Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Strategic Management & Sports Events Organizations Lionel Maltese.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Strategic Management & Sports Events Organizations Lionel Maltese."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strategic Management & Sports Events Organizations Lionel Maltese Maître de Conférences Paul Cézanne University (Aix-Marseille III) Affiliate Professor Euromed Marseille School of Management Strategic Planner French Tennis Events (Marseille, Paris, Roland Garros, Lyon, Toulouse) Seminar

2 Degree & Professional course Engineer Economist – Econometrics (Magistere 2001) DEA in Management Sciences – Strategy IAE Aix-en-Pce (2001) Doctorat (PHD) in Management Sciences – Strategy (2004) IAE Aix-en-Pce Academic Thesis in sport events context… « Maître de Conférences » Paul Cezanne University Strategy IUT-IAE (2004…) Affiliate Professor Euromed Marseille Strategy Sports & Events Management (2006…) Professional Consulting (Strategic Planner) & Event Organization (Entertainment management) Pampelonne Organisation (Open13, BNP Paribas Masters, Roland Garros, ATP, FFT, FFR, Occade Sport (GPTL-ASVEL), Team Lagardere…) (2001…)

3 Sports Organizations ? Media Broadcast Sponsors Institutions FederationsEvents Clubs Franchises Sports goods & Equipments Consulting Agencies Athletes agents

4 Club (or franchise) VS sport event Professional athletes management and control Clubs and Franchises : - Contracts : transactions and salary - Motivation : training, selection, financial premiums Athlete = asset for the managers Events : - Fees (ATP, PGA for instance) - No control of sport performance by the managers Dependency of the athletes (calendar for instance) and their professional associations (ATP, PGA, UCI…)

5 Main goals for this seminar ! Sports organizations [professional Events & Clubs] = management stake ? Sports organizations [professional Events & Clubs] = management stake ? Proposition of a new Strategic Management Model for these organizations ! Proposition of a new Strategic Management Model for these organizations ! Understand & manage key factors of success (or failure) : sponsoring, public relations, reputation, physical (stadium) & local factors, managerial skills… Understand & manage key factors of success (or failure) : sponsoring, public relations, reputation, physical (stadium) & local factors, managerial skills… Develop your professional skills on : strategic analysis & formulate Sport Organizations Business Plan (Development Plan) : STRATEGIC PLANNER for sport organizations Develop your professional skills on : strategic analysis & formulate Sport Organizations Business Plan (Development Plan) : STRATEGIC PLANNER for sport organizations

6 Focus on Event Concept In sports context, event is everywhere : National Championships (every week ! : NBA, MLB, NFL, NHL, LNF, Top 14, Premier League…) National Championships (every week ! : NBA, MLB, NFL, NHL, LNF, Top 14, Premier League…) National and International Competitions (JO, World Cups…) National and International Competitions (JO, World Cups…) One shot events (every year) : Roland Garros, Tour de France, ATP, PGA, Superbowl, Formula 1… exhibitions… One shot events (every year) : Roland Garros, Tour de France, ATP, PGA, Superbowl, Formula 1… exhibitions……

7 For consumers : Entertainment & Event = experiential service Key questions Strategic Marketing : How to show the show ? How to show the show ? How to sell, communicate, package this experiential service ? How to sell, communicate, package this experiential service ? Who are our consumers : B to B, B to C, C to C… : working on communities (fans : difficult for an event !) Who are our consumers : B to B, B to C, C to C… : working on communities (fans : difficult for an event !) Strategy : Strategy : To perform and to develop sustainable performances on : sports measures, financial ratios, affluence – audience… To perform and to develop sustainable performances on : sports measures, financial ratios, affluence – audience…

8 But… we need definitions (Covell an al., 2007) Organization : « Any group of people working together to achieve a common pupose or goals thant could not be attained by individuals working separately » Organization : « Any group of people working together to achieve a common pupose or goals thant could not be attained by individuals working separately » Management : Management : The coordination of human, material, technological, and financial resources needed for the organization ti achieve its goals. The coordination of human, material, technological, and financial resources needed for the organization ti achieve its goals. Responsibility for performance Responsibility for performance

