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Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Sports Nutrition Katie Armfield, Dietitian Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Sports Nutrition Katie Armfield, Dietitian Vanderbilt University Medical Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Sports Nutrition Katie Armfield, Dietitian Vanderbilt University Medical Center

2 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Whats in it for me? Benefits of Optimal Fueling: Benefits of Optimal Fueling: -Improved strength, speed, and stamina -Delayed fatigue -Enhanced healing of injuries and/or illness -Improved Performance!!

3 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 What we will cover today… Formula to estimate your calorie needs Formula to estimate your calorie needs Macronutrients- carbohydrates, protein, fat, and water Macronutrients- carbohydrates, protein, fat, and water Micronutrients- vitamins, minerals Micronutrients- vitamins, minerals Menu options Menu options Pre and post exercise meals Pre and post exercise meals The real scoop on supplements The real scoop on supplements

4 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 How many calories do I need? You need sufficient calories to fuel your body and perform at your best You need sufficient calories to fuel your body and perform at your best Most athletes underestimate their calorie needs Most athletes underestimate their calorie needs Calorie Formula- Body weight (in pounds) x 23 calories Calorie Formula- Body weight (in pounds) x 23 calories The only nutrients that provide calories are carbohydrates, protein, and fat The only nutrients that provide calories are carbohydrates, protein, and fat

5 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Carbohydrates The primary fuel for most types of exercise and the most important nutrient for athletic performance The primary fuel for most types of exercise and the most important nutrient for athletic performance Carbohydrates should be eaten at all meals and before and after exercise Carbohydrates should be eaten at all meals and before and after exercise Low-carbohydrate diets are NOT appropriate for athletes!! Low-carbohydrate diets are NOT appropriate for athletes!!

6 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Carbohydrates Recommended level g/kg per day Recommended level g/kg per day At meals, carbohydrates should take up 2/3 of your plate At meals, carbohydrates should take up 2/3 of your plate Foods containing carbohydrates: bread, rice, pasta, cereals, crackers, fruits, juices, vegetables, dried beans/peas Foods containing carbohydrates: bread, rice, pasta, cereals, crackers, fruits, juices, vegetables, dried beans/peas

7 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Protein Used for building and repairing muscles, red blood cells, hair, and other tissues Used for building and repairing muscles, red blood cells, hair, and other tissues Used for energy when carbohydrates are not available Used for energy when carbohydrates are not available Protein from food or a protein supplement acts the same in the body Protein from food or a protein supplement acts the same in the body Food is the easiest, most effective, and least costly way to meet protein needs! Food is the easiest, most effective, and least costly way to meet protein needs!

8 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Protein Recommended level g/kg per day Recommended level g/kg per day Athletes get enough protein for muscle growth and repair in an average mixed diet Athletes get enough protein for muscle growth and repair in an average mixed diet Extra protein not needed by the body is burned for energy or stored as fat Extra protein not needed by the body is burned for energy or stored as fat

9 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Protein Although athletes protein needs are slightly higher than non-athletes, research shows that most athletes can eat enough protein without using additional supplements or following a high-protein diet. Although athletes protein needs are slightly higher than non-athletes, research shows that most athletes can eat enough protein without using additional supplements or following a high-protein diet. Protein is found in meat, poultry, dairy products, eggs, nuts, tofu, and beans Protein is found in meat, poultry, dairy products, eggs, nuts, tofu, and beans

10 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Fat Helps sustain prolonged exercise Helps sustain prolonged exercise Source of stored energy, burned mostly during low-level activity and when other sources are not available Source of stored energy, burned mostly during low-level activity and when other sources are not available Fat should comprise no more than % of our total calories Fat should comprise no more than % of our total calories Healthier fat choices: nuts, seeds, olive oil, canola oil, fish, avocados, and olives Healthier fat choices: nuts, seeds, olive oil, canola oil, fish, avocados, and olives

