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© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Chapter 3 Introduction to Physical.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Chapter 3 Introduction to Physical."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Chapter 3 Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport Daryl Siedentop

2 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 2 Discussion Questions 1. Can you trace the origins of professional philosophies? How coherently can you articulate these philosophical positions? 1. Can you trace the origins of professional philosophies? How coherently can you articulate these philosophical positions?

3 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 3 Discussion Questions 2. What current views reflect the influence of muscular Christianity, the gymnastics philosophies, or the British fair play traditions? In what forms have these notions survived? 2. What current views reflect the influence of muscular Christianity, the gymnastics philosophies, or the British fair play traditions? In what forms have these notions survived?

4 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 4 Discussion Questions 3. How have masculine and feminine ideals changed? What vestiges of the former views still linger today? 3. How have masculine and feminine ideals changed? What vestiges of the former views still linger today?

5 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 5 Discussion Questions 4. What Physical Education philosophy best represents your views? How would you describe the philosophy underlying the Physical Education program in the high school that you attended? 4. What Physical Education philosophy best represents your views? How would you describe the philosophy underlying the Physical Education program in the high school that you attended?

6 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6 Discussion Questions 5. To what extent does progressive education still dominate school aims and objectives? Is progressive education compatible w. current educational reform? 5. To what extent does progressive education still dominate school aims and objectives? Is progressive education compatible w. current educational reform?

7 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 7 Discussion Questions 6. How does the current wellness movement differ from the gymnastics philosophies? Will wellness supplant fitness as a primary concern? Why? Explain. 6. How does the current wellness movement differ from the gymnastics philosophies? Will wellness supplant fitness as a primary concern? Why? Explain.

8 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 8 Discussion Questions 7. Which philosophy seems to dominate professional sport? Which one dominates activity at a local fitness club? Which one dominates youth sport? 7. Which philosophy seems to dominate professional sport? Which one dominates activity at a local fitness club? Which one dominates youth sport?

9 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 9 Discussion Questions 8. How will the activity choices of generations X and Y influence the sport and fitness culture in the future? 8. How will the activity choices of generations X and Y influence the sport and fitness culture in the future?

10 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 10 Ontology Axiology Politics Ethics Some informal Definitions...

11 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 11 Ontology The study of the nature of being, existence, or reality. The study of the nature of being, existence, or reality.... Deciding on a position regarding the link between Mind and body, or whether there is more than one reality... Deciding on a position regarding the link between Mind and body, or whether there is more than one reality Some informal Definitions...

12 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 12 Axiology The study of values and the nature of values Some informal Definitions What values do you try to instill in others?

13 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 13 Ethics Study of the a) nature of morals and moral choices made by persons; b) rules or standards governing the conduct of an individual or members of a profession (e.g., judicial or medical ethics). Study of the a) nature of morals and moral choices made by persons; b) rules or standards governing the conduct of an individual or members of a profession (e.g., judicial or medical ethics).... Making judgments about the right thing to do. Some informal Definitions...

14 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 14 Some informal Definitions... Politics Judging what is best for the common good

15 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 15 Ontology Axiology Politics Ethics These are all areas of study within the broader field of Philosophy These are all areas of study within the broader field of Philosophy Your actions and choices (i.e., your behavior) reflect your philosophy... Your position on issues, your values.

16 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 16 Seeing how your philosophy is connected with those within your field will help you articulate your views and positions. Seeing how your philosophy is connected with those within your field will help you articulate your views and positions. Can you articulate your own position and values about the profession/field you plan to enter?... Try it! Over time it will evolve, and change... But be sure you have one! Can you articulate your own position and values about the profession/field you plan to enter?... Try it! Over time it will evolve, and change... But be sure you have one!

17 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 17 Philosophical influences in early American Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Key developments in the 19 th Century: New forms of Government (France & the USA). Industrial Revolution. Fundamental changes in economics, population demographics, and social institutions. Fundamental changes in economics, population demographics, and social institutions.

18 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 18 Philosophical influences in early American Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Key developments in the 19 th & 20 th Centuries in the field...(a backdrop): Key developments in the 19 th & 20 th Centuries in the field...(a backdrop): Physical Education becomes a school subject. Competitive Sport becomes more accepted. Fitness becomes valued in its own right. Importance of Play during childhood is recognized.

