2 Contents Distinction between stage 2 and stage 3 content Overview of the role of mental skillsOverview of stage 3 mental skillsPeriodisation of mental skillsTaperingPeakingRecoveryOvertrainingBurnoutIntroduction to Models of BehaviourSocial learning TheorySocial Cognitive Learning TheoryTheory of Reasoned Action
3 Contents Theory of Planned Behaviour Transtheoretical Model of Change Exercise AdherenceIntroduction to Psychological and Sociocultural Issues and ChangesTransition from Junior to Senior SportTransition from Amateur to Professional sportTransition from Elite Sport to RetirementValues and Participation in Physical ActivityReferences
4 1. PERIODISATION OF MENTAL SKILLS TRAINING Annual Training PlanPhase of TrainingPreparation PhaseCompetition PhaseEvalTransition PhaseMacro CyclesGeneral PreparationSpecific PreparationPre - CompetitionCompetitionMesocyclesMicroPeriodisation is the division of the year into smaller, easier to manage blocks of time. Instead of looking at the year as a whole, it is broken down into phases, macrocycles, mesocycles and microcycles.
5 1. PERIODISATION OF MENTAL SKILLS TRAINING The annual training programme can be broken down into 4 phases – preparation, competition, evaluation and transition. These 4 phases are then broken down into macrocycles.Phase of TrainingPreparation PhaseMacro CyclesGeneral PreparationSpecific PreparationMesocyclesMicroMesocycles are smaller blocks of timewhich together form a macrocycle. Each mesocycle has a specific goal or objective. Mesocycles are between 4 – 12 weeks long.A microcycle is a smaller unit of timenormally between 3 – 10 days long Several microcycles form a mesocycle.The Preparation Phase broken down to show the relationship between macrocycles, mesocycles and microcycles
6 3. PEAKING FOR OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE “Peaking” is the term used to describe a temporary training state which allows the athlete to perform at their optimal level . Peaking at key times is a result of a well thought out annual plan.Players who have peaked are said to be in the “Ideal Performance State (IPS)” or in “The Zone” which includes being at their optimal readiness to perform from a psychological, physiological, technical and tactical perspective.
7 EFFECTS OF TRAINING ON PERFORMANCE Optimal training load – peak performancePerformanceOvertraining – performance deterioratesUnder training – player not achieving optimal performanceTraining Volume
8 5. OVERTRAININGOvertraining occurs when an athlete has been repeatedly stressed by training to the point where the rest periods between sessions are no longer adequate for recovery to occur.Overtraining frequently occurs in athletes who are training for competition or a specific event and train beyond the body's ability to recover in the time available. It is an imbalance between work and rest.Overtraining is also common in young sportsmen / sportswomen who are training with several teams at once eg school, club, district, state.Outstanding Geelong footballer, Nathan Ablett, (pictured left), was forced to walk away from AFL after he revealed he was suffering from “burnout.”He no longer enjoyed the game.
9 SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Michael Phelps was a role model to millions of young swimmers until he got photographed using drugs.Discuss;Phelps as a role model before drugsPhelps as a role model after drugsWhat negative re – enforcements did he get about his behaviour?
10 SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Role models can have a negative influence by;Demonstrating poor sportsmanship / cheatingBeing involved in unacceptable off field behaviour – drugs, alcohol etc.Being aggressive beyond the scope of the rules ofthe game.Having no respect for teammates, officials andopponentsExhibit sexist, racist, or other offensivecharacteristics.Marion Jones, pictured right was stripped of her gold medals after testing positive to the use of performance enhancing drugs.
11 SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY How the senior players / elite players behave can have a positive influence if they;Demonstrate high standards of fair play and sportsmanshipMaintain a clean image on and off the fieldRespect the game officials, teammates and opponents.Accept individual differences within the teamHave a high work ethicAn observer / junior player who witnesses these behaviours being positively reinforced is likely to copy them and demonstrate them in the future.
12 TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL OF CHANGE The Transtheoretical Model of Change is a 5 step cyclical process that an individual goes through as part of changing their behaviour.Stage 1PrecontemplationStage 2ContemplationStage 3PreparationStage 4ActionStage 5MaintenanceThe Transtheoretical Model of Change
13 TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL OF CHANGE Stage 5MaintenanceThe stage where the new behavior pattern is sustained for anextended period of time (more than 6 months) and is nowconsolidated into the lifestyle of the individual. This maintenanceperiod lasts up to 5 years at which point the individual is regardedas having made a lifetime commitment to regular exercise.
14 Determining When Change Occurs TRANSTHEORETICAL MODELOF CHANGEDetermining When Change Occurs2 main measures used to gauge when, and the degree to which, behaviour has changed;1. Decisional balanceInitially, the cons (reasons not to change eg too hard, not enough time, cannot be bothered) are more significant / important than the pros (benefits of change – eg fitness). As you move through the stages, this imbalance reverses as change occurs.CPPCCPCons outweigh pros – no real change occurs.Pros outweigh cons – significant change occurs.Pros / Cons about equal – some change occurs.
15 TRANSITION FROM ELITE SPORT TO RETIREMENT Many of the skills learnt during the course of their careers are transferable and can assist in getting them involved in a new career which utilises these skills eg commentators, umpires, coaching.Tony Roche won 16 grand slam titles as a player. After retiring from the game, he remained in the sport as a coach of;Lleyton HewittRoger FedererPat RafterRoche has also captained the Australian Davis Cup team.Norma Plummer represented Australia as a player between 1972 – 1981 as a player. In 1996, she coached the Melbourne Phoenix and subsequent to that, the AIS in 1999 before taking over the National team in 2003,
16 VALUES AND PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Positive Values Learned From Participation in SportCourageSportsmanshipWork EthicRespect for team mates, opponents and officialsTeam workHonestyIntegrityPutting team before selfLoyalty