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This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence "The.

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Presentation on theme: "This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence "The."— Presentation transcript:

1 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence "The role of technology in sporting performance" Prof Claire Davis, School of Metallurgy and Materials

2 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence The role of technology in sporting performance How much effect does engineering technology have on sport? Is technology only used to increase performance? What are the new technologies being introduced?

3 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Pole Vaulting / CC BY-ND 2.0CC BY-ND 2.0

4 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Pole Vaulting - history 19 th & 20 th Ash or hickory poles, hands moved up century pole during vault 1889 USA banned hand movement Introduction of bamboo poles Early 1900s Box introduced to receive pole on plant / CC BY 2.0CC BY 2.0

5 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Pole Vaulting - history 1957 Bob Gutowski (USA), aluminium pole first used, world record (WR) 4.78m 1957 Don Bragg (USA), steel pole WR 4.80m 1956 Introduction of flexible composite (fibre-glass) poles 1961 WR first broke with composite (fibre-glass) pole / CC BY-NC 2.0CC BY-NC 2.0 / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

6 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Current world record: Men: 6.14m (Sergei Bubka 1994) Women: 5.06m (Yelena Isinbayeva 2009) Effect of technology on performance

7 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Modern poles Uniaxial composites (fibre volume fraction of 66%): GFRP modulus 35 GPa CFRP modulus 140 GPa Failure strains: Glass fibres 2.6 % Carbon fibres % Unidirectional carbon fibre / epoxy resin Woven carbon fibre / epoxy resin Filament wound glass fibre core

8 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Modern poles - microstructure Resin Fibre bundle Inner ply Angled plies Cross section through a vaulting pole showing bundles of glass fibres in resin matrix.

9 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence What the athletes say I usually take around 10 poles to each competition, each of them different. The poles are all of a different length and therefore stiffness. Which one I use depends on how much speed I am generating on the runway. I start out with softer, longer poles until Im fully warmed up and then Ill keep switching as my speed and confidence increases. The wind conditions will also dictate which pole I use. Stacy Dragila Uploaded by Silvjose This image is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 Unported license.Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 Unported

10 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Modern poles As you push the technology to the limit then failures can occur resulting in potential safety implications - poles occasionally break during a jump in an unpredictable manner.

11 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Athletics - running / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

12 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Decrease in winning times for 100m was 15 ms yr -1 in 1900, now 6 ms yr -1 i.e. hence pace of improvement has slowed Performance improvements come from: Better prepared athletes - improved training, nutrition etc. Limited engineering technology - shoes, clothing and track surfaces Chemical technology ? Sprinting / CC BY-SA 2.0 CC BY-SA 2.0

13 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence How much effect does engineering technology have on sport? Are all sports equally affected by the introduction of engineering technology? No - depends on the nature of the sport

14 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Is technology only used to increase performance? Technology and research is usually used to improve performance, is this the only use?

15 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Javelin By the mid-1980s some athletes could throw javelins further than 100 m. This forced the IAAF to change the rules as the javelins were in danger of being thrown out of the stadium. The new rules stipulated that the centre of mass should be moved forward by 4 cm. This helps to keep the nose down, reducing the lift on the javelin and cutting the distance it can travel. Matti Järvinen throwing the javelin at the 1932 Summer Olympics.

16 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Cycling In 1972, Eddy Merckx set the 1 hour distance record, in Mexico City on a traditional steel framed bicycle, of miles / CC BY-NC 2.0 CC BY-NC 2.0

17 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Cycling Subsequently aerodynamic, streamlined Kevlar and carbon fibre composite bicycles increased the record to miles, set by Chris Boardman in / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 In 2000 Chris Boardman returned to a traditional bicycle to break Eddy Merckxs record ( miles) at miles.

