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Sport Books Publisher1 The Mental Side of Human Performance Chapter 14.

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Presentation on theme: "Sport Books Publisher1 The Mental Side of Human Performance Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sport Books Publisher1 The Mental Side of Human Performance Chapter 14

2 Sport Books Publisher2 INTRODUCTION

3 Sport Books Publisher3 History of Sport Psychology Chinese and Greek Civilizations –Healthy mind in a healthy body 1800s –First sport psychology research –Effects of audience on cyclist performance Past Three Decades –Recognition and growth of sport psychology discipline

4 Sport Books Publisher4 Growth of Sport Psychology Sport psychology has only recently developed and grown due to: 1.Expansion of scientific knowledge and emergence of different branches 2.Increased media attention

5 Sport Books Publisher5 Outline In this section you will be introduced to the following sport psychology issues: –Influence of personality on performance –Effect of sport on personality –Relationship between anxiety and performance –Effect of motivation on sport performance –Effects of the audience on athletic accomplishments


7 Sport Books Publisher7 Personality: Pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviours that distinguish one person from another and persist over time and situations.

8 Sport Books Publisher8 The study of personality in sport psychology can help us answer the following questions: Do athletes possess different personality characteristics than non-athletes? Do winners possess different personality profiles than losers? Does personality determine sport preference, or does a particular sport mould our personality accordingly? Can personality be changed, or does it remain relatively fixed throughout involvement in sport?

9 Sport Books Publisher9 Personalities of Athletes vs. Non-Athletes

10 Sport Books Publisher10 Personalities of Athletes vs. Non- Athletes Compared to non-athletes, athletes are more: Stable Extroverted Competitive Dominant Self-confident Achievement-oriented Psychologically well-adjusted Conservative with respect to political views Authoritarian Persistent Display higher levels of self-esteem

11 Sport Books Publisher11 Personalities of Athletes vs. Non- Athletes Although differences exist, clear pattern of differences has yet to emerge

12 Sport Books Publisher12 Personality Profiles of Athletes Differing in Skill Level

13 Sport Books Publisher13 Definitions Personality traits: psychological characteristics of the athlete which remain relatively stable over time Personality states: right now kinds of feelings which are situation-specific State-trait controversy: disagreement of the relative merits of studying states versus traits Interactional theory: the best state-trait approach, which considers personality traits and states, as well as situation-specific factors

14 Sport Books Publisher14 It is NOT yet possible to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful athletes using personality traits However, it is possible to distinguish between the elite athletes and the lesser skilled in terms of mood states

15 Sport Books Publisher15 Mood States of Elite vs. Non- Elite Athletes Mood states of elite athletes vs. lesser skilled athletes are below in: And are markedly higher in: Tension Depression Anger Fatigue Confusion Vigor

16 Sport Books Publisher16 Iceberg Profile This mood state profile resembles an iceberg and is therefore often referred to as the iceberg profile

17 Sport Books Publisher17 Developmental Effects of Sport on Personality

18 Sport Books Publisher18 Are personality differences due to the athletic experience? Or Do certain personality traits cause the individual to go out for sports (gravitational hypothesis)? Evidence tends to support the gravitational hypothesis HOWEVER, participation in sports can also enhance personality development

19 Sport Books Publisher19 Personality and the Athlete: Conclusions Athletes tend to be more extroverted, independent, and self-confident than non-athletes; they also tend to be less anxious Elite athletes can be distinguished from lesser skilled athletes by means of the iceberg profile; it is not possible, however, to distinguish between winners and losers Individuals with certain personality traits tend to gravitate toward sports; sport also has the potential to enhance certain personality traits


21 Sport Books Publisher21 Arousal Physiological state of readiness and psychological activation Involves the autonomic nervous system Bodys way of preparing you for fight or flight

22 Sport Books Publisher22 Stress Non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it Unemotional bodily response to some type of stressor Can be either good or bad, depending upon the individuals personal interpretation –Eustress (e.g., winning a lottery) –Distress (e.g., receiving a failing grade on a midterm test)

23 Sport Books Publisher23 Anxiety Tension and worry that results from distress A negatively charged emotional state characterized by discomfort and nervousness Two forms of anxiety: –Trait anxiety: a personality characteristic –State anxiety: a right now kind of anxiety

24 Sport Books Publisher24 Anxiety Contd Two components of state anxiety: –Cognitive state anxiety (psychological component) Caused by fear of failure Result of worrying I am afraid I am going to lose –Somatic state anxiety (physical component) perception of physiological responses I feel nervous before a major contest