9 But : w hat is performance for sports organizations ? Performance indicators (Pis) give us an evaluation process that can provide objective and meaningful performance feedback to aid future decision making. Performance indicators (Pis) give us an evaluation process that can provide objective and meaningful performance feedback to aid future decision making. The methods of evaluation are both quantitative and qualitative but all the final results depend upon one or more manager interpretation The methods of evaluation are both quantitative and qualitative but all the final results depend upon one or more manager interpretation The key for sport organizations : your stakeholder analysis. The key for sport organizations : your stakeholder analysis.

10 Sport organizations – performance and stakeholders You can evaluate returns for : You can evaluate returns for : Média Média Athletes Athletes Sponsors Sponsors Institutions Institutions Spectators Spectators Cities Cities Suppliers Suppliers Owner Owner…. Various PIs for different objectives and muliple stakeholders… Various PIs for different objectives and muliple stakeholders…

11 Managing an event ? Learning by Doing : operational organization Self Made Men : (Jean-Marie Leblanc, Jean-François Caujolle, Gilles Moretton…) without academic formation (tacit knowledge and not explicit : see Julien & Vincent presentation…) Learning by Doing : operational organization Self Made Men : (Jean-Marie Leblanc, Jean-François Caujolle, Gilles Moretton…) without academic formation (tacit knowledge and not explicit : see Julien & Vincent presentation…) Distinction between : Distinction between : Operational activities : press, ticketing, sports aspects, technical (stage manager) direction, volunteers or vacations management… Operational activities : press, ticketing, sports aspects, technical (stage manager) direction, volunteers or vacations management… Development (you !) : experts in : Marketing, Strategy, Finances, RH… THE FUTURE IN SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS (Jean-Michel Aulas, Jean-Claude Blanc, Patrice Clerc, Christian Prudhomme…) Development (you !) : experts in : Marketing, Strategy, Finances, RH… THE FUTURE IN SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS (Jean-Michel Aulas, Jean-Claude Blanc, Patrice Clerc, Christian Prudhomme…) The twice but without sleeping… The twice but without sleeping…

12 Categorization of events Scale of impacts (attendance, media, profile, infrastructure, costs, benefits) High Low LOCALMAJORHALLMARKMEGA-EVENT Category of event

13 Categorization of events Local or community events : Local consumers (Beach events, Corrida, Snowboard & Surf contest, ATP International Series Tournaments, National Events…) Local or community events : Local consumers (Beach events, Corrida, Snowboard & Surf contest, ATP International Series Tournaments, National Events…) Major events : Media interest (coverage & benefits) and capability of attracting significant visitor numbers (Formula 1, Master Series ATP, PGA…) Major events : Media interest (coverage & benefits) and capability of attracting significant visitor numbers (Formula 1, Master Series ATP, PGA…)

14 Categorization of events Hallmark events : identified with the spirit or ethos of a town, city or region (synonymous with the name of the place) & very traditional (Wimbledon is the best example, 24H du Man, Paris Dakar, Masters Evian…) Hallmark events : identified with the spirit or ethos of a town, city or region (synonymous with the name of the place) & very traditional (Wimbledon is the best example, 24H du Man, Paris Dakar, Masters Evian…) Mega events : so large that they affect whole economics and reverberate in the global media (Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup, IAAF World Championships, Superbowl, March Madness, NBA, MLB, NHL Finals…) Mega events : so large that they affect whole economics and reverberate in the global media (Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup, IAAF World Championships, Superbowl, March Madness, NBA, MLB, NHL Finals…)

15 Stakeholders in sport organizations Private sponsors Organisation Public sponsors Sport institutions Media Spectators Athletes Suppliers Event / Club

