Presentation on theme: "Sport Education - Implementation 1)Initial Planning: 1)Choose a sport you know well 2)Provide students opportunities for involvement 3)Identifying and."— Presentation transcript:
Sport Education - Implementation 1)Initial Planning: 1)Choose a sport you know well 2)Provide students opportunities for involvement 3)Identifying and prepare materials 4)Make the season festive 5)Plan for what ifs?
1 - Choosing a Sport Younger children should experience a variety of sports – invasion, striking/fielding, target, net/wall games and form activities Allow older students to make choices, even if it is only once or twice a year Novel sports are usually well-received (e.g., fencing) In time, may add student sport councils or governing boards to select sport
2 – Modifying the Sport MUST have FULL participation, so make them developmentally appropriate use small-sided games (1 vs. 1; 2 vs. 2; 3 vs. 3) –For elementary, keep team size equal to or less than the grade level. –Even high school benefits from small- sided games
2 – Modifying the Sport Modify to create friendly playing conditions –Size of court or field –Nature and size of equipment –Rules should encourage continuous play –Smaller balls softer balls, shorter equipment, nearer or lower targets and larger goals all help make conditions friendly
2 – Modifying the Sport Games should typically be of short duration –Helps to focus intensity and reduce lopsided scores –Helpful if all games start and end at same time
2- Modifying the Sport – sample format Might have 6-8 min., running time, half-court 2 vs. 2 basketball games going on at 4 baskets. With one referee, one scorekeepers, and one statistician at each court, this keeps 28 students fully occupied. Add one coach per team and now 36 students are occupied
2- Modifying the Sport – sample format At the end of 6-8 minutes, games end. In the 2-3 minute interim, captains get to their next assignments, and scorekeepers from the first game turn in performance records while scorekeepers for the next game get the appropriate forms and go to their assigned places. Elementary does well with 3 to 4 minute games
2 - Modifying the Sport The length of the game is partially a function of length of teaching lesson. As games get more complex with larger-sided teams, game length can increase to ensure full participation with the use of periodic substitution time-outs
3 – Length of Season Everything is in seasons, so they last longer than regular units Key determinant is how often students have physical education Season must be longer to meet goals of SEM – students learn to be competent games players, as well s serve as referees, scorekeepers, etc.
3 –Length of Season Typically: –Elementary uses 8-12 lessons of 45 min. in length or 10 to 14 lessons of 30 min. length with classes meeting once every 4 days or twice weekly. –Secondary uses a minimum of 18 to 20 lessons, each lasting at least 45 min.
4 – Selection of Teams Students must become members of teams early in the season and stay with that team throughout the season Team selection is critical to the programs success Two considerations: size of team and selection method
4 – Selection of Teams -Team size Team size relates to how you modified the sport 8-10 is usually about right –Might have a game of 2 vs. 2 in soccer while at the same time are having a game of 6 vs. 6
4 – Selection of Teams -Team size Embed small teams within larger teams –If you want more than one type of competition (singles, doubles, mixed doubles, or 4 vs. 4), need teams with enough students
4 – Selection of Teams -Team size Factor predicted absences into the selection scheme –If have just one format (3 vs. 3), then look only at skill level and projected absences –If have larger teams, can have graded competition A vs. A; B vs. B or boys competition or girls competition
4 – Selection of Teams -Team size Use uneven number of teams to create a duty team. –The duty team fills the roles of: referee, scorekeeper, and statistician. For example, if you have 3 teams, one team can rotate into the duty team for each series of contests.
4 – Selection of Teams -Team size Establish clear criteria for team selection. Selection panels should consider skill and fitness levels, balancing gender and race among teams, evenly dispersing students with leadership potential, balancing frequently absent students among teams, and separating students known to have conflicts with one another.
4 – Selection of Teams - team selection Consider time-resources trade-offs for objective selection. Should be done quickly and fairly. Selection should take place when students are reasonably familiar with the sport they will learn. If less familiar, selection is later
4 – Selection of Teams - 5 methods Five methods for selecting teams: 1.Teachers select ahead of time based on their knowledge of students skills, attitudes, and attendance 2.Teacher can select (or students elect) a Sports Council which, with the teacher selects teams
4 – Selection of Teams - 5 methods: 3. Teacher can select or students volunteer as captains. Teacher and captains assign teams. Captains assigned team by lottery 4. Students select a sports committee that selects teams based on some performance measure or previous knowledge of peers.
4 – Selection of Teams - 5 methods: 5. A skills test, trials, or competition ladder can be used to rank players, with the rankings used for team selection.