25 Sport Books Publisher25 Anxiety and Athletic Performance Relationship

26 Sport Books Publisher26 Pre-Competitive Anxiety Temporal changes in cognitive and somatic state anxiety as competition approaches:

27 Sport Books Publisher27 The Effect of Pre-competitive Anxiety on Performance Relationship between somatic anxiety and performance takes the form of an inverted-U Relationship between cognitive anxiety and athletic performance has been shown to be linear and negative

28 Sport Books Publisher28 Implications Increases in somatic anxiety are associated with improved athletic performance up to a certain optimal level; therefore, athletes should attempt to increase their somatic anxiety up to an optimal level by psyching-up The lower the level of cognitive state anxiety, the better the athlete will perform; therefore, athletes must learn to deal with the symptoms of cognitive anxiety

29 Sport Books Publisher29 Symptoms of Cognitive State Anxiety The Symptoms of Distress Checklist Cold, clammy hands ______ Increased heart rate ______ Cotton mouth ______ Faster breathing ______ Unable to concentrate ______ Trembling hands ______ Desire to urinate often ______ Tense muscles ______ Diarrhea ______ Nausea ______ Feeling of fatigue ______ Voice distortion ______

30 Sport Books Publisher30 Relaxation Interventions to Lower Cognitive State Anxiety Progressive Muscular Relaxation (PMR) –Takes time initially, but with practice can be completed in a matter of minutes –Especially valuable night before 1.Lie or sit in a comfortable position 2.Inhale and tense a specific muscle group for approximately 5 seconds 3.Exhale and release the tension from the muscles, concentrating on the feeling of relaxation 4.Repeated for a number of muscle groups

31 Sport Books Publisher31 Relaxation Interventions Contd Positive Imagery –Requires practice to be effective 1.Close eyes and picture yourself performing well in the specific anxiety- causing performance environment 2.Imagine the positive feelings associated with this successful imagery

32 Sport Books Publisher32 Relaxation Interventions Contd Positive Self-talk –Reassuring oneself with positive thoughts and statements –Example: Im a good free throw shooter, vs. What will the coach think of me if I blow this shot?

33 Sport Books Publisher33 MOTIVATION AND SPORT

34 Sport Books Publisher34 Motivation determines the reasons for an athletes behavior. It is defined as the direction, energy, and intensity of behavior. It is synonymous with inspiration, enthusiasm, or the will to win.

35 Sport Books Publisher35 Achievement Motivation

36 Sport Books Publisher36 Athletes predisposition to approach or avoid a competitive situation Includes the concept of desire, or desire to excel Not an innate drive, but is likely learned in the sporting environment

37 Sport Books Publisher37 McClelland-Atkinson Model McClelland-Atkinson Model suggests that achievement motivation is a function of: 1.The motive to achieve success An athletes intrinsic motivation to engage in an exciting activity 2.The fear of failure A psychological construct associated with cognitive state anxiety

38 Sport Books Publisher38 Achievement Motivation = intrinsic motivation – cognitive state anxiety

39 Sport Books Publisher39 Extrinsic Motivation McClelland-Atkinson model of achievement motivation could NOT predict athletic success Therefore, extrinsic motivation was added to the original model –Example: praise, money, trophies, and other forms of reward This modified model acknowledges that factors external to the athlete may influence individuals overall motivation

40 Sport Books Publisher40 Factors Affecting Achievement Motivation The following factors affect achievement motivation: 1.Self-confidence 2.Self-efficacy 3.Goal setting

41 Sport Books Publisher41 Improving Achievement Motivation

42 Sport Books Publisher42 1. Self-Confidence Discriminating factor between individuals high and low in achievement motivation Similar to the motive to achieve success: –The confident athlete has a high motive to succeed and a high expectation for success

43 Sport Books Publisher43 2. Self-Efficacy Based on Banduras Model Individuals belief that he or she is capable of succeeding at a particular task i.e., situation-specific self-confidence Used in sport psychology (vs. self-confidence) because the sporting environment represents a very specific situation

44 Sport Books Publisher44 2. Self-Efficacy Contd Self-efficacy (and subsequently achievement motivation) can be enhanced through: (a) successful performance (b) vicarious experience (c) verbal persuasion (d) emotional arousal