16 How to control external environment (stakeholders) and how to be independent to perform, to develop and maintain ? How to control external environment (stakeholders) and how to be independent to perform, to develop and maintain ? Now before studying strategic analytic tools : What is Strategy ? What are the more sensemaking approaches to analyze a sports organizations and their stakeholders ? So sport organizations are in the eye of important actors stakeholders : Our strategic problematic is :

17 Main Strategic Approaches (Saias & Métais, 2001) POSITIONINGMOVEMENT Competitive Advantage Resource- Based View RBV Permanent Transformation STRATEGIC « FIT » STRATEGIC « INTENT » S.W.O.T 5 Forces Michael Porter & Co Gary Hamel and C. K Prahalad & Co

18 FIT What business are we in ? S-C-P : Structure Conduct Performance S-C-P : Structure Conduct Performance The structure of the industry will dictate the conduct of firms and thereby their performance (most popular : SWOT or five-forces model ( Porter, 1979 )). The structure of the industry will dictate the conduct of firms and thereby their performance (most popular : SWOT or five-forces model ( Porter, 1979 )). The big illustration is the 5 Forces Model (Porter, 1979). The big illustration is the 5 Forces Model (Porter, 1979).

19 Porters Five Forces (Industry) Barriers to Entry Bargaining Power of Suppliers Bargaining Power of Customers Competitors Substitutes

20 INTENT What are we able to make with what we have ? RBV (Resource-Based-View, Wernerfelt, 1984, Barney, 1991, Grant, 1991 ) : certain assets (resources and capabilities) with certain characteristics will lead to sustainable competitive advantage. RBV (Resource-Based-View, Wernerfelt, 1984, Barney, 1991, Grant, 1991 ) : certain assets (resources and capabilities) with certain characteristics will lead to sustainable competitive advantage. Strategy dictated by unique resources and capabilities of the firm (what can the firm do best?) Strategy dictated by unique resources and capabilities of the firm (what can the firm do best?)

21 Concepts definitions Resources : stocks of available factors that are owned or controlled by the firm (Amit and Schoemaker, 1993) Capabilities : a firms capacity to deploy resources, usually in combination, using organizational processes, to effect a desired end (Amit and Schoemaker, 1993) Dynamic capabilities : capacity of the organization to renew competences to be in line with the changing business environment (Teece and al., 1997). Asset = resource + capability

22 Resource Based-View : VRIO model (Barney, 1991) Resources & capacities Lead to Sustained Competitive Advantage V alue R areness I nimitability Non- Substitutability O rganization

23 VRIO Properties Is the resource or capability… ValuableRare Difficult to imitate Difficult to substitute Organizational Implications Neutralize threats and exploit opportunities Not many firms possess Physically unique Path dependency Causal ambiguity Social complexity No equivalent strategic resources or capabilities Productive exploitation by the organization

24 FIT : Soccer metaphor The strategy (tactical) is a function of the external environment (rival teams : opportunities - threats). The trainer has a tactic adapted to the adversary and the players (resources) adapt to this positioning (diagram of play).

25 Intent : Soccer metaphor The head coach "visionary" (or manager) has resources (players) and sets up a strategy (tactical) starting from these forces and weaknesses (resources), in order to face to certain opportunities or threats of the environment (air play, speed, physical engagement)

26 So What ? How can we implement that ? Its very theoretical ! How can we implement that ? Its very theoretical ! Your and my job : to be able to construct a business plan (development) with a specific RBV analysis (your sensemaking background), and furthermore : Your and my job : to be able to construct a business plan (development) with a specific RBV analysis (your sensemaking background), and furthermore : Persuade and control our stakeholders Persuade and control our stakeholders Maintain our performance Maintain our performance To be ready for new opportunities and threats because of very instable sports environment… To be ready for new opportunities and threats because of very instable sports environment… Managing resources & capabilities = core competency of a modern CEO in sport organizations (Jean-Claude Blanc…and you !)

