Presentation on theme: "Gender, Sport and Development Budapest, Hungary December 2006 Martha Saavedra."— Presentation transcript:
Gender, Sport and Development Budapest, Hungary December 2006 Martha Saavedra
Contemporary Moment Sport and Development –Surging popularity as a tool 2005 – UN Year of Sport and Physical Education –Embraced with enthusiasm by many Sport Federations Corporations NGOs Athletes In the North and South
Sport and Development Selected Projects in Africa Moving the Goalposts, Kilifi CHILD - Christian Home in Liberating Destitute Maendeleo ya Michezo (Tanzania)
Sport and Development Projects are emerging all over the place… Exemplifying contemporary global networking possibilities – they are not limited to official or established channels. Kirinyaga, Kenya, 2006 – Andrew Papworth was a short term volunteer with the Kirinyaga Sport Foundation – an NGO established by Edith Munubbe, a retired school teacher and widow.
Linked by advocates to the 8 Millennium Development Goals 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. 2. Achieve universal primary education. 3. Promote gender equality and empower women. 4. Reduce Child Mortality. 5. Improve maternal health. 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. 7. Ensure environmental sustainability. 8. Develop a global partnership for development. And with Peace, reconciliation and post-conflict healing added in for good measure.
Sport and Development Djibril Diallo, Director, UN New York Office of Sport for Development and Peace and Sepp Blatter, FIFA Adolf Ogi, former President of Switzerland, Special Adviser on Sport for Development and Peace Kofi Annan
Gender, Sport and Development My project – preliminary thoughts & provocations –Contextualize and Assess SAD Highlight the larger historicized framework POV - critical development and gender studies –Evaluate specific programs and projects Best approaches and practices Political and institutional location, opportunities and constraints –Advocate Am not be unbiased objective observer Am involved in SAD (Toolkit, Sport and Development Platform, Corporate social responsibility, University-based service learning) –Africa centered, but not limited
Gender, Sport and Development What I want to emphasize –GSAD is hard and serious work –Doesnt take place on blank-slate –Requires several areas of knowledge Local – language, culture, history, geography Sport-specific – love of sport isnt enough Organizational, business, managerial & entrepreneurial skills People skills – it is all about the people involved –Is inherently political, and thus potentially contentious and risky Resources are being mobilized and created for change (a la CLR James), hence this is about Power, and Disrupting current distributions of power.
Gender, Sport and Development Case study in progress – –Moving the Goalposts, Kilifi, Kenya, mtgk.orgmtgk.org
Context - Sport and Development Historical Context –Not new that sport might be directed towards achieving ulterior social outcomes. –History of modern sport –Links with rise of modern state Concern with physicality of agents and general population –Readiness for war –Hygiene and health –Sport and social movements Muscular Christianity YMCA
Context - Sport and Development Modern Sport in Global South –Colonialism and Imperialism Used as tool of change and discipline Controlled to avoid subversion and resistance Western forms of sport were adopted, adapted, modified, ignored and rejected by colonial subjects –Hesitate on notion of dissemination Suggest not disseminated so much it as parallel emergence as well as some visceral links with colonialism, imperialism and global capitalism. –e.g. high jumping techniques, gusimbuka-urukiramende and Ernst Jokl (Bale, Imagined Olympians, 2002) –International mode of sport dominated by and signifying the West.
Context - Sport and Development Sport follows many trajectories –local influences impact evolution of sport in one place, later re-inscribed elsewhere. Still - Western hegemony of institutions and structure remains –though not without regular and continued contestation. As such, it carries historical and cultural baggage…
Context – some baggage at the hegemonic core –Gendered systems of sport in global North Hegemonic heterosexual hyper-masculinity –situated within a consumerist, individualistic ethos Posited against any homosexual visibility Rules out muscular femininity –In a binary and exclusive definition of sexuality –Womens pursuit of sport Possible, but peripheral and always problematic Challenge to hegemonic norms of sexuality
Context – some baggage at the hegemonic core –Gendered systems of sport in global North Hegemonic heterosexual hyper-masculinity –situated within a consumerist, individualistic ethos Posited against any homosexual visibility Rules out muscular femininity –In a binary and exclusive definition of sexuality –Womens pursuit of sport Possible, but peripheral and always problematic Challenge to hegemonic norms of sexuality Is this true everywhere, at all times?
Sport and Development Reiterate –Not new that sport should be used for social, political, economic goals. Concern –Ahistoricism of current articulation reflects an unstated (unconscious?) assumption that sport is apolitical; –Also reflects uncritical belief that sport is inherently good. –Or in a more complicated iteration – our sport is good and can be cordoned off from that which is bad.
Sport and Development Problems in any argument that considers sport a priori to be a force of good… (R. Giulianotti, 2004) 1.Functionalist – sport meets crucial social needs But sport can also be dysfunctional 2.Sport Evangelists – neo-colonial repositioning, moving impulse from home to overseas 3.Skewed to youth (young men)– what of other populations? –What of women and elderly? What is addressed here… 4.Cross-cultural politics of sport humanitarianism
Sport and Development Problems in any argument that considers sport a priori to be a force of good…(R. Giulianotti, 2004) 4.Cross-cultural politics of sport humanitarianism a.Sufficient dialogue between donors and recipients when aid is offered? b.Empowerment of recipients? c.Ownership of projects? d.Dynamics of power and meaning behind cross- cultural cooperation between donor and recipients?