19 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 19 Main Philosophical influences on Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education The Gymnastics Philosophies Muscular Christianity Masculinity & Femininity Ideals Amateurism, Fair Play, & British ideals Character Education (See also Box 3.1)

20 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 20 The Gymnastics Philosophies German and Swedish systems emerge within a period of strong Nationalism. German and Swedish systems emerge within a period of strong Nationalism. Both were similar in philosophy. Main goal: Individual development, self-reliance. Main goal: Individual development, self-reliance. Yet also strongly linked with National Defense (i.e., military preparedness). Yet also strongly linked with National Defense (i.e., military preparedness).

21 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 21 Muscular Christianity Emerged as Puritanism slowly lost its grip on the young nation. Emerged as Puritanism slowly lost its grip on the young nation. Reflects a mutual understanding between Sport and religion. Reflects a mutual understanding between Sport and religion. Ralph Waldo Emerson: the first wealth is health. Ralph Waldo Emerson: the first wealth is health.

22 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 22 Muscular Christianity Achieving fitness and physical prowess also serves mental, moral and religious purposes. Achieving fitness and physical prowess also serves mental, moral and religious purposes. Reached popularity through its variation from Britain: ARNOLDISM. Reached popularity through its variation from Britain: ARNOLDISM. ARNOLDISM: Uses Sport & fitness toward reaching manliness, courage, patriotism, moral character, team spirit, & intellectual independence. ARNOLDISM: Uses Sport & fitness toward reaching manliness, courage, patriotism, moral character, team spirit, & intellectual independence.

23 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 23 Masculinity & Femininity Ideals 19 th Century: Increased acceptance of Sport and fitness.. But only for boys/men! 19 th Century: Increased acceptance of Sport and fitness.. But only for boys/men! Vigorous activity and competitive sport were viewed as harmful and unladylike for girls and women. Vigorous activity and competitive sport were viewed as harmful and unladylike for girls and women. This was in stark contrast to prevailing view of men: Virile, tough, aggressive, etc. This was in stark contrast to prevailing view of men: Virile, tough, aggressive, etc.

24 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 24 Masculinity & Femininity Ideals (contd.) Similar views were held in sport, fitness & Physical Education environments. Similar views were held in sport, fitness & Physical Education environments. Title IX and feminism greatly accelerated the change process for women. Title IX and feminism greatly accelerated the change process for women.

25 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 25 Amateurism, Fair Play, and British Ideals Development of Sport in the late 1900s mirrored the growth of British Sport: Amateurism & Fair Play. Development of Sport in the late 1900s mirrored the growth of British Sport: Amateurism & Fair Play. It was the wealthy in Britain who exuded these characteristics. It was the wealthy in Britain who exuded these characteristics. Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) formed in Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) formed in 1888.

26 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 26 Character Education Through Physical Challenges Kurt Hahns educational goal: Train character over intellect Kurt Hahns educational goal: Train character over intellect Fitness was an important component. 40 min. activity breaks were interspersed daily throughout classroom activities. 40 min. activity breaks were interspersed daily throughout classroom activities.

27 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 27 Character Education Through Physical Challenges Youth were challenged through outdoor activities: Mountain climbing, sailing expeditions lasting 4 days. Youth were challenged through outdoor activities: Mountain climbing, sailing expeditions lasting 4 days. Ergo: The Outward Bound Movement This orientation formed the basis for the experiential- and adventure education movement in the late 20 th Century This orientation formed the basis for the experiential- and adventure education movement in the late 20 th Century (e.g., (e.g.,

28 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 28 School Sport and the New Physical Education... The Philosophical Roots School Sport and the New Physical Education... The Philosophical Roots Jean-Jacque Rousseau Jean-Jacque Rousseau Thomas Wood Thomas Wood John Dewey Johann Pestalozzi Johann Pestalozzi Johann Basedow Johann Basedow Friedrich Froebel Friedrich Froebel Clark Hetherington Clark Hetherington

