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Advances of Women in Sports Sara Anne Smith. Overview Brief History of Women in Sports Brief History of Women in Sports Psychological aspects Psychological.

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Presentation on theme: "Advances of Women in Sports Sara Anne Smith. Overview Brief History of Women in Sports Brief History of Women in Sports Psychological aspects Psychological."— Presentation transcript:

1 Advances of Women in Sports Sara Anne Smith

2 Overview Brief History of Women in Sports Brief History of Women in Sports Psychological aspects Psychological aspects Title IX Title IX Personal Experience Personal Experience Questions Questions

3 History of Women in Sports 776 B.C. – first Olympics: no women allowed 776 B.C. – first Olympics: no women allowed first modern Olympics in Athens women not allowed, but compete anyway first modern Olympics in Athens women not allowed, but compete anyway women in Olympics: tennis, golf, & croquet women in Olympics: tennis, golf, & croquet Katherine Switzer registers for Boston Marathon Katherine Switzer registers for Boston Marathon 1960/1972 – the IOC recognizes more womens sports including rowing 1960/1972 – the IOC recognizes more womens sports including rowing 1970 – Billie Jean King made great strides for women in tennis 1970 – Billie Jean King made great strides for women in tennis

4 I am Strong. I am invincible. I am Women. -Helen Reddy 1972 – Title IX of the Education Amendments 1972 – Title IX of the Education Amendments 1973 – 1.3 million girls participating in high school sports vs. 294,000 in – 1.3 million girls participating in high school sports vs. 294,000 in – 2.4 million girls play high school sports 1996 – 2.4 million girls play high school sports 1999 – Happy 27 th Birthday Title IX 1999 – Happy 27 th Birthday Title IX 2000 – 16 new womens events in the Sydney Olympics & Equality 2000 – 16 new womens events in the Sydney Olympics & Equality Present – more athletic women in media/ seen as role models Present – more athletic women in media/ seen as role models

5 Myths/Reality -Coakley Damage to reproductive organs Damage to reproductive organs More fragile bone structure More fragile bone structure Less attractive than other girls Less attractive than other girls Less time to focus on academics Less time to focus on academics No damage to reproductive organs No damage to reproductive organs Exercise is crucial to prevention of osteoporosis and prevention of breast cancer Exercise is crucial to prevention of osteoporosis and prevention of breast cancer Stronger self-images and lower levels of depression Stronger self-images and lower levels of depression Less likely to have unwanted pregnancy Less likely to have unwanted pregnancy More likely to graduate from high school and get better grades More likely to graduate from high school and get better grades

6 Psychology of Women in Sports Gender role orientation Gender role orientation –Role Conflict – inner conflict about taking on a male role –Psychological androgyny – mixture of the best of both gender roles and expectations Homosexuality Homosexuality –No relationship to sport and does not affect athletic performance Eating Disorders Eating Disorders –Overall may provide protection –Prevalence is sport specific Fear of Success Fear of Success –explains female fear of succeeding (Horner)

7 A Hero For Daisy Chris Ernst – 2 time Olympian rower Chris Ernst – 2 time Olympian rower Yale Crew – unequal facilities Yale Crew – unequal facilities 1976 – Title IX wasnt being fully enforced 1976 – Title IX wasnt being fully enforced

8 Title IX Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972: Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972: –No person in the U.S. shall, on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in, or denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal aid. Flatter me, and I may not believe you Criticize me, and I may not like you Ignore me, and I may not forgive you Encourage me, and I may not forget you - William Arthur Ward

9 Why was it needed? Athletic competition builds character in our boys. We do not need that kind of character in our girls. - Connecticut judge, 1971 Today more than 150,000 women participate in intercollegiate athletics – fourfold increase since 1971 Today more than 150,000 women participate in intercollegiate athletics – fourfold increase since 1971 Women won a record 19 Olympic medals in the 1996 Summer Olympic Games Women won a record 19 Olympic medals in the 1996 Summer Olympic Games 1994 – Increase in doctoral degrees, law degrees, and medical degrees earned by women, compared to – Increase in doctoral degrees, law degrees, and medical degrees earned by women, compared to 1972

