budget, incorporate

64 Internal Data Includes, but not limited to: -past balance sheets -past income statements -audited financial records -research and development reports -other? Primary sources, primary data

65 Zero-based budgeting Text: justify expense compared with others Objective documentation What it doesnt say…

66 External Data Includes but not limited to: -analyzing industry trends -tracking the rate of inflation, the cpi -tracking benchmark businesses -read -utilize agencies

67 Process Two major activities -forecasting potential revenues -budgeting for future expenses (budgeting)

68 Types of Planning Short-term Long-term

69 Pro Forma Budget Forecast future from past Base year Calculate from base A target agreed upon by management as indicator of success Sections of plan

70 Obtaining Funding How does one get money? -who is most likely to use what funding? -who uses commercial paper? -who uses the various types of long-term borrowing? -who uses mezzanine financing? -who uses venture capital?

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