Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education"— Presentation transcript:

1 Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education
Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport Daryl Siedentop Chapter 3 Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education

2 Discussion Questions Can you trace the origins of professional
philosophies? How coherently can you articulate these philosophical positions?

3 Discussion Questions What current views reflect the influence
of muscular Christianity, the gymnastics philosophies, or the British fair play traditions? In what forms have these notions survived?

4 Discussion Questions How have masculine and feminine ideals changed?
What vestiges of the former views still linger today?

5 Discussion Questions What Physical Education philosophy
best represents your views? How would you describe the philosophy underlying the Physical Education program in the high school that you attended?

6 Discussion Questions To what extent does progressive
education still dominate school aims and objectives? Is progressive education compatible w. current educational reform?

7 Discussion Questions How does the current wellness movement
differ from the gymnastics philosophies? Will wellness supplant fitness as a primary concern? Why? Explain.

8 Discussion Questions Which philosophy seems to dominate
professional sport? Which one dominates activity at a local fitness club? Which one dominates youth sport?

9 Discussion Questions How will the activity choices of
generations X and Y influence the sport and fitness culture in the future?

10 Some informal Definitions . . .
Ontology Ethics Axiology Politics

11 Some informal Definitions . . .
Ontology The study of the nature of being, existence, or reality. . . . Deciding on a position regarding the link between Mind and body, or whether there is more than one reality

12 Some informal Definitions . . .
The study of values and the nature of values Axiology . . . What values do you try to instill in others?

13 Some informal Definitions . . .
Ethics Study of the nature of morals and moral choices made by persons; rules or standards governing the conduct of an individual or members of a profession (e.g., judicial or medical ethics). . . . Making judgments about the “right” thing to do.

14 Some informal Definitions . . .
Judging what is best for the common good Politics

15 Ontology Ethics Axiology Politics These are all areas of study within
the broader field of Philosophy Your actions and choices (i.e., your behavior) reflect your philosophy . . . Your position on issues, your values.

16 Seeing how your philosophy is connected
with those within your field will help you articulate your views and positions. Can you articulate your own position and values about the profession/field you plan to enter? Try it! Over time it will evolve, and change . . . But be sure you have one!

17 Key developments in the 19th Century:
Philosophical influences in early American Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Key developments in the 19th Century: New forms of Government (France & the USA). Industrial Revolution. Fundamental changes in economics, population demographics, and social institutions.

18 Key developments in the 19th & 20th
Philosophical influences in early American Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education Key developments in the 19th & 20th Centuries in the field . . .(a backdrop): Physical Education becomes a school subject. Competitive Sport becomes more accepted. Fitness becomes valued in its own right. Importance of Play during childhood is recognized.

19 The Gymnastics Philosophies
Main Philosophical influences on Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education The Gymnastics Philosophies Muscular Christianity Masculinity & Femininity Ideals Amateurism, Fair Play, & British ideals Character Education (See also Box 3.1)

20 The Gymnastics Philosophies
German and Swedish systems emerge within a period of strong Nationalism. Both were similar in philosophy. Main goal: Individual development, self-reliance. Yet also strongly linked with National Defense (i.e., military preparedness).

21 Muscular Christianity
Emerged as Puritanism slowly lost its grip on the young nation. Reflects a mutual understanding between Sport and religion. Ralph Waldo Emerson: “the first wealth is health.”

22 Muscular Christianity
Achieving fitness and physical prowess also serves mental, moral and religious purposes. Reached popularity through its variation from Britain: ARNOLDISM. ARNOLDISM: Uses Sport & fitness toward reaching manliness, courage, patriotism, moral character, team spirit, & intellectual independence.

23 Masculinity & Femininity Ideals
19th Century: Increased acceptance of Sport and fitness . . But only for boys/men! Vigorous activity and competitive sport were viewed as harmful and “unladylike” for girls and women. This was in stark contrast to prevailing view of men: Virile, tough, aggressive, etc.

24 Masculinity & Femininity Ideals (cont’d.)
Similar views were held in sport, fitness & Physical Education environments. Title IX and feminism greatly accelerated the change process for women.