10 Compliance 1979 final Title IX regulations were published 1979 final Title IX regulations were published Three-part test Three-part test 1.Substantially proportionate 2.History and continuing practice 3.Accommodation of interest and abilities Civil Rights Restoration Act Civil Rights Restoration Act

11 Conflicting Views 1990s college sports became a big business 1990s college sports became a big business Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992) Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992) –Right for plaintiffs to sue for punitive damages in Title IX cases Norma Cantu (1996) Norma Cantu (1996) –Resulted in substantial proportionality becoming a safe harbor

12 The Three-Part Test Colleges using the first prong of the test in order to avoid being sued Colleges using the first prong of the test in order to avoid being sued –Resulting in unfair cuts for mens teams Kelley v. Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois Kelley v. Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois Seven Federal Appellate Courts have upheld the three-part test Seven Federal Appellate Courts have upheld the three-part test

13 Discrimination Against Men? Should not limit mens athletic opportunities as a way of achieving parity for women Should not limit mens athletic opportunities as a way of achieving parity for women Replace the three-part test with something more flexible Replace the three-part test with something more flexible Who is the real culprit? Who is the real culprit?

14 No Change Needed Since the enactment of Title IX, for every dollar spent on women, two dollars were spent on men (Fulks, 1994) Since the enactment of Title IX, for every dollar spent on women, two dollars were spent on men (Fulks, 1994) In the 1970s sports participation for women increased from 8% to 30% at the intercollegiate level In the 1970s sports participation for women increased from 8% to 30% at the intercollegiate level –There are approximately 2.7 million girls participating in high school sports; and a little over 150,000 currently participating in collegiate level (NCAA) Institutions are responsible for cutting mens programs Institutions are responsible for cutting mens programs

15 Recent Events Bush administration calls for a Commission on Opportunity in Athletics to review Title IX this past June Bush administration calls for a Commission on Opportunity in Athletics to review Title IX this past June 15 member commission returns a 70-page report in February to the Education Secretary 15 member commission returns a 70-page report in February to the Education Secretary Law should be retooled to ensure that new sports opportunities for women dont come at the expense of mens teams Law should be retooled to ensure that new sports opportunities for women dont come at the expense of mens teams –Two major dissenters are Foudy and de Varona

16 Possible Solutions Count slots rather than actual students; walk-ons should not be counted under proportionality Count slots rather than actual students; walk-ons should not be counted under proportionality Greater flexibility in rules concerning non- scholarship athletes, older athletes and roster slots Greater flexibility in rules concerning non- scholarship athletes, older athletes and roster slots Additional ways to demonstrate equity Additional ways to demonstrate equity A greater ability for schools to accept private money A greater ability for schools to accept private money

17 Further Suggestions Educational campaign Educational campaign Not counting football Not counting football Cutting back on football and mens basketball Cutting back on football and mens basketball Stay away from the business-model and start treating college sports like more of an educational program Stay away from the business-model and start treating college sports like more of an educational program

18 Without Title IX, Id be nowhere. -Cheryl Miller, Olympic athlete Profound changes have occurred in education and athletics Profound changes have occurred in education and athletics Increasing participation in athletics Increasing participation in athletics Increase in athletic scholarships Increase in athletic scholarships We still have a long way to go! We still have a long way to go!

19 Why Crew? UCF CREW - NO EXPERIENCE NEEDED!!! UCF CREW - NO EXPERIENCE NEEDED!!! 1997 – Novice – D Boat 1997 – Novice – D Boat Rowing is a sport for dreamers. As long as you put in the work, you can own the dream. - Jim Dietz Awesome learning experience Awesome learning experience 2001 – Captain -Varsity Eight 2001 – Captain -Varsity Eight

20 What Sports Have Done For Me Teamwork Teamwork Dedication – never quit Dedication – never quit Time management Time management Work ethic – the body can achieve what the mind believes Work ethic – the body can achieve what the mind believes Attitude - I can do anything I put my mind to Attitude - I can do anything I put my mind to

21 DREAM A LITTLE SWEAT A LOT -CHRIS ERNST


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