Presentation on theme: "Assignment: Describe the short and long term effects of psychological factors on sports training and performance."— Presentation transcript:
Assignment: Describe the short and long term effects of psychological factors on sports training and performance.
Psychological factors Your state of mind will play a big part in how you perform! There are three main factors to consider: what motivates you how aroused you are your ability to concentrate Your personality.
Anxiety is a negative emotional feeling that occurs when arousal levels are too high Two types: trait or state anxiety Arousal refers to how excited you feel before a sporting event. For each sport and individual there is an optimum, or best, arousal level at which your performance will be at its highest.
Too little arousal, and you will perform below your best. Too much arousal, and your performance will fall apart. For contact sports, where there is an element of pain, a high level of arousal is needed. For sports like snooker, where high levels of concentration and a delicate touch are needed, the best level of arousal is lower.
Importance of sporting contest –how will this decrease a performers arousal level and how can this increase performers arousal levels. Social conditions – when are you arousal and performance levels higher? Friends? Strangers? Relaxation/Stimulus Training – which will increase arousal and which will decrease arousal – effect of each? Understand the signs – How will knowing or not knowing the signs increase or decrease arousal levels?
The individual, unique characteristics or traits of a person, which determine behaviour Type of character, 2 general types: Introvert Extrovert Some people may be more one than the other or a bit of both – these are stereotypical. A coach may link this to arousal
Characteristics – shy, prefer to work alone, intrinsically motivated, quiet, calm, dont like pressure, perform best with low levels of arousal Training will be focused and relate to intrinsic goals, training through practice and improvement
Characteristics – outgoing, confident, competitive, enjoys team sports, loud, excel under pressure need high levels of arousal. Training will be orientated around competition or group training sessions to be most successful.
For example; football = ignoring a large distracting crowds (chants etc). Concentration is your ability to ignore external factors that would otherwise distract you from your task. If you lack experience in a sport, it is harder to concentrate. You have not yet learned what is important, and what is not.
Too much information will hinder performance – this means there is too much information to process and will negatively affect concentration. If an athlete is thinking about too many things they will not focus or prioritise – give an example.
Stimulus load – Training should reflect competition and overload them with information so performers can identify how to deal with this and be aware of when it is happening. Develop motor programs – subconscious response so athletes can deal with certain techniques without thinking and so can focus on other elements.
IntrinsicExtrinsic Personal prideFinancial reward The will to winPublic Acclaim Wanting to be the best A cup or trophy Is what gives the performer the energy to do something. There are lots of reasons why people are motivated to play sport? For example: money fame medals winning. Motivating factors can be classed as:
Tangible and Intangible Rewards Tangible – Direct benefit or reward to the athlete i.e. you get paid or your performance will improve Intangible – the bigger picture is not a direct reward for you i.e. promotion for your team in football
Effect on Sports Training SMART Targets Goal setting is a simple motivational technique that can provide some structure for your training and competition program. Goals give a focus : S - goals must be Specific M - training targets should be Measurable A - goals should be Adjustable R - goals must be Realistic T - training targets should be Time based