Sport and Development Development Aid and the Gift –Hattori (2003) Reciprocity expected? Unequal power? Confirms status on giver? Mechanism of consent Affirms current logic of development assistance and unequal relations. –Infuse capitalist conditions with ethical meaning –Moral regulations
Sport and Development Gift versus entertainment expenses –FIFAs humanitarian budget 907,000 (2003) –FIFAs budget for inner circle for six weeks in Paris in 1998 World Cup finals 5,000,000. From Giulianotti (2004)
Sport and Development Point on Aid in Africa in particular… –In many global fora the African present represents what Mathers and Hubbard have called emaciated modernity, where global capitalism has failed to transform, thus triggering sympathy, a burden of responsibility to care about Africa and contributing to the just notions of humanitarian aid and the regime of the NGO. Mathers and Hubbard on Survivor Africa (2004)
Sport and Development Is this particularly an American problem? –e.g., Mathers and Hubbard on Survivor Africa Africa is often dismissed in popular media as out of time and a failed project. We assert, however, that Survivor Africa places an imagined Africa as central to an emerging discourse of a humanitarian American empire, not a footnote to it, and that the history that makes this neo-liberal utopia possible is located in earlier colonial representations of Africa. Although this empire of the present cites these colonial images, it differs significantly in its mode of operation and ideal subject. The neo-liberal utopia that seeks to mediate Americas relations with much of the rest of the world is just as needful of discourses of humanitarianism as the empires of the 19th century. But while the Europeans sent missionaries and scientists to pave the way for their commercial enterprises, Americans send NGOs and development agencies. [2004 p. 445]
Gender and Sport outside the west External and Global influences – (global does not mean external) –Codes practiced –Discourse, practice and policy affecting gender FA Ban on womens football, 1921-1971, direct effect on British colonies. FIFA and IOC mandates on gender inclusion and target expenditures –Corporate promotions, sponsorships and marketing image of female athlete, female event (Womens World Cup) –Corporate production – commodity chains and labor practices (sweatshops)
Gender, Sport and Development Different notions of body and mind –Value of physical activity? China –Sport historically not male preserve –For Imperial bureaucracy, elite education emphasized mind over body –Sport there better suited to women and lower-classes Sudan –Women from good Muslim families should not labor Senegal – preferred female body types –Drianke – socially powerful urban woman –Disquette – upwardly mobile, young urban woman. –Note: Contemporary increase in preference for polygamy among this group in Dakar. (Mills, 2006) Another variant of third wave?
Gender, Sport and Development Valences are just different –International success in sport trumps any reluctance to honor women Thus many accomplished female athletes are heros in their home-countries –Acceptance and promotion of recent female boxing extravaganza in Nairobi The Africans versus the Americans –Daily Nation featured many more articles on womens sports than average US paper. Even features on local Mombasa Womens Football League, in which MTG Super team plays.
Gender, Sport and Development Gender not always (most) limiting factor –Education, class, age-group, marriage status Female elite in Sudan – tennis, equestrian sport –A few instances of women as referees in male sports Basketball, football and wrestling in Senegal Football in Kenya More then in established male sports in the US. –Womens basketball as one of most popular spectator sports in Senegal. –Likewise with womens volleyball in Peru (previously)
Gender, Sport and Development Nevertheless, assuming –At least some association between sport and masculinity, and –Gendered expectations that privilege male access to organization and practice of sport Then, can postulate that female sport continues to be transgressive and potentially revolutionary, Disrupting received notions about gender roles, and allowing for new possibilities with positive spillovers for women in other social arenas.
Gender, Sport and Development Sample of projects that have explicit gender agenda (from Sport and Development International Platform project database, sportanddev.org, accessed April 5, 2006)
Gender, Sport and Development Most projects are not just about sport. They have explicit goals outside of sport. Tackling very specific local problems. –Poverty, un(der)employment, weak/absent infrastructure –Family dislocation/dysfunction –Illiteracy and/or Schooling obstacles –Sexual violence (rape, incest) –Child labor/human trafficking –STIs, HIV-AIDs, other diseases –Drugs – use and trafficking –Limited rights and/or limited knowledge of rights –War, famine, environmental degradation, etc.etc.
Gender, Sport and Development Mobilizing people and resources through sport – presumed mechanisms of change: –Awareness via themed tournament and other events –Captive audience for add-on events –Capacity building through organizing sport –Life skills through practice of sport –Health benefits through practice of sport –Demonstration effect - Tunaweza! Especially valuable in changing essentialist perceptions and assumptions (about gender, able-bodiedness, caste, class, etc.)