11 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Vitamins and Minerals Needed to regulate processes in the body- used to utilize energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat Needed to regulate processes in the body- used to utilize energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat Calcium- builds bones, length, and strength Calcium- builds bones, length, and strength Helps your muscles contract and nerves function Helps your muscles contract and nerves function Found in dairy products, calcium-fortified orange juice, dark green vegetables, dried legumes Found in dairy products, calcium-fortified orange juice, dark green vegetables, dried legumes

12 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Vitamins and Minerals Iron- aids in energy metabolism Iron- aids in energy metabolism Deficiency can lead to weakness and reduced resistance to infection Deficiency can lead to weakness and reduced resistance to infection Iron is found in lean meats, eggs, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables Iron is found in lean meats, eggs, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables Vitamin C increases the bodys ability to absorb iron Vitamin C increases the bodys ability to absorb iron

13 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Hydration Athletes need to be hydrated before, during, and after practice and competition to achieve optimal performance Athletes need to be hydrated before, during, and after practice and competition to achieve optimal performance Early fatigue is a sign of dehydration and thirst is not an adequate indicator of fluid needs Early fatigue is a sign of dehydration and thirst is not an adequate indicator of fluid needs Athletes need cups of total fluid per day Athletes need cups of total fluid per day

14 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Hydration Before Exercise: Drink oz of fluid 2 hours prior to exercise and 15 minutes before activity drink another 8 oz of fluid Before Exercise: Drink oz of fluid 2 hours prior to exercise and 15 minutes before activity drink another 8 oz of fluid During Exercise: Drink 8-10 oz of cold water every 15 minutes during exercise to delay fatigue During Exercise: Drink 8-10 oz of cold water every 15 minutes during exercise to delay fatigue After Exercise: Drink 2 cups of water for every 1 pound of sweat lost After Exercise: Drink 2 cups of water for every 1 pound of sweat lost

15 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Benefits of Water Athletes lose concentration, coordination, and endurance capacity when they dont replace water lost from sweat Athletes lose concentration, coordination, and endurance capacity when they dont replace water lost from sweat Water helps regulate body temperature Water helps regulate body temperature Helps maintain proper muscle tone by giving muscles their natural ability to contract and by preventing dehydration Helps maintain proper muscle tone by giving muscles their natural ability to contract and by preventing dehydration Rids the body of excess salt and other wastes Rids the body of excess salt and other wastes

16 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Up Your Fluid Intake Drink on a schedule, not just when you are thirsty Drink on a schedule, not just when you are thirsty Gulps are better than sips to increase your fluid intake Gulps are better than sips to increase your fluid intake Try to avoid caffeine, carbonation, and fruit juice just prior to exercise Try to avoid caffeine, carbonation, and fruit juice just prior to exercise *Beverages that contain alcohol are diuretics and cause water loss *Beverages that contain alcohol are diuretics and cause water loss

17 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Alcohol Alcohol has a negative effect on all physical activity. This includes practice, lifting, conditioning sessions, and games. Alcohol has a negative effect on all physical activity. This includes practice, lifting, conditioning sessions, and games. Alcohol depletes your vitamin and mineral stores Alcohol depletes your vitamin and mineral stores Alcohol can cause stomach ulcer formation Alcohol can cause stomach ulcer formation Alcohol destroys brain and liver cells Alcohol destroys brain and liver cells There is NO upside to drinking alcohol for athletes!! There is NO upside to drinking alcohol for athletes!!

18 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Nutrition Break Down Rich in carbohydrate (60%) Rich in carbohydrate (60%) Moderate in protein (15-20%) Moderate in protein (15-20%) Low in fat (20-25%) Low in fat (20-25%) How does this information translate to your plate?

