Presentation on theme: "Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education"— Presentation transcript:
1Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and SportDaryl SiedentopChapter 3Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education
2Discussion Questions Can you trace the origins of professional philosophies?How coherently can you articulate thesephilosophical positions?
3Discussion Questions What current views reflect the influence of muscular Christianity, the gymnasticsphilosophies, or the British fair playtraditions?In what forms have these notionssurvived?
4Discussion Questions How have masculine and feminine ideals changed? What vestiges of the former views stilllinger today?
5Discussion Questions What Physical Education philosophy best represents your views?How would you describe the philosophyunderlying the Physical Educationprogram in the high school that youattended?
6Discussion Questions To what extent does progressive education still dominate school aimsand objectives?Is progressive education compatible w.current educational reform?
7Discussion Questions How does the current wellness movement differ from the gymnastics philosophies?Will wellness supplant fitness as aprimary concern? Why? Explain.
8Discussion Questions Which philosophy seems to dominate professional sport?Which one dominates activity at a localfitness club?Which one dominates youth sport?
9Discussion Questions How will the activity choices of generations X and Y influence the sportand fitness culture in the future?
11Some informal Definitions . . . OntologyThe study of the nature of being,existence, or reality.. . . Deciding on a position regarding the linkbetween Mind and body, or whether there is morethan one reality
12Some informal Definitions . . . The study of values and the nature of valuesAxiology. . . What values do you try to instill in others?
13Some informal Definitions . . . EthicsStudy of thenature of morals and moral choices madeby persons;rules or standards governing the conductof an individual or members of a profession(e.g., judicial or medical ethics).. . . Making judgments about the “right” thing to do.
14Some informal Definitions . . . Judging what is best for the common goodPolitics
15Ontology Ethics Axiology Politics These are all areas of study within the broader field of PhilosophyYour actions and choices (i.e., your behavior)reflect your philosophy . . .Your position on issues, your values.
16Seeing how your philosophy is connected with those within your field will help youarticulate your views and positions.Can you articulate your own position andvalues about the profession/field you planto enter? Try it!Over time it will evolve, and change . . .But be sure you have one!
17Key developments in the 19th Century: Philosophical influences in early American Sport, Fitness, and Physical EducationKey developments in the 19th Century:New forms of Government (France & the USA).Industrial Revolution.Fundamental changes in economics, populationdemographics, and social institutions.
18Key developments in the 19th & 20th Philosophical influences in early American Sport, Fitness, and Physical EducationKey developments in the 19th & 20thCenturies in the field . . .(a backdrop):Physical Education becomes a school subject.Competitive Sport becomes more accepted.Fitness becomes valued in its own right.Importance of Play during childhood is recognized.
19The Gymnastics Philosophies Main Philosophical influences on Sport, Fitness, and Physical EducationThe Gymnastics PhilosophiesMuscular ChristianityMasculinity & Femininity IdealsAmateurism, Fair Play, & British idealsCharacter Education(See also Box 3.1)
20The Gymnastics Philosophies German and Swedish systems emergewithin a period of strong Nationalism.Both were similar in philosophy.Main goal: Individual development,self-reliance.Yet also strongly linked with NationalDefense (i.e., military preparedness).
21Muscular Christianity Emerged as Puritanism slowly lost itsgrip on the young nation.Reflects a mutual understanding betweenSport and religion.Ralph Waldo Emerson: “the first wealthis health.”
22Muscular Christianity Achieving fitness and physical prowessalso serves mental, moral and religiouspurposes.Reached popularity through its variationfrom Britain: ARNOLDISM.ARNOLDISM: Uses Sport & fitnesstoward reaching manliness, courage,patriotism, moral character, team spirit, &intellectual independence.
23Masculinity & Femininity Ideals 19th Century: Increased acceptance ofSport and fitness . .But only for boys/men!Vigorous activity and competitive sportwere viewed as harmful and “unladylike”for girls and women.This was in stark contrast to prevailingview of men: Virile, tough, aggressive, etc.
24Masculinity & Femininity Ideals (cont’d.) Similar views were held in sport, fitness &Physical Education environments.Title IX and feminismgreatly accelerated thechange process forwomen.
