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The Mental Side of Human Performance

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1 The Mental Side of Human Performance
Chapter 14 Sport Books Publisher

2 INTRODUCTION Sport Books Publisher

3 History of Sport Psychology
Chinese and Greek Civilizations “Healthy mind in a healthy body” 1800’s First sport psychology research Effects of audience on cyclist performance Past Three Decades Recognition and growth of sport psychology discipline Sport Books Publisher

4 Growth of Sport Psychology
Sport psychology has only recently developed and grown due to: Expansion of scientific knowledge and emergence of different branches Increased media attention Sport Books Publisher

5 Outline In this section you will be introduced to the following sport psychology issues: Influence of personality on performance Effect of sport on personality Relationship between anxiety and performance Effect of motivation on sport performance Effects of the audience on athletic accomplishments Sport Books Publisher

6 PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE
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7 Personality: Pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviours that distinguish one person from another and persist over time and situations. Sport Books Publisher

8 The study of personality in sport psychology can help us answer the following questions:
Do athletes possess different personality characteristics than non-athletes? Do winners possess different personality profiles than losers? Does personality determine sport preference, or does a particular sport mould our personality accordingly? Can personality be changed, or does it remain relatively fixed throughout involvement in sport? Sport Books Publisher

9 Personalities of Athletes vs. Non-Athletes
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10 Personalities of Athletes vs. Non-Athletes
Compared to non-athletes, athletes are more: Stable Extroverted Competitive Dominant Self-confident Achievement-oriented Psychologically well-adjusted Conservative with respect to political views Authoritarian Persistent Display higher levels of self-esteem Sport Books Publisher

11 Personalities of Athletes vs. Non-Athletes
Although differences exist, clear pattern of differences has yet to emerge Sport Books Publisher

12 Personality Profiles of Athletes Differing in Skill Level
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13 Definitions Personality traits: psychological characteristics of the athlete which remain relatively stable over time Personality states: “right now kinds of feelings” which are situation-specific State-trait controversy: disagreement of the relative merits of studying states versus traits Interactional theory: the best state-trait approach, which considers personality traits and states, as well as situation-specific factors Sport Books Publisher

14 It is NOT yet possible to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful athletes using personality traits However, it is possible to distinguish between the elite athletes and the lesser skilled in terms of mood states Sport Books Publisher

15 Mood States of Elite vs. Non-Elite Athletes
Mood states of elite athletes vs. lesser skilled athletes are below in: And are markedly higher in: Tension Depression Anger Fatigue Confusion Vigor Sport Books Publisher

16 Iceberg Profile This mood state profile resembles an iceberg and is therefore often referred to as the iceberg profile Sport Books Publisher

17 Developmental Effects of Sport on Personality
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18 Are personality differences due to the athletic experience?
Or Do certain personality traits cause the individual to go out for sports (gravitational hypothesis)? Evidence tends to support the gravitational hypothesis HOWEVER, participation in sports can also enhance personality development Sport Books Publisher

19 Personality and the Athlete: Conclusions
Athletes tend to be more extroverted, independent, and self-confident than non-athletes; they also tend to be less anxious Elite athletes can be distinguished from lesser skilled athletes by means of the iceberg profile; it is not possible, however, to distinguish between winners and losers Individuals with certain personality traits tend to gravitate toward sports; sport also has the potential to enhance certain personality traits Sport Books Publisher

20 ANXIETY AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE
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21 Arousal Physiological state of readiness and psychological activation
Involves the autonomic nervous system Body’s way of preparing you for “fight or flight” Sport Books Publisher

22 Stress Non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it
Unemotional bodily response to some type of stressor Can be either good or bad, depending upon the individual’s personal interpretation Eustress (e.g., winning a lottery) Distress (e.g., receiving a failing grade on a midterm test) Sport Books Publisher

23 Anxiety Tension and worry that results from distress
A negatively charged emotional state characterized by discomfort and nervousness Two forms of anxiety: Trait anxiety: a personality characteristic State anxiety: a “right now” kind of anxiety Sport Books Publisher