5 – Student Roles Within the Team Traditional roles: –Captain or coach –Referee –Scorekeeper –Statistician Other roles: –Publicist, trainer, sports council member, broadcaster
5 – Student Roles Within the Team Captains or coaches –Lead warm ups –Direct skill and strategy practice –Help make decisions about lineups –Turn in lineups to teachers or managers –In general, provide leadership for team
5 – Student Roles Within the Team Assistant coaches or captains: –Help captains and take over their duties in their absence
5 – Student Roles Within the Team Referee –Manage contests –Makes rule decisions –In general keeps contest moving without undue interference
5 – Student Roles Within the Team Scorekeepers –Record scoring performance as it occurs –Keep a running account of the status of ongoing competition –Compile scores –Turn over final records to the appropriate person (teacher, manager, or statistician)
5 – Student Roles Within the Team Statisticians: –Record other pertinent data –Compile it when complete –Summarize it across competitions –Turn the summarized data over to the appropriate person (teacher, publicist, or manager)
5 – Student Roles Within the Team Publicists (Sport Information Director) –Takes compiles records and statistics and publicizes them –May be done: Though weekly sport sheets The school newspaper Posters Or a specially created sport education newsletter
5 – Student Roles Within the Team Managers –Handle the teams administrative duties –Turn in appropriate forms –Help get team embers to the appropriate location for their roles as performers, referees, scorekeepers, etc.
5 – Student Roles Within the Team Trainers –Know the common injuries associated with a sport –Have access to a first aid kit –Notify teacher of any injury problems –May not give first aid, but may assist the teacher
5 – Student Roles Within the Team Sports Council Members –Advise teachers on issues related to the overall policies governing the sport education season and can make final decisions concerning violations of fair pay rules, competition schedules, etc.
5 – Student Roles Within the Team Broadcasters can introduce players and describe play during competition
5 – Student Roles Within the Team How to teach role: –Create a booklet with all roles clearly defined – use your CD –Booklet should be returned at the end of the season in good shape
6 –Team Identity Team identity should be promoted Teams should have names, may create their own uniforms, and may even have team pictures made and placed on bulletin boards Teams need a home area and should report there for practice during class time Teams may also practice at recess, enter intramural competitions, or local recreational competitions.
7 – Kinds of Competition and Schedules Many types are acceptable, BUT elimination formats should be avoided so that students continue to participate regardless of competition outcome. Some formats follow: –League round-robin format –Two leagues with play-offs following the regular schedule
7 – Kinds of Competition and Schedules Multiple competitions within an overall league format, such as one would find in a tennis league where each team completion consists of girls singles, boys singles, and mixed doubles. Successive round-robin competitions using the same teams, such as one might find in a soccer season that begins 1 vs. 1, followed by 2 vs. 2, and culminating with a 4 vs. 4 competition.
7 – Kinds of Competition and Schedules Successive competitions using the same teams having different focuses, such as a gymnastics season that begins with a compulsory competition, followed by an optional competition, and culminating with an acrosport competition.
7- Kinds of Competition and Schedules A team competition in which individuals perform in different events, such as a track and field round-robin of dual meets between teams in which team members specialize in one running event and one field event
7- Kinds of Competition and Schedules Competitions in which scoring is done by accumulating points based on performance standards rather than direct competition against as opponent, such as in archery, swimming, and track and field.
8 -Culminating Events These mark the end of the season They serve as festivals, celebrating the sport They determine champions and final placements They should add a special dimension to the sport, BUT also serve the educational purposes of the model
8 -Culminating Events Teachers must ensure that the festival aspect is emphasized as much as the rivalry aspect. The event should be positive for the students Events may be within-class or within grade levels
8 -Culminating Events Should be ceremonious, emphasizing the traditions and rituals of the sport May use music when teams enter Team banners can be placed in gym Players and officials can take an oath
8 – Culminating Events Players can be introduced Special guests may be invited Competition video taped End of eason awards presented.
But how do they learn the skills? There are many roles to be learned, and each requires practice. Teachers know how to teach skills, teaching roles will be new Sport education proceeds like a sport season –Early season – practice skills and strategies –A great deal of teaching occurs here
But how do they learn the skills? Captains can help with teaching Teams practice together in their home space As competition nears, practices become more specific to strategies Mid-season, there is a balance of practice and games, with practices more specific t upcoming games
But how do they learn the skills? End of the season sessions are dominated by competitions with just enough practice to prepare appropriately. May use progressively more complex competitions to introduce and practice skills -1 vs. 1; then 2 vs 2; then 4 vs. 4
Designing Good Practice Sessions Parts of early season sessions should be devoted to learning non- performer roles Practice sessions are taken more seriously and are more efficient if specific goals are established –Early practices will teacher-directed –As season progresses, sessions will be more team-specific. Teacher makes suggestions to captains/coaches
Designing Good Practice Sessions Set specific goals with checklists for practices Nonattached time can be used for team practice. May award extra points for this, but must have specific goals and direction
Accountability System There is an over-all point system that leads to end-of-season champions and awards. These points are for ALL things that they teacher holds the students accountable for: –Teams earn points for winning games, and passing tests
Accountability System Students earn points for –Doing extra practices –Doing warm-ups appropriately –Playing fairly –Turning in booklets –Completing publicity assignments, etc.
Accountability System From the over-all point system, many individual and team awards can be made The point system also determines the over-all champion of the season