Presentation on theme: "Facilitating Psychological Growth and Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Facilitating Psychological Growth and Development PART VIIFacilitating Psychological Growth and DevelopmentChapter 22—Children’s Psychological Development Through SportChapter 23—Aggression in SportChapter 24—Character Development and Sportspersonship
2Children’s Psychological Development Through Sport CHAPTER 22Children’s Psychological Development Through Sport
3Session Outline The Importance of Children’s Sport Psychology Why a Psychology of the Young Athlete?Why Children Participate in SportWhy Children Discontinue Participation in SportRole of Friends in Youth Sport(continued)
4Session Outline Stress and Burnout in Children’s Competitive Sport Effective Coaching Practices for Young AthletesRole of Parents
5The Importance of Children’s Sport Psychology Some of the most important implications of sport psychology are found in the children’s sport arena, where participants are plentiful and are highly involved.
6Why a Psychology of the Young Athlete? So many children are involved (an estimated 45 million in the United States).Children are intensely involved in youth sport.Participation peaks at a critical developmental period in the child’s life (age 12).Organized sport is not automatically beneficial; qualified, competent adult leadership is needed.
7Why Children Participate in Youth Sport Children have different reasons for participating in sport, and boys’ reasons vary from girls’.(See table 22.1 on p. 494 of text.)
8Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport Participation statisticsPeak participation occurs between the ages of 10 and 13 years.For every 10 children who begin a sport season, 3 to 4 quit before the season ends.
9Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport Motives for withdrawalMajor reason: “Other things to do”Some negative reasons (e.g., “Not as good as I wanted to be”; “Boredom”; “Didn’t like the pressure”) cited by a significant minority of children
10Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport The Importance of Perceived CompetenceChildren with low perceptions of their athletic abilities drop out or do not participate in sport, whereas children with high perceptions of their competence participate and persist.
12Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport Sport-specific dropouts withdraw from a particular program, but enter other sports.Sport-general dropouts withdraw from all sport participation.Sport-general dropouts are a special concern.
13Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport KEY—Understand underlying motives for withdrawal.
14Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport SummaryMost of the motives children have are intrinsic (e.g., to have fun, learn skills). Winning clearly is neither the only nor the most common motive for participation.Most young athletes have multiple reasons for participation, not a single motive.(continued)
15Why Children Discontinue Participation in Sport SummaryAlthough most children withdraw because of change of interests, a significant minority discontinue for negative reasons (e.g., lack of fun, pressure).Underlying the descriptive motive (e.g., fun) is the child’s need to feel worthy.
16Strategies for Structuring Sport Situations to Meet the Needs of Young Athletes Coaches can enhance motivation by structuring environments to meet specific needs.(See table 22.2 on p. 496 of text.)
17Facilitating Motivation in Young Athletes Implications for practiceEnhance perceived competence—teach young athletes to define success as exceeding their own goals, not simply winning.Keep participation and withdrawal statistics.(continued)
18Facilitating Motivation in Young Athletes Implications for practiceWhen children discontinue, rigorously analyze why they are withdrawing from sport.Is the child interested in another sport?Is withdrawal permanent or temporary?Did the child have a say in the decision?What are effects on long-term welfare?
19Positive Role of Friends in Youth Sport CompanionshipSpending time or “hanging out” togetherPleasant play associationEnjoying being around one’s friendsEnhancement of self-esteemHaving friends say things or take actions that boost one’s self-esteem(continued)
20Positive Role of Friends in Youth Sport Help and guidanceProviding assistance in learning sport skills as well as general assistance, such as in schoolProsocial behaviorSaying and doing things that conform to social convention, such as sharing or not saying negative thingsIntimacyMutual feelings of close, personal bonds(continued)
21Positive Role of Friends in Youth Sport Emotional supportExpressions and feeling of concern for one another; absence of conflicts (some friends do not argue, fight, or disagree)Conflict resolutionAbility of friends to resolve conflictsAttractive personal qualitiesPositive characteristics such as personality or physical features
22Negative Role of Friends in Youth Sport Conflict (e.g., insults, arguments)Unattractive personal qualities (e.g., self-centered)BetrayalInaccessibility (lack of opportunity to interact)
23Role of Friends in Youth Sport KEY—Peer relations affect motivation for physical activity.
24Role of Friends in Youth Sport 1. In sport settings, provide time for children to be with friends and to make new friends.2. Encourage positive peer reinforcement.3. Emphasize teamwork, foster cohesion, and emphasize the pursuit of group “team” goals.
25Stress and Burnout in Children’s Competitive Sport Are young athletes placed under too much stress?No, the vast majority of young athletes are not under excessive stress (less than 10% are).
26Stress and Burnout in Children’s Competitive Sport
27in Children’s Competitive Sport Stress and Burnoutin Children’s Competitive SportIs state anxiety heightened in young athletes?High stress (state anxiety) levels are relatively rare, but affect 2.5 million children in specific situations.Stress among elite junior competitors is caused by fear of failure and feelings of inadequacy.Children at risk for heightened state anxiety exhibit certain personal characteristics.
28in Children’s Competitive Sport Stress and Burnoutin Children’s Competitive SportKEY—Excessive trait anxiety does not appear to be associated with youth sport participation.