Gender, Sport and Development Case study in progress – –Moving the Goalposts, Kilifi, Coast Province KenyaMoving the Goalposts
Kilifi, north of Mombasa –one of the least developed districts in Kenya –Around 8% are infected with HIV/AIDS, higher than national average –66% of the population live below the poverty line (MTG 2005 Annual Report) Population – mostly Mijikenda, also Swahili and other ethnic groups –Mijikenda – family power lies at intersection of patriarchy and gerontocracy –Patrilocal, with polygyny possible Wives move in with husbands extended family on homestead –Senior male elders control major resources Land, trees, household property –Married women under direct control of both patrilineage elders and their wives. –Womens usufructory rights to land and some tree crops increasingly circumscribed by scarcity and adoption of individualizing principles of national land tenure reform. (Ciekawy, 1999) Kilifi, Kenya - context
Economy – Agriculture and Tourism –Agricultural production doesnt produce enough income Women - agricultural labor –Most households reliant on wage income of young and middle- aged men Generational struggles between men common –conflict often deflected onto women, especially younger women who have married into group. –Womens cash income options Rural based women have few opportunities to earn cash income. Rural-urban, urban women without education: sell vegetables or palm thatch in market, maids, construction, prostitution (Ciekawy, 1999) –Holiday destination for foreigners and wealthy Kenyans Kilifi, Kenya - context
Current conditions of poverty stress on families –Dislocated, dissolving –Dysfunctional –Pervasive sense of precariousness of survival This stress may account for –Extensive (increased?) domestic and sexual violence (a research question) –Alcohol related abuse Kilifi, Kenya - context
Education –Primary school is free, but You must pay for –Books –Uniform –Food –Transportation –Secondary school is not free Most are boarding schools Cost is out of reach for many families, even if girls do pass exams with sufficiently high scores Kilifi, Kenya - context
Womens power is circumscribed –Early marriages and teenage pregnancies are common for young women –Teenage girls show the highest rates of new HIV infection in Kenya –Poor women in Kilifi District have the lowest rates of both literacy (26.8%) and school enrollment (54.4%) in Kenya. –There are very few women leaders and decision makers in Kilifi (MTG 2005 Annual Report) Although –Women do voice their complaints and can use gossip and divination among other means to address their concerns. –Historical role model? Mektalili, female diviner and leader of 1914 Giriama war against the British colonialists (Ciekawy, 1999) Kilifi, Kenya - context
History –Begun in September 2000 by Sarah Forde Owuor, and local educational and development officers –From 1 to 5 staff members in 2005, including a project coordinator with extensive development experience. –Significant volunteer work from advisory board, UK based supporters and from participants themselves. –Funding from Ford Foundation, Plan International, Alistair Berkley Trust among others. Moving the Goalposts
Focus – –Mobilizing and empowering girls and women through football –Developing their self-esteem, confidence teamwork and organization skills –Peer education on reproductive health and problem solving –Capacity-building in community through developing skills of individuals Moving the Goalposts By MTGK photographer, Salma Ali
Major problems as identified by girls –Identified in informal conversations How to find school fees Necessity of bringing home income to share with family Eating – Where will their food come from? (lack of cash to eat out or provide for themselves) –Issued raised during MTG visits to schools STIs, wife beating, rape, incest Gender, Sport and Development
Program –Football Teams, leagues, tournaments and commemorative events –Organized by girls committees Training referees and coaches –Peer Education and mobile video shows Topics –Reproductive health »Adolescence »Menstruation –HIV-AIDS and STIs –Decision making, Assertiveness –Problem-solving Girls develop skits, poems and raps to deliver message Training in public speaking Moving the Goalposts
Program - continued –Community involvement Volunteering at orphanages –Monitoring and Evaluation Participatory, emphasis on process, though outcome is important Life Stories project –Organizational, Business, Management Skill Development Training (peer education, office and computer skills, curriculum development) Volunteer work experience with MTG, in field, in office Educational support (beginning) Moving the Goalposts
Outcomes –Survived 5 years and has grown Increased number of players and teams, sustained league play, formation of super team, media exposure, newsletter, web-site (www.mtgk.org) successful fund-raising, developed robust governing structure and volunteer networkwww.mtgk.org –Participatory M & E process currently underway: Impact of specific programs Moving the Goalposts
Challenges –Working with current infrastructure Transportation (!!!!!) –Difficulties in carrying out daily activities, practices, games, peer education –Cost, reach, reliability, safety Kenyan Football Federation –In disarray –Few options for girls who want to continue with football (and they do!) –Other NGOs entering field Collaborators? Communications? –Communications by and with girls Confidence increased locally and among themselves, but not necessarily in other settings Their expectations – dependency syndrome Moving the Goalposts
Gender, Sport and Development Reiterate what I want to emphasize –GSAD is hard and serious work – mundane and banal is important –Doesnt take place on blank-slate –Requires several areas of knowledge Local – language, culture, history, geography Sport-specific – love of sport isnt enough Organizational, business, managerial & entrepreneurial skills People skills – it is all about the people involved –Is inherently political, and thus potentially contentious and risky Resources are being mobilized and created for change (a la CLR James), hence this is about Power, and Disrupting current distributions of power.
Gender, Sport and Development And it is underway and going to happen regardless… New sports project in Kirinyaga, Kenya (Central Province).