25 Amateurism, Fair Play, and British Ideals
Development of Sport in the late 1900s mirrored the growth of British Sport: Amateurism & Fair Play. It was the wealthy in Britain who exuded these characteristics. Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) formed in 1888.

26 Character Education Through Physical Challenges
Kurt Hahn’s educational goal: Train character over intellect Fitness was an important component. 40 min. activity breaks were interspersed daily throughout classroom activities.

27 Character Education Through Physical Challenges
Youth were challenged through outdoor activities: Mountain climbing, sailing expeditions lasting 4 days. Ergo: The Outward Bound Movement This orientation formed the basis for the experiential- and adventure education movement in the late 20th Century (e.g.,

28 New Physical Education . . . The Philosophical Roots
School Sport and the New Physical Education The Philosophical Roots Clark Hetherington 1924 Thomas Wood John Dewey Johann Basedow Johann Pestalozzi Friedrich Froebel Jean-Jacque Rousseau 1740

29 New Physical Education
School Sport and the New Physical Education Thomas Wood’s work (1893) signaled the shift from the Gymnastics movement to the “Education-through-the-physical” approach. Based in part on the “progressive education” principles developed by John Dewey:

30 New Physical Education
School Sport and the New Physical Education John Dewey’s education agenda: Social reform through child-centered, natural education. Students are active participants Doing is as important as knowing Mental and physical cannot/should not be separated. Thus, natural play, sport and games were valued highly in “progressive education.”

31 New Physical Education
School Sport and the New Physical Education John Dewey strongly influenced Clark Hetherington while at Columbia University. Hence, the link between progressive education and “education-through-the- physical.” Thus, natural play, sport and games were valued highly in “progressive education.”

32 New Physical Education . . . The Philosophical Roots
School Sport and the New Physical Education The Philosophical Roots Rousseau: Children are born “good” . . . It is their environment that ruins them. Strong advocate of physical activity, play, games & gymnastics as sensory experiences for a more holistic education. Play could contribute to developing: Character and competition.

33 New Physical Education . . . The Philosophical Roots
School Sport and the New Physical Education The Philosophical Roots Rousseau influenced educators: Basedow, Pestalozzi, & Froebel. They each viewed physical activity, play as central to children’s development. Play could contribute to developing: Character and competition.

34 Re-emergence of Play as a Philosophical Concept
Play was the key link among the various educational philosophers. Froebel made it the cornerstone of his views of how children learn. Became widely accepted as central to education and life. Previously, Christianity (i.e., Reformation) suppressed play behavior as anti-Christian.

35 Re-emergence of Play as a Philosophical Concept (cont’d.)
Friedrich von Schiller made Play a legitimate philosophical concept: “For to speak out once for all, man only plays when in the full meaning of the word he is a man, and he is only completely a man when at play.” (Schiller, 1910)

36 Philosophies Come Together
The Early 20th Century: Philosophies Come Together Sport, fitness and school-based Physical Education had become well accepted and seen as critical to total development (though still favoring males). Physical Education proponents also influenced the YMCA and playground movements. Sport, fitness and Physical Education each began to form their own identity.

37 1950’s mark a period of increasing
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s 1950’s mark a period of increasing specialization, diversification in each area. Until the 1950’s the “Education-Through- the-Physical” had not been challenged. Rise of new philosophical orientations: Human Movement Humanistic Sport & Physical Education. Play Education & Sport Education. Experiential & Adventure Education

38 “Human Movement” philosophy
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s “Human Movement” philosophy First articulated by Rudolph Laban; heavily promoted by Rosiland Cassidy & Elanor Metheny. Became basis for: a) undergraduate teacher preparation at UCLA in 1958, and. b) justifying the academic nature of Physical Education.

39 “Human Movement” philosophy (cont’d. )
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s “Human Movement” philosophy (cont’d. ) Framework fostered subsequent specialization into various sub-disciplines Offered school programs a more flexible and open approach to teaching, notably in Elem. Schools: Movement Education. Associated teaching styles: Exploration and guided discovery.

40 “Human Movement” philosophy (cont’d. )
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s “Human Movement” philosophy (cont’d. ) Still reflected in many of today’s Elem. School textbooks and school programs & PETE programs. Offered school programs a more flexible and open approach to teaching, notably in Elem. Schools: Movement Education. Associated teaching styles: Exploration and guided discovery.

