Presentation on theme: "PART VII Facilitating Psychological Growth and Development Chapter 22Childrens Psychological Development Through Sport Chapter 23Aggression in Sport Chapter."— Presentation transcript:
PART VII Facilitating Psychological Growth and Development Chapter 22Childrens Psychological Development Through Sport Chapter 23Aggression in Sport Chapter 24Character Development and Sportspersonship Chapter 22Childrens Psychological Development Through Sport Chapter 23Aggression in Sport Chapter 24Character Development and Sportspersonship
CHAPTER 22 Childrens Psychological Development Through Sport
Session Outline The Importance of Childrens Sport Psychology Why a Psychology of the Young Athlete? Why Children Participate in Sport Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport Role of Friends in Youth Sport (continued)
Session Outline Stress and Burnout in Childrens Competitive Sport Effective Coaching Practices for Young Athletes Role of Parents
Some of the most important implications of sport psychology are found in the childrens sport arena, where participants are plentiful and are highly involved. The Importance of Childrens Sport Psychology
Why a Psychology of the Young Athlete? So many children are involved (an estimated 45 million in the United States). Children are intensely involved in youth sport. Participation peaks at a critical developmental period in the childs life (age 12). Organized sport is not automatically beneficial; qualified, competent adult leadership is needed.
Children have different reasons for participating in sport, and boys reasons vary from girls. Why Children Participate in Youth Sport (See table 22.1 on p. 494 of text.)
Peak participation occurs between the ages of 10 and 13 years. Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport For every 10 children who begin a sport season, 3 to 4 quit before the season ends. Participation statistics
Major reason: Other things to do Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport Some negative reasons (e.g., Not as good as I wanted to be; Boredom; Didnt like the pressure) cited by a significant minority of children Motives for withdrawal
The Importance of Perceived Competence Children with low perceptions of their athletic abilities drop out or do not participate in sport, whereas children with high perceptions of their competence participate and persist. Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport
Sport-specific dropouts withdraw from a particular program, but enter other sports. Sport-general dropouts withdraw from all sport participation. Sport-general dropouts are a special concern.
Understand underlying motives for withdrawal. KEY Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport
Most of the motives children have are intrinsic (e.g., to have fun, learn skills). Winning clearly is neither the only nor the most common motive for participation. Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport Most young athletes have multiple reasons for participation, not a single motive. Summary (continued)
Although most children withdraw because of change of interests, a significant minority discontinue for negative reasons (e.g., lack of fun, pressure). Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport Underlying the descriptive motive (e.g., fun) is the childs need to feel worthy. Summary
Coaches can enhance motivation by structuring environments to meet specific needs. Strategies for Structuring Sport Situations to Meet the Needs of Young Athletes (See table 22.2 on p. 496 of text.)
Enhance perceived competenceteach young athletes to define success as exceeding their own goals, not simply winning. Facilitating Motivation in Young Athletes Keep participation and withdrawal statistics. Implications for practice (continued)
When children discontinue, rigorously analyze why they are withdrawing from sport. Facilitating Motivation in Young Athletes Implications for practice Is the child interested in another sport? Is withdrawal permanent or temporary? Did the child have a say in the decision? What are effects on long-term welfare?
Positive Role of Friends in Youth Sport Companionship Spending time or hanging out together (continued) Pleasant play association Enjoying being around ones friends Enhancement of self-esteem Having friends say things or take actions that boost ones self-esteem
Positive Role of Friends in Youth Sport Help and guidance Providing assistance in learning sport skills as well as general assistance, such as in school (continued) Prosocial behavior Saying and doing things that conform to social convention, such as sharing or not saying negative things Intimacy Mutual feelings of close, personal bonds
Positive Role of Friends in Youth Sport Emotional support Expressions and feeling of concern for one another; absence of conflicts (some friends do not argue, fight, or disagree) Conflict resolution Ability of friends to resolve conflicts Attractive personal qualities Positive characteristics such as personality or physical features
Negative Role of Friends in Youth Sport Conflict (e.g., insults, arguments) Unattractive personal qualities (e.g., self- centered) Betrayal Inaccessibility (lack of opportunity to interact)
Peer relations affect motivation for physical activity. KEY Role of Friends in Youth Sport
1.In sport settings, provide time for children to be with friends and to make new friends. 2.Encourage positive peer reinforcement. 3.Emphasize teamwork, foster cohesion, and emphasize the pursuit of group team goals.
Are young athletes placed under too much stress? No, the vast majority of young athletes are not under excessive stress (less than 10% are). Are young athletes placed under too much stress? No, the vast majority of young athletes are not under excessive stress (less than 10% are). Stress and Burnout in Childrens Competitive Sport
Stress and Burnout in Childrens Competitive Sport Stress and Burnout in Childrens Competitive Sport High stress (state anxiety) levels are relatively rare, but affect 2.5 million children in specific situations. Stress among elite junior competitors is caused by fear of failure and feelings of inadequacy. Is state anxiety heightened in young athletes? Children at risk for heightened state anxiety exhibit certain personal characteristics.
