Presentation on theme: "TM Sport-Related Concussions in Children and Adolescents What you need to know Mark Halstead, MD, FAAP Assistant Professor, Depts. of Pediatrics and Orthopedics."— Presentation transcript:
TM Sport-Related Concussions in Children and Adolescents What you need to know Mark Halstead, MD, FAAP Assistant Professor, Depts. of Pediatrics and Orthopedics Washington University Sports Medicine -- St Louis, MO Director, Sports Concussion Clinic TM Prepared for your next patient.
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TM Disclosure Faculty Disclosure Information In the past 12 months, I have not had any relevant financial relationships with the manufacturer of any commercial product and/or provider of commercial services discussed in this webinar. I do not intend to discuss an unapproved/investigative use of a commercial product/device in my presentation.
TM Objectives Understand the epidemiology of sport-related concussion. Determine appropriate in-office evaluation of a sport-related concussion. Analyze the role of computerized neurocognitive assessment of a concussion. Implement appropriate return to play protocols following a concussion.
TM Definition Complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain, induced by biomechanical forces 1st Intl Symposium on Concussion in Sport (Vienna, 2001) Organized by FIFA, IIHF, IOC
TM Definition: 5 Major Features 1.May be due to direct blow to face, head, neck, or elsewhere on body with impulsive force to head 2.Rapid onset of short-lived impairment of neurologic function that resolves spontaneously 3.Acute symptoms usually due to functional disturbance rather than structural injury 4.Results in graded set of clinical syndromes that may or may not involve loss of consciousness (LOS) 5.Typically associated with grossly normal neuroimaging studies
TM Epidemiology: Boys Sports Lincoln AE, Caswell SV, Almquist JL, et al. Trends in concussion incidence in high school sports: a prospective 11-year study. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(5):958–963; Castile L, Collins CL, McIIvain NM, et al. The epidemiology of new versus recurrent sports concussion among high school athletes Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(8):603–610; and Marar M, McIIvain NM, Fields SK, et al. Epidemiology of concussions among United States high school athletes in 20 sports. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(4):747–755
TM Epidemiology: Girls Sports Lincoln AE, Caswell SV, Almquist JL, et al. Trends in concussion incidence in high school sports: a prospective 11-year study. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(5):958–963; Castile L, Collins CL, McIIvain NM, et al. The epidemiology of new versus recurrent sports concussion among high school athletes Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(8):603–610; and Marar M, McIIvain NM, Fields SK, et al. Epidemiology of concussions among United States high school athletes in 20 sports. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(4):747–755
TM Concussion Epidemiology Marar M, McIIvain NM, Fields SK, et al. Epidemiology of concussions among United States high school athletes in 20 sports. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(4):747–755
TM Mechanism of Injury Gessel LM, Fields SK, Collins CL, et al. Concussions among United States high school and collegiate athletes. J Athl Train. 2007;42(4):495–503
TM Pathophysiology Neuronal Disruption Potassium Efflux, Release of Glutamate Increased Potassium Efflux Increased Demand for ATP and Glucose Metabolic Crisis Lactate accumulates; decreased cerebral blood flow
TM Common Signs and Symptoms +/- LOC Headache Dizziness Nausea/vomiting Unaware of period, opposition, score Confusion Amnesia Unaware of time, place, date Vacant stare/glassy eyed Slurred speech Feeling dinged, slow, foggy Visual changes Sensitivity to light/sound Unusual/inappropriate emotions (cry, laugh) Inappropriate playing behavior (running in wrong direction) Seizure
TM Common Symptoms Meehan WP 3rd, dHemecourt P, Comstock RD. High school concussions in the academic year: mechanisms, symptoms, and management. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(12):2405–2409; and Castile L, Collins CL, McIIvain NM, et al. The epidemiology of new versus recurrent sports concussion among high school athletes Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(8):603–610
TM On the Field: Sideline Assessment Various tools Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) Symptom Assessment Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 ([SCAT2] includes SAC, BESS, others) Question: Which is the best one to use and what do results mean?