29 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 29 School Sport and the New Physical Education School Sport and the New Physical Education Thomas Woods work (1893) signaled the shift from the Gymnastics movement to the Education-through-the-physical approach. Thomas Woods work (1893) signaled the shift from the Gymnastics movement to the Education-through-the-physical approach. Based in part on the progressive education principles developed by John Dewey: Based in part on the progressive education principles developed by John Dewey:

30 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 30 School Sport and the New Physical Education School Sport and the New Physical Education John Deweys education agenda: Social reform through child-centered, natural education. John Deweys education agenda: Social reform through child-centered, natural education. Students are active participants... Doing is as important as knowing... Mental and physical cannot/should not be separated. Students are active participants... Doing is as important as knowing... Mental and physical cannot/should not be separated. Thus, natural play, sport and games were valued highly in progressive education. Thus, natural play, sport and games were valued highly in progressive education.

31 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 31 School Sport and the New Physical Education School Sport and the New Physical Education John Dewey strongly influenced Clark Hetherington while at Columbia University. John Dewey strongly influenced Clark Hetherington while at Columbia University. Hence, the link between progressive education and education-through-the- physical. Hence, the link between progressive education and education-through-the- physical. Thus, natural play, sport and games were valued highly in progressive education. Thus, natural play, sport and games were valued highly in progressive education.

32 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 32 Rousseau: Children are born good... It is their environment that ruins them. Rousseau: Children are born good... It is their environment that ruins them. Strong advocate of physical activity, play, games & gymnastics as sensory experiences for a more holistic education. Strong advocate of physical activity, play, games & gymnastics as sensory experiences for a more holistic education. School Sport and the New Physical Education... The Philosophical Roots School Sport and the New Physical Education... The Philosophical Roots Play could contribute to developing: Character and competition. Play could contribute to developing: Character and competition.

33 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 33 Rousseau influenced educators: Basedow, Pestalozzi, & Froebel. Rousseau influenced educators: Basedow, Pestalozzi, & Froebel. They each viewed physical activity, play as central to childrens development. They each viewed physical activity, play as central to childrens development. School Sport and the New Physical Education... The Philosophical Roots School Sport and the New Physical Education... The Philosophical Roots Play could contribute to developing: Character and competition. Play could contribute to developing: Character and competition.

34 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 34 Play was the key link among the various educational philosophers. Play was the key link among the various educational philosophers. Froebel made it the cornerstone of his views of how children learn. Froebel made it the cornerstone of his views of how children learn. Re-emergence of Play as a Philosophical Concept Became widely accepted as central to education and life. Became widely accepted as central to education and life. Previously, Christianity (i.e., Reformation) suppressed play behavior as anti-Christian. Previously, Christianity (i.e., Reformation) suppressed play behavior as anti-Christian.

35 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 35 Friedrich von Schiller made Play a legitimate philosophical concept: Friedrich von Schiller made Play a legitimate philosophical concept: For to speak out once for all, man only plays when in the full meaning of the word he is a man, and he is only completely a man when at play. For to speak out once for all, man only plays when in the full meaning of the word he is a man, and he is only completely a man when at play. Re-emergence of Play as a Philosophical Concept (contd.) (Schiller, 1910)

36 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 36 The Early 20 th Century: Philosophies Come Together The Early 20 th Century: Philosophies Come Together Physical Education proponents also influenced the YMCA and playground movements. Physical Education proponents also influenced the YMCA and playground movements. Sport, fitness and Physical Education each began to form their own identity. Sport, fitness and Physical Education each began to form their own identity. Sport, fitness and school-based Physical Education had become well accepted and seen as critical to total development (though still favoring males). Sport, fitness and school-based Physical Education had become well accepted and seen as critical to total development (though still favoring males).