27 Categorizing resources Barney (1991) : 3 Barney (1991) : 3 Physical capital : technology, plants, equipment, geographical localization… Physical capital : technology, plants, equipment, geographical localization… Human capital : formation, experience, networks - relationships… Human capital : formation, experience, networks - relationships… Organizational capital : formal structure, control, routines, process, coordination systems… Organizational capital : formal structure, control, routines, process, coordination systems… Grant (1991) : 6 Grant (1991) : 6 financial, physical, human, technological, organizational, reputation. financial, physical, human, technological, organizational, reputation. Wernerfelt (1989) : 3 Wernerfelt (1989) : 3 Fixed assets : plants, equipment… Fixed assets : plants, equipment… Blueprints : patent, brand, reputation Blueprints : patent, brand, reputation Teamwork effects : routines, habits, experience… Teamwork effects : routines, habits, experience…

28 Sport events & clubs : assets identification Sport Event & Clubs Financial resources « Profit centres » Ticketting Contracts (sponsoring, Public Relations) & Players (clubs only) TV rights Merchandising Institutions (public subsidies) RenownHistory Sport performance Affluence, audience Assets Players & coach (clubs only) Partnership (sponsoring, partners) Reputation (event, sport, players) Relational (Social capital, relational networks, Public Relations) Physical (infrastructures, stadium, territory) Organizational Capabilities (Core competences, event driven know how, project management)) (Core competences, event driven know how, project management))

29 RBV first model for a sport organization Relational Resources Partnership Resources Resources portfolio Core Competencies, Capabilities Performance, Sucess Long Term Sport Success Organizational team, Managers PROPERTIES?PROPERTIES? Financial Sucess Public Sucess Reputational Resources Physical Resources Concepts Players Coach (club only)

30 Success case Open Open13 Open13 Familial professional bricolage from Marseille VIDEO

31 Open13 Physical Resources Reputational Resources Partnership Resources Relational Resources Organizational capabilities Corporate Reputation Sport Reputation Relational competencies CEO celebrityOpportunism

32 Cascade of assets Stock of resources Relational Resources « Axes » Partnership Resources Reputational Resources Physical resources Learning Organizational Capabilities Dynamic Capabilities « Bricolage »

33 Partnership resources Sponsoring : brand image, image transfer, notoriety, visibility, target specificity, TV… Sponsoring : brand image, image transfer, notoriety, visibility, target specificity, TV… Examples : BNP Paribas, Louis Vuitton, Rollex, Peugeot, Indesit, Adidas, Nike, Fedex, Coca-Cola, Philips, Renault, Mercedes… Examples : BNP Paribas, Louis Vuitton, Rollex, Peugeot, Indesit, Adidas, Nike, Fedex, Coca-Cola, Philips, Renault, Mercedes… Public Relations : Business relations, Employee relation, Government relations… Public Relations : Business relations, Employee relation, Government relations… Examples of RP events : PGA tour, Americas Cup, ATP tournaments (Open13, GPTL, RG…).. Examples of RP events : PGA tour, Americas Cup, ATP tournaments (Open13, GPTL, RG…)..

34 Definition Provision of assistance either financial or in kind to an activity by a commercial organization for the purpose of achieving commercial objective (Meenaghan, 1983) Sponsorship involves two main activities (Cornwell and Maignan, 1998) : exchange between a sponsor and a sponsoree whereby the latter receives a remuneration (cash or in-kind contribution) and the former obtains the right to associate itself with the activity sponsored marketing of the association by the sponsor

35 Benefits for the sponsor : achieve communication objectives SPONSOR Firm, non profit organization, institution… SPONSORED Entity : individual, group, oragnization, event… Area : sports, arts, environment.. Sponsor support : financial or not Media Sponsor target Sponsored Target PUBLIC