TM Utility of the SCAT2 What are baseline norms for high schoolers? 11th and 12th graders were better than 9th graders 88.7 and 89.0 vs 86.9 (p<0.001) Athletes with self reported concussion history had lower scores than those with no history 87.0 vs 88.7 (p<0.001) Females scored better than males 88.7 vs 87.7 (p=.03) Cannot assume baseline of 100 as norm Valovich McLeod TC, Bay RC, Lam KC, et al. Representative baseline values on the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) in adolescent athletes vary by gender, grade, and concussion history. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(4):927–933
TM Utility of the SCAT2 Valovich McLeod TC, Bay RC, Lam KC, et al. Representative baseline values on the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) in adolescent athletes vary by gender, grade, and concussion history. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(4):927–933
TM BESS: Balance Error Scoring System Postural Stability Flat and 10cm foam 20 seconds each Count errors to score Eyes opening Movement Hands off hips Affected by environment Test after 15 minutes Footwear Surfaces Some rater reliability issues Some practice effect noted
TM When to Refer to Emergency Department General guidelines LOChow long? Focal neurological findings Worsening mental status Seizure activity Worsening headache Repeated emesis Concern is for structural injury requiring computed tomography (CT) scan
TM Neuroimaging Consider for all the things referral to emergency department (ED) CT scan initially Consider magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) if more prolonged recovery Remember, CT scan does not diagnose concussion Also, normal CT scan No concussion !!! Newer imaging (primarily research role) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Positron emission tomography (PET) Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
TM In the Office Assessment Same assessments that are done on the field may not be as helpful in the office SCAT2S is for Sideline Symptom score checklists Neurological examination Concussion history Balance assessments Most helpful first 3 days Vestibular system assessments School difficulties
TM Symptom Checklist
TM When to Refer to a Specialist Prolonged symptoms Severe symptoms that are not improving Your own individual comfort factor Patient with multiple concussions Decisions on retirement? No magic number Parental request
TM Neurocognitive Testing What is available? ImPACT (multiple tests) Axon Sports (playing cards test) Concussion vital signs Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics ([ANAM] primarily military) HeadMinder Formal pencil and paper testing with neuropsychologists
TM Neurocognitive Testing Benefits Gives data of brain function In use for many years with good normal values Computerized test is easy to administer Much less time needed compared to formal pencil and paper testing
TM Neurocognitive Testing Issues Standards for assessment How often? Testing while symptomatic? We suggest initial evaluation 24–72 hours after injury. Consult a physician for interpretation of ImPACT test results…second post-injury test should be administered 1–2 weeks after the initial post-injury test. We strongly discourage testing more than once a week. Baseline vs No Baseline Not validated below age 12 Pediatric ImPACT likely to be released by end of year Cost Who will interpret?
TM Issues that Affect Test Environment Group testing vs individuals Practice effects Prior computer use Baseline depression Overall effort Changing baselines Felt to be stable after 10th grade
TM What Role Do They Have? May be a part of a comprehensive concussion evaluation program May help identify the not so forthcoming athlete For more concrete and specific neurocognitive evaluation, especially when considering significant or prolonged school adjustments involve neuropsychologist for more formal testing
TM What They Do Not Do Predict length of recovery. Provide prognosis for future problems. Act as the sole determining factor for return to play. Act as a red light/green light.
TM How to Use First, develop a comprehensive concussion program for your clinic/school Consultants Education on the issuesstay currentrapidly evolving topic Appropriate plan for testing Setting Post-injury evaluation Physician or neuropsychologist to interpret the testing Do not treat to the test Do not just use computer results/summary score Electrocardiogram (EKG)
TM Future Directions Further evaluation on true utility of the test Appropriate time to test Is it really worth testing while symptomatic? Why is there now a post-testing symptom score on ImPACT? Are all components helpful? Is there one program that is better than others? At least two more were being marketed at the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Are there more appropriate evaluations? Should we keep trying to get shorter and quicker evaluations when assessing a brain injury?
TM Recovery Time Numerous studies suggest The younger the athlete, the longer the recovery Girls may take slightly longer than boys to recover and often have more symptoms Majority of concussions (80%+) are back to normal by 3 weeks following injury
TM Brain Rest Initially restrict all physical activity that increases heart rate or blood pressure Gym/recess Sporting activities Working out Recreational activities (skateboarding, etc.) These restrictions may change based on development of post-concussive syndrome.
TM Brain Rest Consider reducing cognitive stress Reduced school day/off school Reduced school load Untimed tests Tutoring May need to limit video games, texting, reading, computer use, television Consideration for restrictions on driving reduced reaction time is issue
TM Brain Rest Involve the school early Make adjustments ? days off Follow up with schools on adjustments being made High achieving students may not give in to adjustments
TM Returning to Play No return to play in an acute concussion until Asymptomatic at rest Asymptomatic with exertion Have completed full return to activity progression Cognitively back to baseline at school If concussion is suspected Pull from practice/game No return to play same day Medical evaluation and clearance before return State law in 41 states
TM Return to Play Do not allow to return to game/practice if suspected or diagnosed concussion on day of injury Do not allow return to play/practice/exertion until asymptomatic at rest Not a defined, set time frame (ie, 7 days, 2 weeks, etc.) Progressive, step-wise approach to return to play
TM Concussion Rehab Step-wise Return to Play No activity until asymptomatic Light aerobic activity Sport-specific training Non-contact training drills Full contact training after medically cleared Game play
TM Medication Use No evidence for efficacy and safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or other medication in management of sport concussion May be helpful for symptoms of post-concussive symptoms (typically all off-label uses) Sleep aids, attention-deficit disorder (ADD) medications, non-conventional headache medications, antidepressives Athlete must be off medication and symptom-free before return to sports
TM Retirement from Sports TRICKY! No magic number Consider for prolonged symptoms, multiple concussions Involve someone experienced in sport concussion management
TM THANK YOU! Questions?
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