24 Anxiety Cont’d Two components of state anxiety:
Cognitive state anxiety (psychological component) Caused by fear of failure Result of worrying “I am afraid I am going to lose” Somatic state anxiety (physical component) perception of physiological responses “I feel nervous before a major contest” Sport Books Publisher

25 Anxiety and Athletic Performance Relationship
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26 Pre-Competitive Anxiety
Temporal changes in cognitive and somatic state anxiety as competition approaches: Sport Books Publisher

27 The Effect of Pre-competitive Anxiety on Performance
Relationship between somatic anxiety and performance takes the form of an inverted-U Relationship between cognitive anxiety and athletic performance has been shown to be linear and negative Sport Books Publisher

28 Implications Increases in somatic anxiety are associated with improved athletic performance up to a certain optimal level; therefore, athletes should attempt to increase their somatic anxiety up to an optimal level by “psyching-up” The lower the level of cognitive state anxiety, the better the athlete will perform; therefore, athletes must learn to deal with the symptoms of cognitive anxiety Sport Books Publisher

29 Symptoms of Cognitive State Anxiety
The Symptoms of Distress Checklist Cold, clammy hands ______ Increased heart rate ______ Cotton mouth ______ Faster breathing ______ Unable to concentrate ______ Trembling hands ______ Desire to urinate often ______ Tense muscles ______ Diarrhea ______ Nausea ______ Feeling of fatigue ______ Voice distortion ______ Sport Books Publisher

30 Relaxation Interventions to Lower Cognitive State Anxiety
Progressive Muscular Relaxation (PMR) Takes time initially, but with practice can be completed in a matter of minutes Especially valuable night before Lie or sit in a comfortable position Inhale and tense a specific muscle group for approximately 5 seconds Exhale and release the tension from the muscles, concentrating on the feeling of relaxation Repeated for a number of muscle groups Sport Books Publisher

31 Relaxation Interventions Cont’d
Positive Imagery Requires practice to be effective Close eyes and picture yourself performing well in the specific anxiety-causing performance environment Imagine the positive feelings associated with this successful imagery Sport Books Publisher

32 Relaxation Interventions Cont’d
Positive Self-talk Reassuring oneself with positive thoughts and statements Example: “I’m a good free throw shooter,” vs. “What will the coach think of me if I blow this shot?” Sport Books Publisher

33 MOTIVATION AND SPORT Sport Books Publisher

34 Motivation determines the reasons for an athlete’s behavior.
It is defined as the direction, energy, and intensity of behavior. It is synonymous with inspiration, enthusiasm, or the will to win. Sport Books Publisher

35 Achievement Motivation
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36 Athlete’s predisposition to approach or avoid a competitive situation
Includes the concept of desire, or desire to excel Not an innate drive, but is likely learned in the sporting environment Sport Books Publisher

37 McClelland-Atkinson Model
McClelland-Atkinson Model suggests that achievement motivation is a function of: The motive to achieve success An athlete’s intrinsic motivation to engage in an exciting activity The fear of failure A psychological construct associated with cognitive state anxiety Sport Books Publisher

38 Achievement Motivation =
intrinsic motivation – cognitive state anxiety Sport Books Publisher

39 Extrinsic Motivation McClelland-Atkinson model of achievement motivation could NOT predict athletic success Therefore, extrinsic motivation was added to the original model Example: praise, money, trophies, and other forms of reward This modified model acknowledges that factors external to the athlete may influence individual’s overall motivation Sport Books Publisher

40 Factors Affecting Achievement Motivation
The following factors affect achievement motivation: Self-confidence Self-efficacy Goal setting Sport Books Publisher

41 Improving Achievement Motivation
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42 1. Self-Confidence Discriminating factor between individuals high and low in achievement motivation Similar to the motive to achieve success: The confident athlete has a high motive to succeed and a high expectation for success Sport Books Publisher

43 2. Self-Efficacy Based on Bandura’s Model
Individual’s belief that he or she is capable of succeeding at a particular task i.e., situation-specific self-confidence Used in sport psychology (vs. self-confidence) because the sporting environment represents a very specific situation Sport Books Publisher

44 2. Self-Efficacy Cont’d Self-efficacy (and subsequently achievement motivation) can be enhanced through: (a) successful performance (b) vicarious experience (c) verbal persuasion (d) emotional arousal Sport Books Publisher

