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Sport Books Publisher1 Physical Activity & Sport Issues Chapter 19.

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1 Sport Books Publisher1 Physical Activity & Sport Issues Chapter 19

2 Sport Books Publisher2 Definitions Modern sport is a reflection of our society –e.g., winning at all costs Sociology is the study of the functioning of human society in various environments (e.g., workplace, church, school) Sport sociology is the study of the functioning of society within the modern sport environment

3 Sport Books Publisher3 Important Issues in Sport Sociology Specifically, we will discuss: –Aggression and Violence in Sport –Cheating in Sport –Gender and Sport –Race and Ethnicity in Sport –Racism in Sport –Other Victims of Discrimination –Future Sporting Trends

4 Sport Books Publisher4 Aggression and Violence in Sport

5 Sport Books Publisher5 Violence in sports parallels the reality of violence in society as a whole –We see examples of societal violence watching the evening news –Sports news isnt much better

6 Sport Books Publisher6 Examples of Violence in Sport Hockey –2000: Marty McSorley knocks out Donald Brashear by slashing him in the head with his stick Basketball –1995: Vernon Maxwell hits an abusive fan in the stands Baseball –Roger Clemens throws the jagged piece of a broken bat at Mike Piazza Examples can be found in almost every sport Can you think of any other examples?

7 Sport Books Publisher7 Definitions Violence = extreme aggression There are three distinct components of aggressive behaviour: 1.Hostile Aggression 2.Instrumental Aggression 3.Assertive Behaviour

8 Sport Books Publisher8 Hostile AggressionInstrumental Aggression

9 Sport Books Publisher9 Hostile AggressionInstrumental Aggression The intent is to cause harm

10 Sport Books Publisher10 Hostile AggressionInstrumental Aggression The intent is to cause harm

11 Sport Books Publisher11 Hostile AggressionInstrumental Aggression The intent is to cause harm The goal is to cause suffering The intent is to cause harm

12 Sport Books Publisher12 Hostile AggressionInstrumental Aggression The intent is to cause harm The goal is to cause suffering The intent is to cause harm The goal is to achieve some external award

13 Sport Books Publisher13 Hostile AggressionInstrumental Aggression The intent is to cause harm The goal is to cause suffering The intent is to cause harm The goal is to achieve some external award Anger is usually involved

14 Sport Books Publisher14 Hostile AggressionInstrumental Aggression The intent is to cause harm The goal is to cause suffering The intent is to cause harm The goal is to achieve some external award Anger is usually involved No anger is involved

15 Sport Books Publisher15 Hostile AggressionInstrumental Aggression The intent is to cause harm The goal is to cause suffering The intent is to cause harm The goal is to achieve some external award Anger is usually involved No anger is involved Performed outside the rules of the game

16 Sport Books Publisher16 Hostile AggressionInstrumental Aggression The intent is to cause harm The goal is to cause suffering The intent is to cause harm The goal is to achieve some external reward Anger is usually involved No anger is involved Performed outside the rules of the game Performed within the rules of the game

17 Sport Books Publisher17 Hostile AggressionInstrumental Aggression The intent is to cause harm The goal is to cause suffering The intent is to cause harm The goal is to achieve some external award Anger is usually involved No anger is involved Performed outside the rules of the game Performed within the rules of the game e.g., fist-fighting in hockey

18 Sport Books Publisher18 Hostile AggressionInstrumental Aggression The intent is to cause harm The goal is to cause suffering The intent is to cause harm The goal is to achieve some external award Anger is usually involved No anger is involved Performed outside the rules of the game Performed within the rules of the game e.g., fist-fighting in hockeye.g., aggressive checking meant to hurt the opponent

19 Sport Books Publisher19 Assertive Behaviour Often confused with aggression Increased effort and energy expenditure No intent to harm No anger involved May result in harm, but any resultant harm is incidental to the game e.g., Assertive checking meant to slow down the opponent

20 Sport Books Publisher20 What Causes Aggressive Behaviour in Sport? The following causes most likely interact to cause aggressive behaviour

21 Sport Books Publisher21 1. Parents and coaches Through comments, e.g., Bob can really take care of himself. By demonstrating interest in televised sporting event fights Recommendations: 1.Good role models need to convey a negative reaction to aggression 2.Other?

22 Sport Books Publisher22 2. Outcome of the contest and league standing More aggression occurs after losing contest –Frustration Lower league standing teams demonstrate more aggression –Frustration and a little to lose Recommendations: 1.Refocus the teams efforts into more productive channels, e.g., a new game plan 2.Others?

23 Sport Books Publisher23 3. Point spread The larger the point spread, the more aggression occurs –Nothing to lose because game is perceived to be out of reach Recommendations 1.Refocus attention, e.g., try out a new play 2.Others?

24 Sport Books Publisher24 4. Physical contact Sports with a lot of physical contact result in more aggression –If player believes that the opponent is trying to hurt him/her there is an increased likelihood that aggression will occur Recommendations: 1.Encouraging athletes to increase effort vs. aggressive acts 2.Victory (vs. harm) = the ultimate way to get back at an opponent 3.Others?