45 Sport Books Publisher45 Improving Self-efficacy Successful Performance –The most important factor in improving self- efficacy –Raises expectations for future successes; while failure lowers these expectations –For best results: 1.Break down skill learning into small steps to insure success early 2.Practice, practice, practice 3.Highlighting successes and downplaying setbacks

46 Sport Books Publisher46 Improving Self-efficacy Vicarious Experience –Demonstrating repeated success through participatory modeling i.e., the subject first observes a model perform a task –For best results: 1.Employ participatory modeling before the athlete attempts the skill on his/her own 2.Utilize only models who are technically correct in their execution 3.Ensure successful execution by the athlete in the early stages of learning

47 Sport Books Publisher47 Improving Self-efficacy Verbal Persuasion –Constant provision of encouragement, as well as specific skill instructions –For best results: 1.Provide specific rather than general feedback 2.Have the athlete repeat your instructions back to you before beginning 3.Focus on the positive aspects of the athletes performance

48 Sport Books Publisher48 Improving Self-efficacy Emotional Arousal –An optimal level of arousal is required to develop self-efficacy –Too much or too little arousal will impact negatively on the development of self-efficacy –For best results: 1.In the early stages of learning, keep things relaxed. 2.Get to know athletes one-on-one. Some will need more arousal, while others less. 3.Help athletes recognize when they need to psych-up or calm-down.

49 Sport Books Publisher49 3. Goal Setting Last way to improve achievement motivation is to employ effective goal setting strategies Goal Setting Strategies for Maximum Motivation 1.Set goals that are observable, measurable, and achievable. 2.Set realistic, yet challenging goals. 3.Set positive goals, not negative goals (such as dont lose). 4.Coaches and teachers should negotiate goals for their athletes or students, not mandate them. 5.Set short-term as well as long-term goals. 6.Set goals for your practices, as well as your actual competitions. 7.Set goals related to the athletes performance or technical execution, not contest outcome (win vs. lose).

50 Sport Books Publisher50 CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION IN SPORT

51 Sport Books Publisher51 Attribution theory is a cognitive approach to motivation. It assumes that people strive to explain, understand, and predict events based upon their own perceptions. What the athlete believes to be true is important for future motivation.

52 Sport Books Publisher52 The Development of Causal Attribution Theory

53 Sport Books Publisher53 Outcomes can be attributed: –Internally to the person (personal force) Composed of ability and effort –Externally to the environment; i.e. (environmental force) Composed of task difficulty and luck

54 Sport Books Publisher54 Classification Scheme for Causal Attribution AbilityTask Difficulty EffortLuck InternalExternal Locus of Control Stability Stable Unstable

55 Sport Books Publisher55 Stability Dimension Stable attributions: relatively unchanging from one day to the next (ability and task difficulty) Unstable attributions: vary markedly from time to time (effort and luck)

56 Sport Books Publisher56 Locus of Control Dimension Internal attributions: include attributes perceives as controllable (ability and effort) External attributions: perceived to be outside the athletes control (task difficulty and luck)

57 Sport Books Publisher57 Implications Before competition the athlete should be encouraged to focus on effort vs. ability –Both effort and ability are within athletes control, but effort is unstable from game to game Athletes must focus on preparing strategies that will be effective against task difficulty (e.g. an opposing team) vs. luck –Both luck and task difficulty are beyond athlete's control, but task difficulty is stable and predictable.

58 Sport Books Publisher58 Affective Responses Associated with Casual Attributions

59 Sport Books Publisher59 Affective Responses Associated with Casual Attributions Greatest affect Lowest affect Effort Task Difficulty Ability Luck Internal Attribution External Attribution

60 Sport Books Publisher60 Implications After a victory, an athlete is going to feel more pride if he/she believes that the win was a result of an effort or ability rather than an opponents poor ability or a lucky call from the referee.

61 Sport Books Publisher61 Cause-and-effect Relations Among Attributions, Outcome, and Affect Different emotions are experienced with different causal attributions and outcomes

62 Sport Books Publisher62 Implications If after a success athletes attribute the success: –Internally, they typically respond with pride, confidence, and satisfaction –Externally, they will likely feel gratitude and thankfulness After a success, regardless of attribution, affect tends to be positive and enthusiastic The affect for failure usually is negative and possibly subdued What is the affect after failure for internal and external attribution?