45 Improving Self-efficacy
Successful Performance The most important factor in improving self-efficacy Raises expectations for future successes; while failure lowers these expectations For best results: Break down skill learning into small steps to insure success early Practice, practice, practice Highlighting successes and downplaying setbacks Sport Books Publisher

46 Improving Self-efficacy
Vicarious Experience Demonstrating repeated success through participatory modeling i.e., the subject first observes a model perform a task For best results: Employ participatory modeling before the athlete attempts the skill on his/her own Utilize only models who are technically correct in their execution Ensure successful execution by the athlete in the early stages of learning Sport Books Publisher

47 Improving Self-efficacy
Verbal Persuasion Constant provision of encouragement, as well as specific skill instructions For best results: Provide specific rather than general feedback Have the athlete repeat your instructions back to you before beginning Focus on the positive aspects of the athlete’s performance Sport Books Publisher

48 Improving Self-efficacy
Emotional Arousal An optimal level of arousal is required to develop self-efficacy Too much or too little arousal will impact negatively on the development of self-efficacy For best results: In the early stages of learning, keep things relaxed. Get to know athletes one-on-one. Some will need more arousal, while others less. Help athletes recognize when they need to “psych-up or calm-down.” Sport Books Publisher

49 Goal Setting Strategies for Maximum Motivation
Last way to improve achievement motivation is to employ effective goal setting strategies Goal Setting Strategies for Maximum Motivation  Set goals that are observable, measurable, and achievable. Set realistic, yet challenging goals. Set positive goals, not negative goals (such as don’t lose). Coaches and teachers should negotiate goals for their athletes or students, not mandate them. Set short-term as well as long-term goals. Set goals for your practices, as well as your actual competitions. Set goals related to the athletes performance or technical execution, not contest outcome (win vs. lose). Sport Books Publisher

50 CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION IN SPORT
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51 Attribution theory is a cognitive approach to motivation.
It assumes that people strive to explain, understand, and predict events based upon their own perceptions. What the athlete believes to be true is important for future motivation. Sport Books Publisher

52 The Development of Causal Attribution Theory
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53 Outcomes can be attributed:
Internally to the person (personal force) Composed of ability and effort Externally to the environment; i.e. (environmental force) Composed of task difficulty and luck Sport Books Publisher

54 Classification Scheme for Causal Attribution
Locus of Control Internal External Stable Ability Task Difficulty Effort Luck Stability Unstable Sport Books Publisher

55 Stability Dimension Stable attributions: relatively unchanging from one day to the next (ability and task difficulty) Unstable attributions: vary markedly from time to time (effort and luck) Sport Books Publisher

56 Locus of Control Dimension
Internal attributions: include attributes perceives as controllable (ability and effort) External attributions: perceived to be outside the athlete’s control (task difficulty and luck) Sport Books Publisher

57 Implications Before competition the athlete should be encouraged to focus on effort vs. ability Both effort and ability are within athlete’s control, but effort is unstable from game to game Athletes must focus on preparing strategies that will be effective against task difficulty (e.g. an opposing team) vs. luck Both luck and task difficulty are beyond athlete's control, but task difficulty is stable and predictable. Sport Books Publisher

58 Affective Responses Associated with Casual Attributions
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59 Affective Responses Associated with Casual Attributions
Effort Greatest affect Ability Task Difficulty Internal Attribution Luck External Attribution Lowest affect Sport Books Publisher

60 Implications After a victory, an athlete is going to feel more pride if he/she believes that the win was a result of an effort or ability rather than an opponent’s poor ability or a lucky call from the referee. Sport Books Publisher

61 Cause-and-effect Relations Among Attributions, Outcome, and Affect
Different emotions are experienced with different causal attributions and outcomes Sport Books Publisher

62 Implications If after a success athletes attribute the success:
Internally, they typically respond with pride, confidence, and satisfaction Externally, they will likely feel gratitude and thankfulness After a success, regardless of attribution, affect tends to be positive and enthusiastic The affect for failure usually is negative and possibly subdued What is the affect after failure for internal and external attribution? Sport Books Publisher