Excessive trait anxiety does not appear to be associated with youth sport participation. KEY Stress and Burnout in Childrens Competitive Sport Stress and Burnout in Childrens Competitive Sport
Personal Characteristics of Children at Risk for Heightened State Anxiety High trait anxiety Low self-esteem Low performance expectancies relative to team Low self-performance expectations Frequent worries about failure (continued)
Personal Characteristics of Children at Risk for Heightened State Anxiety Frequent worries about adult expectations and evaluation by others. Less perceived fun Less satisfaction with their performance, regardless of winning or losing Perception that participation is important to parents Outcome goal orientation and low perceived ability
Defeat Versus Victory Children experience more state anxiety after losing than after winning. Situational Sources of Stress
Event Importance The more importance placed on a contest, the more state anxiety experienced by participants. Situational Sources of Stress
Sport Type Children in individual sports experience more state anxiety than children in team sports. Situational Sources of Stress
Stress-Induced Burnout Burnout is a special case of sport withdrawal in which a young athlete discontinues sport involvement in response to chronic stress. Characteristics of burnout include one- dimensional self-definitions and little or no control in decision making.
Factors Associated With Burnout in Young Athletes Very high self- and other-imposed expectations Win-at-all-costs attitude Parental pressure Long repetitive practices with little variety Inconsistent coaching practices (continued)
Factors Associated With Burnout in Young Athletes Overuse injuries from excessive practice Excessive time demands High travel demands Love from others displayed on the basis of winning and losing Perfectionism
Develop confidence and a constructive attitude toward mistakes. Stress and Burnout in Childrens Competitive Sport Use concrete physical strategies (e.g., stress bag to put worries in). Use fun strategies (e.g., jelly belly, spaghetti toes relaxation). Practical implications (continued)
Use simple strategies (e.g., change channels). Stress and Burnout in Childrens Competitive Sport Vary approaches to the same exercise. Individualize approaches to the childs interests. Practical implications Remain positive and optimistic; use role models (e.g., Michael Jordan).
Entry or initial phase Intensive Training and Elite Sport for Children Investment phase Elite performance excellence phase Phases of athletic talent development Excellence maintenance phase
Intensive Training and Elite Sport for Children Most champion athletes did not start out with champion aspirations in mind. Most champion athletes are exposed to active lifestyles and play multiple sports as children. Key findings: Champions must fall in love with the sport before pursuing intense involvement. To optimize talent, young athletes should not spe- cialize in a single sport too early, and parents and coaches should emphasize fun and development.
Children have special coaching needs, different from the needs of adults. KEY Effective Coaching Practices for Young Athletes
Smith, Smoll, and Curtis (1979) classic research notes that a coachs instruction, reinforcement, and mistake-contingent instruction and encouragement correlate with a players self- esteem, motivation, and positive attitudes. What the Research Says About Coaching Children
Learning a positive approach to coaching results in lower player dropout rates (5% compared with 26% for untrained coaches). What the Research Says About Coaching Children
Effective Coaching Practices for Young Athletes 1.Catch kids doing things right and give them plenty of praise. 2.Give praise sincerely. 3.Develop realistic expectations. 4.Reward effort as much as outcome. 5.Focus on teaching and practicing skills (maximize participation and activity). (continued) Implications for practice
Effective Coaching Practices for Young Athletes 6.Modify skills and activities so they are developmentally appropriate. 7.Modify rules to maximize action and participation. 8.Reward correct technique, not just outcome. 9.Use a positive sandwich approach when you correct errors. (continued) Implications for practice
Effective Coaching Practices for Young Athletes 10.Create an environment that reduces fear of trying new skills. 11.Be enthusiastic. Implications for practice
Parental Roles Parental enjoyment of physical activity is related to parental encouragement and a childs perceived competence and participation. Parental support buffers the adverse stressful effects that youth players experience. The goal orientations of parent and child are significantly related. Parents can play a highly positive or a highly negative role in the youth sport experience.
Parental Roles Appreciate the tricky business of parental support. KEYS Educate parents about about parent responsibilities and the sport parent code of conduct.
Sport Parent Responsibilities 1.Encourage your children to play sports, but dont pressure them. Let your child choose to playand quitif she or he wants. 2.Understand what your child wants from sport and provide a supportive atmosphere for achieving those goals. 3.Set limits on your childs participation in sport. You need to determine when your child is physically and emotionally ready to play and to ensure that conditions for playing are safe. (continued)
Sport Parent Responsibilities 4.Make sure the coach is qualified to guide your child through the sport experience. 5.Keep winning in perspective, and help your child do the same. 6.Help your child set realistic performance goals. (continued) 7.Help your child understand the valuable lessons sport can teach. 8.Help your child meet his or her responsibilities to the team and the coach.
Sport Parent Responsibilities 9.Discipline your child appropriately when necessary. 10.Turn your child over to the coach at practices and gamesdont meddle or coach from the stands. 11.Supply the coach with information regarding any allergies or special health conditions your child has. Make sure your child takes any necessary medications to games and practices.
Sport Parent Code of Conduct 1.Remain in the spectator area during games. 2.Dont advise the coach on how to coach. 3.Dont make derogatory comments to coaches, officials, or parents of either team. (continued) 4.Dont try to coach your child during the contest. 5.Dont drink alcohol at contests or come to a contest having drunk too much.
Sport Parent Code of Conduct 6.Cheer for your childs team. 7.Show interest, enthusiasm, and support for your child. 8.Be in control of your emotions. 9.Help when asked by coaches or officials. 10.Thank coaches, officials, and other volunteers who conduct the event.