63 Sport Books Publisher63 The Relationship Between Causal Attributions, Future Expectations, and Motivation

64 Sport Books Publisher64 Causal Attributions, Future Expectations, and Motivation Causal Attributions Future Expectation Motivation

65 Sport Books Publisher65 Causal Attributions, Future Expectations, and Motivation Whenever an outcome is different than what was expected based on past experience, the athlete tends to endorse an unstable attribution (e.g., effort or luck). When an outcome is as expected, based on past performances, a stable attribution (e.g., ability or task difficulty) is endorsed.

66 Sport Books Publisher66 Predicting Future Expectations From Present Attributions Therefore, it is beneficial to ascribe failures to unstable causes, since it does not imply repeated failure. Lack of Ability Expect Same Result Lack of Luck Expect Different Result Attribution to LossFuture expectationAttribution to LossFuture expectation vs.

67 Sport Books Publisher67 Predicting Future Expectations From Present Attributions Contd Implications: –Athletes should attribute a failure to unstable and internal cause; i.e., lack of effort –This suggests that more effort can change the next outcome from failure to success –And it teaches the athlete to accept responsibility for the results

68 Sport Books Publisher68 Predicting Future Expectations From Present Attributions Contd In summary, future expectancy depends on stability of the attributions

69 Sport Books Publisher69 Promoting Self-efficacy Through Attribution and Expectancy Promotion self-efficacy and motivation for future performance depends on both expectancy and locus of control: Positive Expectancy Internal Attribution External Attribution Negative Expectancy or/& High self-efficacy Low self-efficacy or/&

70 Sport Books Publisher70 Promoting Self-efficacy Contd Implications –Athletes who succeed should be encouraged to attribute the success to both stable and internal factors A stable attribution will improve the athletes expectancy for future success An internal attribution will enhance the athletes self-confidence

71 Sport Books Publisher71 Putting it all together: Present Attribute Locus of controlFuture Expectancy Promotion of Self- Efficacy for Future Event Promotion of Motivation for Future Event SUCCESSSUCCESS Good abilityInternalSuccess High effortInternalSuccess/ failure Partially Easy taskExternalSuccessPartially Good luckExternalSuccess/ failure FAILUREFAILURE Poor abilityInternalFailurePartially Low effortInternalFailure/ success Difficult taskExternalFailure Bad luckExternalFailure/ success Partially

72 Sport Books Publisher72 Promoting Self-efficacy Contd Attributional training strategies leading to improved self- efficacy in future events: 1.Record and classify attributions after performances 2.After each outcome make attributions that will lead to promotion of self-efficacy (see previous table) 3.Provide an attributional training program for athletes who consistently utilize undesirable attributions 4.For best results, combine planned goal-setting with attributional training

73 Sport Books Publisher73 AUDIENCE EFFECTS IN SPORT

74 Sport Books Publisher74 Spectator Effect An important social-psychological effect on athletic performance Influences athletes performance through: 1.Social facilitationenhancement of performance due to presence of others 2.Rivalrya desire to beat the other opponent

75 Sport Books Publisher75 Social Facilitation Can be further broken down into: 1.Audience effects--a situation involving the mere presence of other individuals in the same room or area 2.Coaction effects--other people are present, but are performing the same task

76 Sport Books Publisher76 In summary: Spectator Effect Rivalry Social Facilitation Coaction Effects Audience Effects

77 Sport Books Publisher77 Evaluation Component Whether or not the audience is perceived as important for the athlete If the athlete perceives the audience to be: –Important and/or knowledgeable, then drive level is increased –Unimportant and/or not knowledgeable, then drive level is decreased

78 Sport Books Publisher78 Audience Effects on Performance Audience &/ coactor Audience perceived as non- critical Audience perceived as critical Drive Lever lowered Drive level heightened Simple task: performance improved Evaluation Complex task: performance improved Simple task: performance impeded Complex task: performance impeded

79 Sport Books Publisher79 Appropriate Timing for Spectator Effect Over learning & Arousal-lowering strategies in the presence of audience Allow audience access to practices Arousal-increasing strategies in the presence of audience Negative Positive LEARNING STAGE SPECTATOR EFFECTS STRATEGIES Initial Learning Skill is over- learned Skill is utilized into game

80 Sport Books Publisher80 Audience Characteristics and Team Performance The presence of supportive audience is presently the most popular explanation for home advantage Research has established the following audience characteristics leading to a greater home advantage: –Large –Supportive –Close to the playing arena (i.e., high intimacy and density)

81 Sport Books Publisher81 The End

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