19 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Breakfast -Whole grain waffles with maple syrup -Handful of walnuts -Granola cereal with skim milk -Whole-wheat toast with fruit spread -Orange Juice -Sandwich -Oatmeal -Canadian bacon -Fruit cup -Whole grain english muffin with peanut butter -Fruit smoothie -Graham crackers -Fresh fruit

20 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Lunch -Bean burrito, baked chips and salsa, and 100% fruit juice -Grilled chicken sandwich, baked potato with veggies, iced tea, fruit cup -Turkey sub on whole-grain bread, baked chips, apple, water -Rice with vegetables and black beans, garden veggie salad, fruit cup, skim milk

21 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Dinner -Spaghetti with tomato sauce and sliced veggies, spinach salad, milk -Vegetarian pizza, water, tossed salad, whole-grain roll, apple crisp -Chili with beans and rice, mixed berries, whole wheat crackers, 100% fruit juice -Grilled fish fillet, large green salad with vinaigrette, steamed veggies, iced tea

22 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Snacks -Whole grain bagel with peanut butter -Grapes or other fresh fruits -Pretzels -Sliced turkey on whole grain crackers -Light Popcorn -Peanuts -Cottage cheese -Trail Mix -Breakfast bars, sports bar -String cheese

23 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Pre-exercise Meals High carbohydrate meal/snack that is low in fat and well tolerated High carbohydrate meal/snack that is low in fat and well tolerated 2-3 hours prior to exercise (to allow for stomach emptying) 2-3 hours prior to exercise (to allow for stomach emptying) Decrease carbohydrate and calorie content of the meal/snack, the closer to exercise it is consumed Decrease carbohydrate and calorie content of the meal/snack, the closer to exercise it is consumed Include some lean protein to enhance satiety and alleviate hunger Include some lean protein to enhance satiety and alleviate hunger

24 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Pre-exercise Meals Examples: Examples: -3 hours before: bagel with turkey and veggies, banana, 1 cup low-fat yogurt, pretzels, Rice Krispie treat, 2 cups skim milk -1 hour before: banana, 1 cup Mini Wheats or small turkey sandwich, 16 oz. sports drink

25 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Post-exercise Meals Recent research shows carbohydrate and protein eaten within 30 minutes of a workout is an effective time to restore amino acids and carbohydrates in the muscles, preparing athletes for the next workout. Recent research shows carbohydrate and protein eaten within 30 minutes of a workout is an effective time to restore amino acids and carbohydrates in the muscles, preparing athletes for the next workout. Restores muscle and liver glycogen to minimize fatigue Restores muscle and liver glycogen to minimize fatigue

26 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Post-exercise Meals Goal- carbohydrate intake within 30 minutes of exercise and another high carbohydrate meal/snack 2 hours later Goal- carbohydrate intake within 30 minutes of exercise and another high carbohydrate meal/snack 2 hours later Intake of ~0.5 grams of carbohydrate per pound body weight Intake of ~0.5 grams of carbohydrate per pound body weight Include some protein in post-exercise meals Include some protein in post-exercise meals

27 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Post-exercise Meals Examples: Examples: -16 oz sports drink, 1 Powerbar -32 oz sports drink, 1 banana -2 cups skim milk, 4 graham crackers -Bagel with 2 Tbsp peanut butter -Baked potato with refried beans and salsa

28 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Supplements Questions to ask: Questions to ask: -What claims have been made about the supplement? -Is there any scientific basis to these claims? -What is the supplement made of? Is it pure? -Does it work? Is it allowed?

29 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Ergogenic Aids Ergogenic- the potential to increase work output Ergogenic- the potential to increase work output Can be dangerous to your health- now and later Can be dangerous to your health- now and later No scientific evidence for many of the claims No scientific evidence for many of the claims May have unknown, serious side effects May have unknown, serious side effects Placebo effect Placebo effect

30 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Supplements BOTTOM LINE: If you are consuming a balanced diet, there is no added value in any type of nutritional supplement Remember: If it sounds too good to be true, then it probably is.

31 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Questions or Comments

32 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition Clinic 2005 Resources


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