36 Strategic approaches for sponsorship Passion approach : passion of a CEO (The dancer of the President) : RLD (Adidas – Om), Serge Kampf (Cap Gemini – BO) Passion approach : passion of a CEO (The dancer of the President) : RLD (Adidas – Om), Serge Kampf (Cap Gemini – BO) Opportunistic approach : link between a sponsorship project and a firm CEO (Sodexho / Cities – Thomson / Canal +…) Opportunistic approach : link between a sponsorship project and a firm CEO (Sodexho / Cities – Thomson / Canal +…) Strategic approach : sponsorship integration with the global strategic communication or marketing strategy of a firm (banks, sport brands… ) Strategic approach : sponsorship integration with the global strategic communication or marketing strategy of a firm (banks, sport brands… )

37 Implementation by the event organizer Targeting – Activation – Faithfulness - Innovation Knowledge about the sponsors activities (strategy – marketing – finance – human resources) Knowledge about the sponsors activities (strategy – marketing – finance – human resources) Event = pool of communication and marketing tools => Fit with sponsors needs Event = pool of communication and marketing tools => Fit with sponsors needs Do not implement a communication tool if youre not able to evaluate or control it… Be careful to overflowing effects ! Do not implement a communication tool if youre not able to evaluate or control it… Be careful to overflowing effects !

38 Implementation by the event organizer Targeting – Activation – Faithfulness - Innovation Activation : Activation : Participative actions for the sponsors and their target (best example : NBA All Star Game Participative actions for the sponsors and their target (best example : NBA All Star Game Importance of the HOSPITALITY (B to B and B to C) (best example : PR Village) Importance of the HOSPITALITY (B to B and B to C) (best example : PR Village) Communicate about your sponsors loyalty (faithful) Communicate about your sponsors loyalty (faithful) If you can (very rare) : using your sponsorship evaluation about efficiency in your event ! If you can (very rare) : using your sponsorship evaluation about efficiency in your event ! Innovation : NTIC – Buzz Marketing – Technological innovation (MSL for instance & HD for TV broadcast) Innovation : NTIC – Buzz Marketing – Technological innovation (MSL for instance & HD for TV broadcast)

39 Summary : being sensemaking ! Understand the sponsor needs (your customer !) : Understand the sponsor needs (your customer !) : Targeting for your sponsor (sponsor day for instance) Targeting for your sponsor (sponsor day for instance) Linking your media planning with the communication strategy of your sponsors Linking your media planning with the communication strategy of your sponsors Selecting the media Selecting the media No concurrency between the brands… No concurrency between the brands… Being aware for new activations…. Being aware for new activations…. Making you sponsor dependant and not the contrary Making you sponsor dependant and not the contrary Using strategic FIT for your sponsor but You must be a visionary (strategic INTENT)

40 Event or Club Partneship Resources Sponsor Event communication (sponoring resources) VRIO Linkage among resources

41 Relational Resources Event Managers Social Capital (Christian Bîmes & Jean-Claude Blanc, Patrice Clerc & Jean-Marie Leblanc …) Event Managers Social Capital (Christian Bîmes & Jean-Claude Blanc, Patrice Clerc & Jean-Marie Leblanc …) Relational and business networks : GPTL (Marie Roussille (Occade) in Lyon), Pampelonne (Jean-François Caujolle) Relational and business networks : GPTL (Marie Roussille (Occade) in Lyon), Pampelonne (Jean-François Caujolle)

42 Public Relations (PR) ? Public Relations is a management function which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures and interest of an organization followed by executing a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance. " (Edward Bernays) Public Relations is a management function which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures and interest of an organization followed by executing a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance. " (Edward Bernays) According to Michel Crozier (1957) : Public Relations is a set of processes used by managers to gain external publics sympathy and goodwill. According to Michel Crozier (1957) : Public Relations is a set of processes used by managers to gain external publics sympathy and goodwill.