25 Sport Books Publisher25 5. Fan Reaction More aggression occurs when a team plays away from home –Linked to fan reaction, i.e., unfriendly crowd is likely to anger the visiting team Recommendations: 1.Players must learn to tune out this fan reaction and focus on the game 2.Others?

26 Sport Books Publisher26 Cheating in Sport

27 Sport Books Publisher27 Cheating = behaviour aimed at getting around the rules or simply breaking them Why do athletes engage in cheating? 1.The win-at-all-costs mentality 2.Cheating results from the sport ethic Ben Johnsons world record in the 100-metre dash in the 1988 Summer Olympics before he was stripped of his win for using anabolic steroids.

28 Sport Books Publisher28 The Sport Ethic A cluster of norms that describe what it means to be a successful athlete Four specific norms make up the sport ethic

29 Sport Books Publisher29 1. An athlete makes sacrifices for the game Athlete must love the game above all else, i.e., give it total priority This involves: –Meeting the competition demands without question –Making sacrifices (e.g., family)

30 Sport Books Publisher30 2.An athlete strives for distinction Constantly seeking improvement Continuously getting closer to perfection –swifter, higher, stronger Tatiana Grigorieva

31 Sport Books Publisher31 3.An athlete accepts risks and plays through pain Athlete does not give in to pressure, pain, or fear Success comes with: –Overcoming the fear and challenge of competition –Accepting the increased risk of failure and injury

32 Sport Books Publisher32 4.An athlete accepts no limit in the pursuit of possibilities Obligation to pursue ones dream to succeed without question Anything is possible if a person is dedicated enough

33 Sport Books Publisher33 Cheating occurs when the norms of the sport ethic are accepted without question

34 Sport Books Publisher34 The Most Popular Form of Deviance

35 Sport Books Publisher35 Athlete Recruitment Rules are bent in order to sign promising talent e.g., getting around the rules regarding athletic scholarships Ignoring the required admission average standards Others?

36 Sport Books Publisher36 Academic Cheating Athletes have their course work written by academic support staff Little evidence that athletes engage in more academic cheating than other students However, cheating is cheating! –Pressure to maintain a certain GPA has the potential to cause athletes to consider cheating

37 Sport Books Publisher37 Cheating in Games Modification of equipment –Fencing: rewiring athletes –Baseball: using cork-filled bats, applying Vaseline on the ball Modification of play –Basketball: using physical contact to throw-off an opponents jump shot when out of the referees sight lines Others?

38 Sport Books Publisher38 Performance- Enhancing Drugs 1. To gain a winning edge 2. Just to stay competitive e.g., Ben Johnson tragedy IOC considers certain performance- enhancing drugs illegal because: 1.They give one an unfair advantage 2.They have serious health side-effects Athletes must be counselled to stay drug- free

39 Sport Books Publisher39 DrugPhysiological EffectPerformance Effect Anabolic steroids muscle mass muscle strength and power Amphetamines muscle tension, HR, BP Prepare body for competition CocainePhysiological stimulant Help overcome fear Rectal Air Injections body density swimmers buoyancy AlkalinesNeutralize accumulation of acids in the blood Postpone fatigue Blood Boosting oxygen carrying capacity Postpone fatigue Beta-adrenergic receptors Physiological sedativeTo steady the hands

40 Sport Books Publisher40 Gender and Sport

41 Sport Books Publisher41 What Prevented Women From Participating in Physical Activity in the Past?

42 Sport Books Publisher42 1. Lack of rights Women were not allowed to vote, get education, make own decisions, etc. This prevented them from making decisions with respect to their participation in physical activity 1948 Olympics – 400m relay

43 Sport Books Publisher43 2. Emphasis on reproduction Women were described almost exclusively by their biology as reproducing organisms Physical exertion was thought to destroy a womans potential to have children

44 Sport Books Publisher44 3. Societal expectations Women were expected to act lady-like –Female athletes were negatively labelled because they did not act in accordance with these norms Many sports were discouraged because they prevented women from acting lady-like –e.g., bicycling Female athletes were expected to emphasize their femininity –e.g., by wearing feminine clothes, which impaired performance

45 Sport Books Publisher45 Access to Sport for Women Single most important change in the world of sport over the past generation was – INCREASED PARTICIPATION OF FEMALES Women can now freely participate in sports that were not available to them a few decades ago

46 Sport Books Publisher46 What Led to the Increased Participation of Females in Sport?

47 Sport Books Publisher47 1.New Opportunities Development of new teams and programs since the late 1970s is linked with increased participation –Unfortunately, women still dont receive an equal share of opportunities in todays society - e.g.? These new opportunities have resulted from political changes

48 Sport Books Publisher48 2.Political Pressure and Equal Rights Legislation In early 1980s in Canada, pressure from womens groups led to the investigation of sport opportunities Findings from 1984 study: –64% of inter-collegiate athletes were males Findings from 1987 study: –64% of inter-collegiate athletes were still males Today –More females enjoy equal access in university sports –Womens sports are not usually promoted as mass sports –Male athletes still enjoy greater financial rewards than female athletes