37 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 37 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Until the 1950s the Education-Through- the-Physical had not been challenged. Until the 1950s the Education-Through- the-Physical had not been challenged. Rise of new philosophical orientations: 1950s mark a period of increasing specialization, diversification in each area. 1950s mark a period of increasing specialization, diversification in each area. Human Movement Humanistic Sport & Physical Education. Play Education & Sport Education. Experiential & Adventure Education Human Movement Humanistic Sport & Physical Education. Play Education & Sport Education. Experiential & Adventure Education

38 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 38 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Human Movement philosophy First articulated by Rudolph Laban; heavily promoted by Rosiland Cassidy & Elanor Metheny. First articulated by Rudolph Laban; heavily promoted by Rosiland Cassidy & Elanor Metheny. Became basis for: a) undergraduate teacher preparation at UCLA in 1958, and. b) justifying the academic nature of Physical Education. Became basis for: a) undergraduate teacher preparation at UCLA in 1958, and. b) justifying the academic nature of Physical Education.

39 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 39 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Human Movement philosophy (contd. ) Framework fostered subsequent specialization into various sub-disciplines Framework fostered subsequent specialization into various sub-disciplines Offered school programs a more flexible and open approach to teaching, notably in Elem. Schools: Movement Education. Offered school programs a more flexible and open approach to teaching, notably in Elem. Schools: Movement Education. Associated teaching styles: Exploration and guided discovery. Associated teaching styles: Exploration and guided discovery.

40 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 40 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Human Movement philosophy (contd. ) Still reflected in many of todays Elem. School textbooks and school programs & PETE programs. Still reflected in many of todays Elem. School textbooks and school programs & PETE programs. Offered school programs a more flexible and open approach to teaching, notably in Elem. Schools: Movement Education. Offered school programs a more flexible and open approach to teaching, notably in Elem. Schools: Movement Education. Associated teaching styles: Exploration and guided discovery. Associated teaching styles: Exploration and guided discovery.

41 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 41 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Humanistic Sport & Physical Education Humanistic Psychology emerged as a dominant force in Education during the 60s/70s, emphasizing personal and social development. Humanistic Psychology emerged as a dominant force in Education during the 60s/70s, emphasizing personal and social development. Don Hellison publishes Humanistic Physical Education (1973) targeting personal development, interpersonal relationships and self-expression as primary goals for Physical Education. Don Hellison publishes Humanistic Physical Education (1973) targeting personal development, interpersonal relationships and self-expression as primary goals for Physical Education.

42 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 42 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Humanistic Sport & Physical Education (contd.) Humanistic Sport & Physical Education (contd.) A similar movement develops that condemns abuses in sport (e.g., Scott, 1969: Athletics for Athletes). A similar movement develops that condemns abuses in sport (e.g., Scott, 1969: Athletics for Athletes). Hellisons framework for developing personal and social responsibility has developed a strong foothold in school Physical Education, most notably those serving urban at-risk youth. Hellisons framework for developing personal and social responsibility has developed a strong foothold in school Physical Education, most notably those serving urban at-risk youth.

43 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 43 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Play Education & Sport Education Traditional philosophies viewed Physical Education as a means towards other outcomes (i.e., physical, social, mental & moral). Traditional philosophies viewed Physical Education as a means towards other outcomes (i.e., physical, social, mental & moral). Play for play sake (i.e., the activities are valuable in and of themselves) emerges as a new means of explaining the importance of the subject in schools (first promoted by Elanor Metheny). Play for play sake (i.e., the activities are valuable in and of themselves) emerges as a new means of explaining the importance of the subject in schools (first promoted by Elanor Metheny).

44 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 44 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Play Education & Sport Education (contd.) Play Education & Sport Education (contd.) First proposed by Siedentop, it aims to help students acquire the skills and appreciation for the activities themselves. First proposed by Siedentop, it aims to help students acquire the skills and appreciation for the activities themselves. Activities should not have to be used for other outcomes... Activities should not have to be used for other outcomes...

45 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 45 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Play Education & Sport Education (contd.) Play Education & Sport Education (contd.) Play Education places motor play (as seen in Physical Education) alongside music, art and drama as an institutionalized form of play within the broader culture. Play Education places motor play (as seen in Physical Education) alongside music, art and drama as an institutionalized form of play within the broader culture. As such, it is fundamental to our culture.