43 PR for events managers Press-relations : control & development Press-relations : control & development Events creation during your event Events creation during your event Political PR Political PR « People » exploitation (dedicated person in your organization) « People » exploitation (dedicated person in your organization) Construction and management of relational networks inside and outside your event Construction and management of relational networks inside and outside your event Forging an « iron cage » for your event network : be carefull about the balance between quantitative and qualitative interpersonal relationships Forging an « iron cage » for your event network : be carefull about the balance between quantitative and qualitative interpersonal relationships

44 Interpersonal ties efficiency (Granovetter, 1973) The Strength of Weak Ties, 4 criteria : Relation duration Relation duration Emotional intensity Emotional intensity Intimacy Intimacy Services reciprocity between stakeholders Services reciprocity between stakeholders

45 Physical (territorial) Resources Stadium : Wimbledon, Roland Garros, Madison Quare Garden… Stadium : Wimbledon, Roland Garros, Madison Quare Garden… Territory : Tour de France, F1, Rally & Tennis (Monte Carlo), 24 H du Man, Stade Toulousain, Pau-Orthez, Derby de la Meije… Territory : Tour de France, F1, Rally & Tennis (Monte Carlo), 24 H du Man, Stade Toulousain, Pau-Orthez, Derby de la Meije… Infrastructures : training camps and conditions… Infrastructures : training camps and conditions…

46 Reputational Resources Event legend and history : JO, Americas Cup, Le Tour de France, Roland Garros, Wimbledon… Event legend and history : JO, Americas Cup, Le Tour de France, Roland Garros, Wimbledon… Corporate Reputation : FFT, Amaury, IMG, Octagon… Corporate Reputation : FFT, Amaury, IMG, Octagon… SUPERBOWL VIDEO SUPERBOWL VIDEO SUPERBOWL VIDEO SUPERBOWL VIDEO

47 Réputation ?

48 World's Most Admired Companies 2007

49 Top 20 For the 20 most admired companies overall, FORTUNE's survey asked businesspeople to vote for the companies that they admired most, from any industry. RankCompany 1General Electric 2Starbucks 3Toyota Motor 4Berkshire Hathaway 5Southwest Airlines 6FedEx 7Apple Apple 1 8Google 9Johnson & Johnson 10Procter & Gamble 11Goldman Sachs Group 12Microsoft 13Target 143M 15Nordstrom 16United Parcel Service 17American Express 18Costco Wholesale 19*PepsiCo 19*Wal-Mart Stores

50 Understanding the Meaning of Performance ? Event Internal Measure P.A.P.E.R Test Sponsoring Efficiency (Partners) PR Efficiency (Partners) Event Reputation Performance Institutional Performance Media Performance Brand Exploitation ? Stakeholders Performance Shareholders performance Athletes Performance

51 Reputation = key resource ? REPUTATION => Sustained Competitive Advantage V alue R areness I nimitability Non- Substitutability O rganization

52 Reputation = key asset but difficult to control Media exposition Media exposition Being Good or Being Known (Business School cases !) Being Good or Being Known (Business School cases !) Notoriety / Reputation Notoriety / Reputation Actors Reputation (athletes, coach, Managers) : differences between local & major / hallmark & mega events Actors Reputation (athletes, coach, Managers) : differences between local & major / hallmark & mega events

53 Expressive organizations ? In the context of Entertainment and sport : organizations (clubs & events) are expressive Sports organizations compete based on their ability to express who they are and what they stand for. Sports organizations compete based on their ability to express who they are and what they stand for. Emotional and symbolic expressiveness is becoming part of the experience of doing business… Emotional and symbolic expressiveness is becoming part of the experience of doing business… Expressiveness : strategy must serve all stakeholders and that means employees as well as customers, shareholders, creditors, suppliers, local or special communities, and the media. Expressiveness : strategy must serve all stakeholders and that means employees as well as customers, shareholders, creditors, suppliers, local or special communities, and the media. Product Sport competition Services Hospitality : B to C – B to B Experience Entertainment Expressiveness implementation : Very difficult !

54 Linking Identity, Reputation and Expressive Organization (club or event) Brand

55 Identity (Fombrun, 1996) Corporate identity describes the set of values and principles employees (and players) managers associate with a company. Corporate identity describes the set of values and principles employees (and players) managers associate with a company. Corporate identity derives from a companys experiences since its founding, its cumulative record of successes and failures : very important for sports organizations ! Corporate identity derives from a companys experiences since its founding, its cumulative record of successes and failures : very important for sports organizations !