18 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Tennis The change in racket frames from wood to aluminium then to fibre reinforced composites has resulted in larger racket heads. An increase in the sweet-spot area on the racket face means the power of the racket has increased, which has increased the speed of the game. Synthetic strings Deformation of the racket / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

19 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Tennis The serve speed has increased to the current record of 155 mph. Spectators have complained about the lack of rallies and excitement in the game. To slow the game down on fast surfaces new balls are being introduced. One new ball type is 6% larger giving a 12% increase in drag and hence 10% increase in response time for the receiver. / CC BY-SA 2.0CC BY-SA 2.0

20 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence During impact the golf ball compresses by up to 10%. Different construction and materials (e.g. polybutadiene, polyurethane, ionomer) are used to create balls with different properties (more spin or more distance). Hence can optimise performance by selection of equipment to suit individual players (professional or amateur). Golf

21 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Is technology only used to increase performance? Technology and research is usually used to improve performance, is this the only use? No - can be used to improve safety, limit advances or improve player and spectator enjoyment

22 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence What are the new technologies being introduced? Where is research and technology impacting on sport now?

23 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Swimming Design of new swimming suits - Jason Lezaks suit / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

24 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Track cycling Riding on a 47º inclined track. Two main disciplines (i) short sprint distances (1 km) (ii) longer pursuit distances (4 km). Lightweight carbon fibre composite bicycles with only one gear and no brakes. / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

25 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Track cycling 505 g980 g / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 CC BY-NC-ND / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Weight 1 / acceleration But cannot reduce weight at the expense of stiffness.

26 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Track cycling Weight 1 / acceleration But cannot reduce weight at the expense of stiffness. High stiffness and good aerodynamics for foam filled solid wheels. 505 g980 g / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 CC BY-NC-ND / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

27 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Track cycling Resin required to lock skin to core and for aerodynamics. Excess resin results in excess weight. Research has been carried out to reduce resin ingress into foam and has led to weight saving of 46g whilst maintaining stiffness. Weight 1 / acceleration But cannot reduce weight at the expense of stiffness. High stiffness and good aerodynamics for foam filled solid wheels. 505 g980 g / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 CC BY-NC-ND / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

28 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Smart materials Use of piezo-electric ceramics in active damping mechanisms to reduce vibrations / CC BY-NC 2.0CC BY-NC 2.0 Piezo-electric ceramics: application of a current / voltage results in mechanical deflection … or vice versa

29 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Smart materials Shape memory alloys and thermocolour change Nano-tex materials using nano-materials for stain / spill repelling, cooling Smart clothing for heat release / retention Thermochromic dyes for monitoring body temperature / CC BY-2.0CC BY-2.0

30 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence Does technology affect country performance? How does, and how will, Great Britain perform at the Olympics?

31 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence International technology gap 2008 Olympic Medal table: RankCountry Gold Silver Bronze Total GDP rank 1United States China Russia Great Britain Australia Germany France Korea Italy Japan Missing top GDP countries?

32 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence International technology gap 2008 Olympic Medal table: RankCountry Gold Silver Bronze Total GDP rank 1United States China Russia Great Britain Australia Germany France Korea Italy Japan Missing top GDP countries? Spain (8), Canada (9), Brazil (10), India (12) (IMF data 2007)

33 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence International technology gap Technology driven sportsNon-technology sport Track cycling + rowing + sailing Athletics Total medals Total medals Great Britain24 USA23 Australia7 Russia18 New Zealand 6 Kenya14 Netherlands5 Jamaica11 France5 Ethiopia7 Spain5 Belarus7 Germany5 Jamaica5 USA5 Cuba5 China 5 Ukraine5 Canada4 Australia 4 Italy2 Great Britain 4

34 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence UK sports technology spend UK Sport funding (01 to 05) and (09 to 13): (World class performance programme supporting athletes + research spend) Rank Sport Spend N o Olympic Olympic (000s) athletes medals04medals08 1Athletics Rowing Cycling Sailing Swimming Canoeing Equestrian Judo Gymnastics Triathlon Data taken from Data taken from

35 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence What are the new technologies being introduced? Where is research and technology impacting on sport now? Introduction of new materials and designs. Focus on specific sports in UK

36 This work and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence to Claire Davis ( Except where stated otherwise ).Creative Commons Licence THANK YOU Acknowledgements: Dr Martin Strangwood Dr Stephen Kukureka Stuart Monk Catherine Caton Liz Wilcock Blake Raynor Amy Cleeton


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