49 Sport Books Publisher49 3. The Global Womens Rights Movement Over the past 30 years: Emphasized that females excel as human beings when they are given the opportunity to develop their physical abilities Played role in redefining occupational and family roles for women In 1996, U.N.s Fourth World Conference on Women called for: Increased efforts to provide sports opportunities New efforts to promote education, health, and human rights for females all over the world

50 Sport Books Publisher50 4. The Expanding Health and Fitness Movement Since the mid-1970s health research highlighted the many benefits of regular participation in physical activity for females Today, well-toned muscles and CV fitness are no longer seen as desirable only in the male population Some traditional standards still remain in terms of clothing fashion and marketing strategies –Examples?

51 Sport Books Publisher51 5. Increased Media Coverage of Women In Sport Today, there are increased opportunities for girls and women to follow female athletes in media This provides them with role models and encourages them to be active athletes themselves Unfortunately, womens sports are still not covered as often or with the same detail as mens sports –Examples?

52 Sport Books Publisher52 In Summary The preceding factors have: –Collectively fostered increased interest in sport participation for females –Emphasized that gender equity in sports is an important goal In todays society, –Gender equity is far from being achieved Example? –But the movement is underway and there is no turning back

53 Sport Books Publisher53 Race and Ethnicity in Sport

54 Sport Books Publisher54 Definitions Race –Involves reference to physical traits –BUT is based on meanings that people have given to those particular physical traits Ethnicity –Not based on physical traits –Based on characteristics associated with cultural traditions and background Minority group –A socially identified group that experiences discrimination and suffers social disadvantages

55 Sport Books Publisher55 Racism in Sport

56 Sport Books Publisher56 The Black Athlete – View of the Past Only white athletes were allowed to play on major league baseball teams Black athletes played in Negro Leagues Jackie Robinson – first black baseball player to play in the major leagues

57 Sport Books Publisher57 The Black Athlete - Progress Progress has been made leading to a significant increase in black athlete representation However, the majority of people in power (e.g., team owners) are white, so the possibility of unequal access still exists

58 Sport Books Publisher58 Other Victims of Discrimination

59 Sport Books Publisher59 Canadas First Nations Two major concerns of native peoples with respect to sports: 1.Equity concerns Natives are at the bottom of the social ladder They lack financial resources, sports facilities, coaching, and sporting event opportunities 2.Cultural concerns Maintenance of cultural values in sports e.g., maintenance of snow snake or lacrosse e.g., maintenance of inclusion and sharing (vs. competition)

60 Sport Books Publisher60 Disabilities and Sport Traditionally people with disabilities have been segregated in our society and sports Determination shown by Terry Fox, Rick Hansen, and others has led to highlighted attention of achievements of disabled athletes Changes that allowed disabled individuals to become less segregated members of our society: –Crippled, handicapped, retarded disabled –More sporting events are being offered –Bill C-62 –More ramps and accessibility –Others?

61 Sport Books Publisher61 Gay Athletes Professional sport is highly male, heterosexual, and homophobic Coming out in a sporting environment puts individuals social status, family and fan affection, and even success at risk Dave Kopay (1976) - First North American athlete to come out Martina Navratilova Greg Louganis

62 Sport Books Publisher62 Gay Games –Formed in 1982 –Since then their popularity has increased tremendously –People of all sexual orientations are welcomed –Key philosophy: PARTICIPATION, SUPPORT, INCLUSIVENESS AND ENJOYMENT –This philosophy is opposite to conventional international competitions, which stress exclusion and ranking

63 Sport Books Publisher63 Older Adults in Sport Older adults were discouraged from participating in sport due to: 1.Developmental theory 2.Old Medical practice Today, physical activity is viewed as part of an overall healthy lifestyle in persons of all ages Organized sports are being established to meet the needs of older adults –Allow a great deal of social interactions –Do not involve intimidation, use of physical force, or high-risk activities

64 Sport Books Publisher64 Physical Activity and Sport Trends

65 Sport Books Publisher65 Heath and Fitness Concerns Will Continue to Increase Greater emphasis on illness prevention vs. treatment –Physical activity will become an integral part of illness prevention Wellness movement –Emphasis on involvement in participation sports vs. performance sports Educational curricula –Less emphasis on performance sports –More emphasis on physical activities that involve lifetime skills

66 Sport Books Publisher66 Groups Seeking Alternative Sports Rejection of traditional performance sports for alternative sports Youths will continue to form own sport in order to avoid the constraints of traditional sports Alternative sports will embody some aspects of pleasure and participation sports

67 Sport Books Publisher67 Spectators and Spectator Sports More people will choose to watch vs. participate in sports Increasing variation in the sports to watch –e.g., soccer, alternative sports, fishing channel Increased exposure to sports from other cultures Virtual sports


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