56 Reputation (Fombrun, 1996) Reputation is the general estimation in which one is held by the public (American Heritage Dictionarys) Reputation is the general estimation in which one is held by the public (American Heritage Dictionarys) A corporate reputation represents the net affective or emotional reaction – good or bad, weak or strong – of customers, investors, employees, and the general public to the companys name. A corporate reputation represents the net affective or emotional reaction – good or bad, weak or strong – of customers, investors, employees, and the general public to the companys name.

57 Whats in a name ? Sports organizations names are very strategic : Sports organizations names are very strategic : Cities Cities Objects, animals, groups, symbols, features : Colts – Bulls – Celtics – Patriots - Indians… Objects, animals, groups, symbols, features : Colts – Bulls – Celtics – Patriots - Indians… Sponsors : BNP Paribas, H Cup, Evian Masters, Andros Trophy… Sponsors : BNP Paribas, H Cup, Evian Masters, Andros Trophy… Moreover : in a market society like ours, its clear that names – and the reputations we associate with them – have economic value : Moreover : in a market society like ours, its clear that names – and the reputations we associate with them – have economic value : Michael Jordan : continued to bring in top endorsement income from companies like Nike, Hanes, General Mills and Quaker Oaks (estimated $ 13 million a year) Michael Jordan : continued to bring in top endorsement income from companies like Nike, Hanes, General Mills and Quaker Oaks (estimated $ 13 million a year) Jack Nicklaus, Arnold palmer (golf), Joe Montana, Wayne Gretzky, Andre Agassi, Zinedine Zidane… Jack Nicklaus, Arnold palmer (golf), Joe Montana, Wayne Gretzky, Andre Agassi, Zinedine Zidane…

58 Reputation and media Difficulty to control inside de Communication Mix (TV, Radio, Internet, Press, posting) ! Difficulty to control inside de Communication Mix (TV, Radio, Internet, Press, posting) ! For sports organizations : you can develop your own information for the public : official website (very important !) and sometimes own press (production) or TV For sports organizations : you can develop your own information for the public : official website (very important !) and sometimes own press (production) or TV

59 Linking Identity – Name – Image – Reputation (Fombrun, 1996) Corporate Identity Names Self-Presentations Community Image Investor Image Employee Image Corporate Reputation Customer Image

60 Brand construction and control in a very expressive organization… Place, City, Country Public, Fans, Communities Sponsors brand Athletes brand Club or Event Brand

61 Brand construction is difficult in this context… But : Reputation construction and control can stimulate and develop your commercial brand !

62 Corporate Reputations can be measured and managed 1. Reputation management 2. The Reputation Quotient

63 Reputation management (Fombrun, 1996) REPUTATION Visibility Authenticity Consistency Distinctiveness Transparency

64 Communicates Appropriately with Everyone… Carries out Visible Stakeholder Initiatives… Participates in Worthy Social Initiatives… Is Recognizably Different... Makes a Distinctive Promise… Stands out… Walks the Talk… Is Identifiable in its Communications… Conveys a Consistent Message… States Its Beliefs Openly… Discloses Information in a Timely Fashion… Shows Responsiveness to all Stakeholders… Is Credible and Sincere in Its Communications… Is Honest… Is Appealing to deal with… Visible Distinctive Consistent Transparent Authentic Expressiveness Quotient The expressiveness quotient (Fombrun and Van Riel, 2004)

65 Reputation management in action ! You have to CreateProtectRepair your reputation Indeed bad reputation can affect brand development… (OM)

66 But dont forget your resources reputation ! Sponsors Brand Sponsors Brand PR and CEO celebrity PR and CEO celebrity Local or cultural identity Local or cultural identity Hospitality (stadium) Hospitality (stadium) Your history ! Your history ! Being Known => not always Being Good (Stade Français or NY Knicks cases…)