25Amateurism, Fair Play, and British Ideals Development of Sport in the late 1900smirrored the growth of British Sport:Amateurism & Fair Play.It was the wealthy in Britain who exudedthese characteristics.Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) formedin 1888.
26Character Education Through Physical Challenges Kurt Hahn’s educational goal:Train character over intellectFitness was an important component.40 min. activity breaks were intersperseddaily throughout classroom activities.
27Character Education Through Physical Challenges Youth were challenged through outdooractivities: Mountain climbing,sailing expeditions lasting 4 days.Ergo: The Outward Bound MovementThis orientation formed the basis for theexperiential- and adventure educationmovement in the late 20th Century(e.g.,
28New Physical Education . . . The Philosophical Roots School Sport and theNew Physical Education The Philosophical RootsClarkHetherington1924ThomasWoodJohn DeweyJohannBasedowJohannPestalozziFriedrichFroebelJean-JacqueRousseau1740
29New Physical Education School Sport and theNew Physical EducationThomas Wood’s work (1893) signaledthe shift from the Gymnastics movementto the “Education-through-the-physical”approach.Based in part on the “progressive education”principles developed by John Dewey:
30New Physical Education School Sport and theNew Physical EducationJohn Dewey’s education agenda:Social reform through child-centered,natural education.Students are active participants Doing isas important as knowing Mental andphysical cannot/should not be separated.Thus, natural play, sport and games werevalued highly in “progressive education.”
31New Physical Education School Sport and theNew Physical EducationJohn Dewey strongly influenced ClarkHetherington while at Columbia University.Hence, the link between progressiveeducation and “education-through-the-physical.”Thus, natural play, sport and games werevalued highly in “progressive education.”
32New Physical Education . . . The Philosophical Roots School Sport and theNew Physical Education The Philosophical RootsRousseau: Children are born “good”. . . It is their environment that ruins them.Strong advocate of physical activity, play,games & gymnastics as sensory experiencesfor a more holistic education.Play could contribute to developing:Character and competition.
33New Physical Education . . . The Philosophical Roots School Sport and theNew Physical Education The Philosophical RootsRousseau influenced educators:Basedow, Pestalozzi, & Froebel.They each viewed physical activity, playas central to children’s development.Play could contribute to developing:Character and competition.
34Re-emergence of Play as a Philosophical Concept Play was the key link among the variouseducational philosophers.Froebel made it the cornerstone of hisviews of how children learn.Became widely accepted as central toeducation and life.Previously, Christianity (i.e., Reformation)suppressed play behavior as anti-Christian.
35Re-emergence of Play as a Philosophical Concept (cont’d.) Friedrich von Schiller made Playa legitimate philosophical concept:“For to speak out once for all, man onlyplays when in the fullmeaning of the word he isa man, and he is onlycompletely a man whenat play.”(Schiller, 1910)
36Philosophies Come Together The Early 20th Century:Philosophies Come TogetherSport, fitness and school-based PhysicalEducation had become well accepted andseen as critical to total development(though still favoring males).Physical Education proponents alsoinfluenced the YMCA and playgroundmovements.Sport, fitness and Physical Educationeach began to form their own identity.
371950’s mark a period of increasing Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s1950’s mark a period of increasingspecialization, diversification in each area.Until the 1950’s the “Education-Through-the-Physical” had not been challenged.Rise of new philosophical orientations:Human MovementHumanistic Sport & Physical Education.Play Education & Sport Education.Experiential & Adventure Education
38“Human Movement” philosophy Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s“Human Movement” philosophyFirst articulated by Rudolph Laban; heavilypromoted by Rosiland Cassidy & ElanorMetheny.Became basis for:a) undergraduate teacher preparation atUCLA in 1958, and.b) justifying the academic nature of PhysicalEducation.
39“Human Movement” philosophy (cont’d. ) Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s“Human Movement” philosophy (cont’d. )Framework fostered subsequent specializationinto various sub-disciplinesOffered school programs a more flexible andopen approach to teaching, notably in Elem.Schools: Movement Education.Associated teaching styles: Exploration andguided discovery.
40“Human Movement” philosophy (cont’d. ) Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s“Human Movement” philosophy (cont’d. )Still reflected in many of today’s Elem. Schooltextbooks and school programs & PETEprograms.Offered school programs a more flexible andopen approach to teaching, notably in Elem.Schools: Movement Education.Associated teaching styles: Exploration andguided discovery.