46 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 46 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Play Education & Sport Education (contd.) Where Play Education was a philosophy, Sport Education (SE) emerged as a coherent Curriculum & Instruction model for school Physical Education programs. Where Play Education was a philosophy, Sport Education (SE) emerged as a coherent Curriculum & Instruction model for school Physical Education programs. SE seeks to help students become competent, literate and enthusiastic sportpersons... To foster continued participation and contribution to creating a healthier sport culture. SE seeks to help students become competent, literate and enthusiastic sportpersons... To foster continued participation and contribution to creating a healthier sport culture.

47 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 47 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Play Education & Sport Education (contd.) In SE, students are members of a team during a season in which festivity and team affiliation is created, a schedule of competition is completed, records are kept, and a season champion is determined during a culminating event. In SE, students are members of a team during a season in which festivity and team affiliation is created, a schedule of competition is completed, records are kept, and a season champion is determined during a culminating event.

48 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 48 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Experiential & Adventure Education Based on the character-education models from the 1800s. Based on the character-education models from the 1800s. Follows the core values and principles of Outward Bound (www.outwardbound.com) : Follows the core values and principles of Outward Bound (www.outwardbound.com) : Adventure & challenge. Compassion & service. Learning through experience. Personal development. Social & environmental responsibility. Adventure & challenge. Compassion & service. Learning through experience. Personal development. Social & environmental responsibility.

49 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 49 Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950s Experiential & Adventure Education Many school Physical Education programs infuse team building and adventure type activities. Many school Physical Education programs infuse team building and adventure type activities. Includes both in-class and off-campus experiences (e.g., 2-3 day hiking or canoeing trips). Includes both in-class and off-campus experiences (e.g., 2-3 day hiking or canoeing trips).

50 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 50 The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement Fitness is in and BIG business. Targets entire population (i.e., youth through older adults). Targets entire population (i.e., youth through older adults). The need for better health is a major explanation for its current popularity. The need for better health is a major explanation for its current popularity. HOWEVER, reaching a state of Wellness is another reason. HOWEVER, reaching a state of Wellness is another reason.

51 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 51 The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement Health used to be defined in terms of the absence of disease. Health used to be defined in terms of the absence of disease. Wellness is defined more broadly: Absence of disease, as well as the ability to: cope with daily stressors. develop and maintain positive interpersonal relationships. recognize accomplishment and personal growth. think critically and be open to new ideas maintain a sense of humor. cope with daily stressors. develop and maintain positive interpersonal relationships. recognize accomplishment and personal growth. think critically and be open to new ideas maintain a sense of humor. (fr. Fahey, Insel & Roth, 2007)

52 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 52 The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement Wellness is reached when one can effectively balance ones work, play, and relationships and view each positively... How would you rate your level of wellness? Wellness is reached when one can effectively balance ones work, play, and relationships and view each positively... How would you rate your level of wellness? Maintaining a physically active lifestyle is now accepted as a central component of moving toward wellness. Maintaining a physically active lifestyle is now accepted as a central component of moving toward wellness.

53 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 53 The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement Traditionally, wellness has been viewed as a matter of personal responsibility. Traditionally, wellness has been viewed as a matter of personal responsibility. HOWEVER, current trends in sedentary lifestyles and obesity in the population at large, make it a public health and public policy concern.... A collective responsibility. HOWEVER, current trends in sedentary lifestyles and obesity in the population at large, make it a public health and public policy concern.... A collective responsibility.

54 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 54 The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement Ones health is strongly influenced by Socio-economic Status. Ones health is strongly influenced by Socio-economic Status. Since race and ethnicity is strongly correlated with SES, health is also a social and political issue. Since race and ethnicity is strongly correlated with SES, health is also a social and political issue.

55 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 55 Lifespan Involvement in Physical Activity: The new Visions Lifespan Involvement in Physical Activity: The new Visions Physical activity and wellness is important for ALL (not just children and youth). Physical activity and wellness is important for ALL (not just children and youth). New generations are increasingly attracted to extreme sports..... WHY?? New generations are increasingly attracted to extreme sports..... WHY?? Even these activities are becoming more institutionalized (e.g., Winter Games; X-Games). Even these activities are becoming more institutionalized (e.g., Winter Games; X-Games). Fitness is now also a major focus among older adults and retirees. Fitness is now also a major focus among older adults and retirees.


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