41 Humanistic Sport & Physical Education
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s Humanistic Sport & Physical Education Humanistic Psychology emerged as a dominant force in Education during the 60’s/70s, emphasizing personal and social development. Don Hellison publishes “Humanistic Physical Education” (1973) targeting personal development, interpersonal relationships and self-expression as primary goals for Physical Education.

42 Humanistic Sport & Physical Education
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s Humanistic Sport & Physical Education (cont’d.) A similar movement develops that condemns abuses in sport (e.g., Scott, 1969: Athletics for Athletes). Hellison’s framework for developing “personal and social responsibility” has developed a strong foothold in school Physical Education, most notably those serving urban at-risk youth.

43 Play Education & Sport Education
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s Play Education & Sport Education Traditional philosophies viewed Physical Education as a means towards other outcomes (i.e., physical, social, mental & moral). “Play for play sake” (i.e., the activities are valuable in and of themselves) emerges as a new means of explaining the importance of the subject in schools (first promoted by Elanor Metheny).

44 Play Education & Sport Education
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s Play Education & Sport Education (cont’d.) First proposed by Siedentop, it aims to help students acquire the skills and appreciation for the activities themselves. Activities should not have to be used for “other” outcomes . . .

45 Play Education & Sport Education
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s Play Education & Sport Education (cont’d.) Play Education places motor play (as seen in Physical Education) alongside music, art and drama as an institutionalized form of play within the broader culture. As such, it is fundamental to our culture .

46 Play Education & Sport Education (cont’d.)
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s Play Education & Sport Education (cont’d.) Where Play Education was a philosophy, Sport Education (SE) emerged as a coherent Curriculum & Instruction model for school Physical Education programs. SE seeks to help students become competent, literate and enthusiastic sportpersons To foster continued participation and contribution to creating a healthier sport culture.

47 Play Education & Sport Education (cont’d.)
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s Play Education & Sport Education (cont’d.) In SE, students are members of a team during a season in which festivity and team affiliation is created, a schedule of competition is completed, records are kept, and a season champion is determined during a culminating event.

48 Experiential & Adventure Education
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s Experiential & Adventure Education Based on the character-education models from the 1800’s. Follows the core values and principles of Outward Bound (www.outwardbound.com): Adventure & challenge. Compassion & service. Learning through experience. Personal development. Social & environmental responsibility.

49 Experiential & Adventure Education
Philosophical Forces in Sport, Fitness and Physical Education since 1950’s Experiential & Adventure Education Many school Physical Education programs infuse team building and adventure type activities. Includes both in-class and off-campus experiences (e.g., 2-3 day hiking or canoeing trips).

50 The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement
Fitness is “in” and BIG business. Targets entire population (i.e., youth through older adults). The need for better health is a major explanation for its current popularity. HOWEVER, reaching a state of Wellness is another reason.

51 The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement
Health used to be defined in terms of the “absence of disease.” Wellness is defined more broadly: Absence of disease, as well as the ability to: cope with daily stressors. develop and maintain positive interpersonal relationships. recognize accomplishment and personal growth. think critically and be open to new ideas maintain a sense of humor. (fr. Fahey, Insel & Roth, 2007)

52 The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement
Wellness is reached when one can effectively balance one’s work, play, and relationships and view each positively. . . How would you rate your level of wellness? Maintaining a physically active lifestyle is now accepted as a central component of moving toward wellness.

53 The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement
Traditionally, wellness has been viewed as a matter of personal responsibility. HOWEVER, current trends in sedentary lifestyles and obesity in the population at large, make it a public health and public policy concern A collective responsibility.

54 The Fitness Renaissance and Wellness Movement
One’s health is strongly influenced by Socio-economic Status. Since race and ethnicity is strongly correlated with SES, health is also a social and political issue.

55 Lifespan Involvement in Physical Activity:
The new Visions Physical activity and wellness is important for ALL (not just children and youth). New generations are increasingly attracted to “extreme sports.” WHY?? Even these activities are becoming more institutionalized (e.g., Winter Games; X-Games). Fitness is now also a major focus among older adults and retirees.


Download ppt "Changing Philosophies for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google