41Humanistic Sport & Physical Education Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’sHumanistic Sport & Physical EducationHumanistic Psychology emerged as adominant force in Education during the60’s/70s, emphasizing personal and socialdevelopment.Don Hellison publishes “HumanisticPhysical Education” (1973) targeting personaldevelopment, interpersonal relationships andself-expression as primary goals for PhysicalEducation.
42Humanistic Sport & Physical Education Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’sHumanistic Sport & Physical Education(cont’d.)A similar movement develops that condemnsabuses in sport (e.g., Scott, 1969: Athletics for Athletes).Hellison’s framework for developing “personaland social responsibility” has developed astrong foothold in school Physical Education,most notably those serving urban at-risk youth.
43Play Education & Sport Education Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’sPlay Education & Sport EducationTraditional philosophies viewed PhysicalEducation as a means towards other outcomes(i.e., physical, social, mental & moral).“Play for play sake” (i.e., the activities arevaluable in and of themselves) emerges as anew means of explaining the importance ofthe subject in schools (first promoted by Elanor Metheny).
44Play Education & Sport Education Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’sPlay Education & Sport Education(cont’d.)First proposed by Siedentop, it aims to helpstudents acquire the skills and appreciation forthe activities themselves.Activities should nothave to be used for“other” outcomes . . .
45Play Education & Sport Education Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’sPlay Education & Sport Education(cont’d.)Play Education places motor play (as seen inPhysical Education) alongside music, art anddrama as an institutionalized form of playwithin the broader culture.As such, it is fundamental to our culture .
46Play Education & Sport Education (cont’d.) Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’sPlay Education & Sport Education (cont’d.)Where Play Education was a philosophy, SportEducation (SE) emerged as a coherentCurriculum & Instruction model for schoolPhysical Education programs.SE seeks to help students become competent,literate and enthusiastic sportpersons Tofoster continued participation and contributionto creating a healthier sport culture.
47Play Education & Sport Education (cont’d.) Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’sPlay Education & Sport Education (cont’d.)In SE, students are members of a team duringa season in which festivity and team affiliationis created, a schedule of competition iscompleted, records are kept, and a seasonchampion is determined during a culminatingevent.
48Experiential & Adventure Education Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’sExperiential & Adventure EducationBased on the character-education models fromthe 1800’s.Follows the core values and principles ofOutward Bound (www.outwardbound.com):Adventure & challenge.Compassion & service.Learning through experience.Personal development.Social & environmental responsibility.
49Experiential & Adventure Education Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’sExperiential & Adventure EducationMany school Physical Education programsinfuse team building and adventure typeactivities.Includes both in-class and off-campusexperiences (e.g., 2-3 day hiking or canoeing trips).
50The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement Fitness is “in” and BIG business.Targets entire population (i.e., youththrough older adults).The need for better health is a majorexplanation for its current popularity.HOWEVER, reaching a state ofWellness is another reason.
51The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement Health used to be defined in terms ofthe “absence of disease.”Wellness is defined more broadly:Absence of disease, as well as the ability to:cope with daily stressors.develop and maintain positiveinterpersonal relationships.recognize accomplishmentand personal growth.think critically and be open tonew ideasmaintain a sense of humor.(fr. Fahey, Insel & Roth, 2007)
52The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement Wellness is reached when one caneffectively balance one’s work, play, andrelationships and view each positively. . .How would you rate your level ofwellness?Maintaining a physically active lifestyle isnow accepted as a central component ofmoving toward wellness.
53The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement Traditionally, wellness has been viewedas a matter of personal responsibility.HOWEVER, current trends in sedentarylifestyles and obesity in the population atlarge, make it a public health and publicpolicy concernA collective responsibility.
54The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement One’s health is strongly influenced bySocio-economic Status.Since race and ethnicity is stronglycorrelated with SES, health is alsoa social and political issue.
55Lifespan Involvement in Physical Activity: The new VisionsPhysical activity and wellness isimportant for ALL (not just children and youth).New generations are increasingly attractedto “extreme sports.” WHY??Even these activities are becoming moreinstitutionalized (e.g., Winter Games; X-Games).Fitness is now also a major focus amongolder adults and retirees.