29Personal Characteristics of Children at Risk for Heightened State Anxiety High trait anxietyLow self-esteemLow performance expectancies relative to teamLow self-performance expectationsFrequent worries about failure(continued)
30Personal Characteristics of Children at Risk for Heightened State Anxiety Frequent worries about adult expectations and evaluation by others.Less perceived funLess satisfaction with their performance, regardless of winning or losingPerception that participation is important to parentsOutcome goal orientation and low perceived ability
31Situational Sources of Stress Defeat Versus VictoryChildren experience more state anxiety after losing than after winning.
32Situational Sources of Stress Event ImportanceThe more importance placed on a contest, the more state anxiety experienced by participants.
33Situational Sources of Stress Sport TypeChildren in individual sports experience more state anxiety than children in team sports.
34Stress-Induced Burnout Burnout is a special case of sport withdrawal in which a young athlete discontinues sport involvement in response to chronic stress.Characteristics of burnout include one-dimensional self-definitions and little or no control in decision making.
35Factors Associated With Burnout in Young Athletes Very high self- and other-imposed expectationsWin-at-all-costs attitudeParental pressureLong repetitive practices with little varietyInconsistent coaching practices(continued)
36Factors Associated With Burnout in Young Athletes Overuse injuries from excessive practiceExcessive time demandsHigh travel demandsLove from others displayed on the basis of winning and losingPerfectionism
37Stress and Burnout in Children’s Competitive Sport Practical implicationsDevelop confidence and a constructive attitude toward mistakes.Use concrete physical strategies (e.g., stress bag to put worries in).Use fun strategies (e.g., jelly belly, spaghetti toes relaxation).(continued)
38Stress and Burnout in Children’s Competitive Sport Practical implicationsUse simple strategies (e.g., change channels).Vary approaches to the same exercise.Individualize approaches to the child’s interests.Remain positive and optimistic; use role models (e.g., Michael Jordan).
39Intensive Training and Elite Sport for Children Phases of athletic talent developmentEntry or initial phaseInvestment phaseElite performance excellence phaseExcellence maintenance phase
40Intensive Training and Elite Sport for Children Key findings:Most champion athletes did not start out with champion aspirations in mind.Most champion athletes are exposed to active lifestyles and play multiple sports as children.Champions must fall in love with the sport before pursuing intense involvement.To optimize talent, young athletes should not spe-cialize in a single sport too early, and parents and coaches should emphasize fun and development.
41Effective Coaching Practices for Young Athletes KEY—Children have special coaching needs, different from the needs of adults.
42What the Research Says About Coaching Children Smith, Smoll, and Curtis’ (1979) classic research notes that a coach’s instruction, reinforcement, and mistake-contingent instruction and encouragement correlate with a player’s self-esteem, motivation, and positive attitudes.
43What the Research Says About Coaching Children Learning a positive approach to coaching results in lower player dropout rates (5% compared with 26% for untrained coaches).
44Effective Coaching Practices for Young Athletes Implications for practice1. Catch kids doing things right and give them plenty of praise.2. Give praise sincerely.3. Develop realistic expectations.4. Reward effort as much as outcome.5. Focus on teaching and practicing skills (maximize participation and activity).(continued)
45Effective Coaching Practices for Young Athletes Implications for practice6. Modify skills and activities so they are developmentally appropriate.7. Modify rules to maximize action and participation.8. Reward correct technique, not just outcome.9. Use a positive “sandwich” approach when you correct errors.(continued)
46Effective Coaching Practices for Young Athletes Implications for practice10. Create an environment that reduces fear of trying new skills.11. Be enthusiastic.
47Parental RolesParental enjoyment of physical activity is related to parental encouragement and a child’s perceived competence and participation.Parental support buffers the adverse stressful effects that youth players experience.The goal orientations of parent and child are significantly related.Parents can play a highly positive or a highly negative role in the youth sport experience.
48Parental RolesKEYS —Educate parents about about parent responsibilities and the sport parent code of conduct.Appreciate the tricky business of parental support.
49Sport Parent Responsibilities 1. Encourage your children to play sports, but don’t pressure them. Let your child choose to play—and quit—if she or he wants.2. Understand what your child wants from sport and provide a supportive atmosphere for achieving those goals.3. Set limits on your child’s participation in sport. You need to determine when your child is physically and emotionally ready to play and to ensure that conditions for playing are safe.(continued)
50Sport Parent Responsibilities 4. Make sure the coach is qualified to guide your child through the sport experience.5. Keep winning in perspective, and help your child do the same.6. Help your child set realistic performance goals.7. Help your child understand the valuable lessons sport can teach.8. Help your child meet his or her responsibilities to the team and the coach.(continued)
51Sport Parent Responsibilities 9. Discipline your child appropriately when necessary.10. Turn your child over to the coach at practices and games—don’t meddle or coach from the stands.11. Supply the coach with information regarding any allergies or special health conditions your child has. Make sure your child takes any necessary medications to games and practices.
52Sport Parent Code of Conduct 1. Remain in the spectator area during games.2. Don’t advise the coach on how to coach.3. Don’t make derogatory comments to coaches, officials, or parents of either team.4. Don’t try to coach your child during the contest.5. Don’t drink alcohol at contests or come to a contest having drunk too much.(continued)
53Sport Parent Code of Conduct 6. Cheer for your child’s team.7. Show interest, enthusiasm, and support for your child.8. Be in control of your emotions.9. Help when asked by coaches or officials.10. Thank coaches, officials, and other volunteers who conduct the event.