67 Reputations are magnets : they help a company attract resources (Fombrun and Van Riel, 2004) REPUTATION Employees Customers Investors Media Journalists Financial Analysts Make jobs more attractive & motivate hard work Encourages repeat purchase & builds market share Lowers capital costs & attracts next investment Generates more favorable Press coverage Affects content of coverage And recommendations

68 Measure : reputation Quotient (6 dimensions and 20 attributes) (Fombrun and Van Riel, 2004) REPUTATION Social Responsibility Supports Good Causes Environmental Responsibility Community Responsibility Vision & Leadership Market Opportunities Excellent Leadership Clear Vision for the future Financial Performance Record of profitability Low Risk investment Growth Prospects Outperforms Competitors Workplace Environment Good Place to work Good employees Rewards Employees Fairly Products & Services High Quality Innovative Value for money Stands Behind Emotional Appeal Feel good about Admire and Respect Trust 7-pt scale 7 = describes very well 1=oes not describe well

69 Transfer in the context of sports organizations REPUTATION Social Responsibility Supports Good Causes (Ethic) Environmental Responsibility Community Responsibility (fans) Vision & Leadership Market Opportunities Excellent Leadership Clear Vision for the future CEO celebrity Financial Performance Record of profitability Low Risk investment Growth Prospects Outperforms Competitors Media returns - affluence Stakeholders performance Workplace Environment Good Place to work Good employees Volunteers management Products & Services High Quality of sport show & experience Innovative Value for money (tickets) Hospitality Emotional Appeal Admire and Respect sport & athletes Passion & hedonism Comsumer experience 7-pt scale 7 = describes very well 1=oes not describe well

70 Mega Event

71 Remarks… Communication : fit with the actuality ? Communication : fit with the actuality ? Merchandising and memory ? Merchandising and memory ? Identity and Reputation : places – french inheritance Identity and Reputation : places – french inheritance The athlete is known because of the event The athlete is known because of the event Difficulty to target : popular event Difficulty to target : popular event Caravane : sponsoring unicityCaravane : sponsoring unicityCaravane Event director : charisma and celebrity : Jean- Marie Leblanc Christian Prudhomme Event director : charisma and celebrity : Jean- Marie Leblanc Christian Prudhomme

72 Questions ? How do you manage an exceptional (mega) event ? How do you manage an exceptional (mega) event ? Development ? Innovation ? Development ? Innovation ? Answers ? You have to maintain your level ! You have to maintain your level ! Reputation management (creation – protection (doping) – repair) : pivotal resource ! Reputation management (creation – protection (doping) – repair) : pivotal resource ! If you can : transform your event reputation into a brand If you can : transform your event reputation into a brand+ External control (sponsors – media – institutions – communities…) External control (sponsors – media – institutions – communities…)

73 Reputation Brand Roland Garros

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81 5 principles Reputation Management For Roland Garros Be visible Media choice (F2-3) Stadium evolution Be authentic Traditional identity History respect (museum) Etre consistent Sport advantage Sponsors control (colors on the court) Etre distinctive Sport exception : Grand Slam Clay courts Physical impacts Etre transparent Communication (ex players) FFT is an association (now difficulty with Christian Bîmes)

82 Physical Resources Relational Resources Partner Resources Reputational Resources Organisational Capabilities Corporate Reputation Sport Reputation LearningForecasting Protection Exploitation

83 Cascade of assets Stock of resources Reputational Resources « axes » Partnership Resources Physical Resources Relational Resources Learning Organizational Capabilities Dynamic Capabilities « Bricolage »

84 Jean-Claude Blanc : resources management strategist… No Resources Dependency + External control of the environment = rents optimization (most important in France) Ticketting 21 million Sponoring 25.5 million TV Rights 32 million Public Relations 31 million Equilibrium « Resource-Based » ( )


Download ppt "Strategic Management & Sports Events Organizations Lionel Maltese."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google