63 The Relationship Between Causal Attributions, Future Expectations, and Motivation
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64 Causal Attributions, Future Expectations, and Motivation
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65 Causal Attributions, Future Expectations, and Motivation
Whenever an outcome is different than what was expected based on past experience, the athlete tends to endorse an unstable attribution (e.g., effort or luck). When an outcome is as expected, based on past performances, a stable attribution (e.g., ability or task difficulty) is endorsed. Sport Books Publisher

66 Predicting Future Expectations From Present Attributions
Therefore, it is beneficial to ascribe failures to unstable causes, since it does not imply repeated failure. Attribution to Loss Future expectation Attribution to Loss Future expectation Lack of Ability Expect Same Result Lack of Luck Expect Different Result vs. Sport Books Publisher

67 Predicting Future Expectations From Present Attributions Cont’d
Implications: Athletes should attribute a failure to unstable and internal cause; i.e., lack of effort This suggests that more effort can change the next outcome from failure to success And it teaches the athlete to accept responsibility for the results Sport Books Publisher

68 Predicting Future Expectations From Present Attributions Cont’d
In summary, future expectancy depends on stability of the attributions Sport Books Publisher

69 Promoting Self-efficacy Through Attribution and Expectancy
Promotion self-efficacy and motivation for future performance depends on both expectancy and locus of control: High self-efficacy Positive Expectancy Internal Attribution or/& Low self-efficacy Negative Expectancy External Attribution or/& Sport Books Publisher

70 Promoting Self-efficacy Cont’d
Implications Athletes who succeed should be encouraged to attribute the success to both stable and internal factors A stable attribution will improve the athlete’s expectancy for future success An internal attribution will enhance the athlete’s self-confidence Sport Books Publisher

71 Putting it all together:
Present Attribute Locus of control Future Expectancy Promotion of Self-Efficacy for Future Event Promotion of Motivation for Future Event S U C E Good ability Internal Success High effort Success/ failure Partially Easy task External Good luck F A I L R Poor ability Failure Low effort Failure/ success Difficult task Bad luck Sport Books Publisher

72 Promoting Self-efficacy Cont’d
Attributional training strategies leading to improved self-efficacy in future events: Record and classify attributions after performances After each outcome make attributions that will lead to promotion of self-efficacy (see previous table) Provide an attributional training program for athletes who consistently utilize undesirable attributions For best results, combine planned goal-setting with attributional training Sport Books Publisher

73 AUDIENCE EFFECTS IN SPORT
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74 Spectator Effect An important social-psychological effect on athletic performance Influences athlete’s performance through: Social facilitation—enhancement of performance due to presence of others Rivalry—a desire to beat the other opponent Sport Books Publisher

75 Social Facilitation Can be further broken down into:
Audience effects--a situation involving the mere presence of other individuals in the same room or area Coaction effects--other people are present, but are performing the same task Sport Books Publisher

76 In summary: Spectator Effect Social Facilitation Rivalry
Audience Effects Coaction Effects Sport Books Publisher

77 Evaluation Component Whether or not the audience is perceived as important for the athlete If the athlete perceives the audience to be: Important and/or knowledgeable, then drive level is increased Unimportant and/or not knowledgeable, then drive level is decreased Sport Books Publisher

78 Audience Effects on Performance
Simple task: performance improved Audience perceived as critical Drive level heightened Complex task: performance impeded Audience &/ coactor Evaluation Simple task: performance impeded Audience perceived as non-critical Drive Lever lowered Complex task: performance improved Sport Books Publisher

79 Appropriate Timing for Spectator Effect
LEARNING STAGE SPECTATOR EFFECTS STRATEGIES “Over learning” & Arousal-lowering strategies in the presence of audience Negative Initial Learning Allow audience access to practices Skill is over-learned Positive Arousal-increasing strategies in the presence of audience Skill is utilized into game Sport Books Publisher

80 Audience Characteristics and Team Performance
The presence of supportive audience is presently the most popular explanation for home advantage Research has established the following audience characteristics leading to a greater home advantage: Large Supportive Close to the playing arena (i.e., high intimacy and density) Sport Books Publisher

81 The End Sport Books Publisher


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