Why People Take Part in Sport Lesson Objective: To understand the effects of motivation on performance
MOTIVATION Motivation is the stimuli, which arouse and direct behaviour and/or Internal and External factors that make us want to perform
Why is Motivation in Sport Important? Helps us understand why some sports performers make substantial sacrifices to become successful Helps us understand why certain sports performers are more successful than others Ensures Maximum effort at the most appropriate time
Why is Motivation in Sport Important? - Continued Ensures continued enjoyment and participation in exercise Encourages sedentary people to take up sport and exercise! It is generally accepted that you need to be motivated to achieve your goals
Why do you play sport? Write down the reasons to why you have played sport?
Motivators of Participation Fun: enjoyment, pleasure, psychological benefits Affiliation: social experience, friendship, significant others Competence: personal challenge, skill acquisition/ improvement Fitness: health, weight loss, strength, improve appearance Success: competition or personal accomplishment Motivators can often change over time Introduction, History and Development
Motivation depends upon: Intrinsic/extrinsic elements Competence Arousal Level Need to avoid failure Need to achieve What could these be?
Intrinsic Motivation An intrinsically motivated person is: Someone who takes part in sport for enjoyment. They judge success on the amount of effort exerted in the task and by how much they improve In what sporting situations would you find people participating for intrinsic reasons?
Goal Setting Before you start to set goals, you should try to consider the background to goal setting itself: Understanding your commitment to the sport (how much improvement can I hope for?). Understanding the level that you possess (What can I do today?) Understanding the level you want to reach within the sport (what is realistic?)
Extrinsic Motivation An extrinsically motivated person is: Someone who participates for external rewards including: Trophies Medals Money Prizes
Effects of Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation on Performance Introducing extrinsic rewards leads to a reduction in intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation will decrease when an external reward is perceived to be the primary reason for participation If a reward increases an individuals feelings of competence and self-worth, then Intrinsic motivation increases In Professional sport motivation to win in nearly all cases would be a mixture of both Intrinsic and extrinsic factors
Continuum of Self-determination Ext LoC Int LoC Amotivation Extrinsic Mot Intrinsic Mot (Deci & Ryan, 1985) Theories and Models
Theories and Models 1 Achievement Goal Orientation (GO) Theory (Nicholls, 1984) Currently the most popular approach in motivation literature within sport psychology Proposes that motivational affect, behaviour and cognition can be understood in terms of two goal perspectives – ego and task Goal Orientations are thought to be influenced by both situational and dispositional factors Both goal orientations are independent – e.g. High Task, Low Ego- Low Task, High Ego High Task, High Ego- Low Task, Low Ego
Task Orientation (intrinsic) Self-referenced reasons for participation skill development, skill mastery, affiliation, fitness Typical behaviours persistence, optimal effort work hard choose challenging activities seek feedback Theories and Models 2
Ego Orientation (extrinsic) Normative referenced reasons for participation Recognition, competition, social status Typical behaviours perception of high ability careful selection of activities – avoid failure little effort during practice Theories and Models 2 NB Both orientations find competition meaningful… it is the meaning attached to competition that distinguishes them
Differences in Achievement GO (Nicholls, 1978; Roberts & Treasure, 1995; White & Duda 1997), 1994) Children tend to be more task oriented Children of 10 years can be ego oriented Adolescents tend to be more ego oriented Boys and men are more ego oriented than girls and women In the more competitive levels of sport, participants have a higher ego orientation Task orientation does not vary with level of participation Theories and Models 2
Theories and Models 3 Perceived Competence Theory (Harter, 1978) Motivation influenced by perceptions of competence and control We are motivated to participate to display competence or mastery An activity can be too easy/difficult or a challenge. Easy and difficult tasks provide little information on ones mastery or skill and add little to perceptions of competence The optimal challenge is difficult and demanding but attainable
Mastery attempts are used to receive feedback on competence. This information then influences: Perceived competence Perceived control Affective responses Future exertion/effort Probability of continued participation Theories and Models 3
Mastery Attempts Drop-out Unsuccessful Performance Negative Effect Successful Performance Positive Effect High Competence Motivation Greater effort Low Competence Motivation Less effort Theories and Models 3
Perceived success: can be defined either internally or externally results in intrinsic pleasure and raises competence increases achievement striving behaviour Perceived failure: can be defined either internally or externally results in dissatisfaction and perceived incompetence encourages fewer mastery attempts Theories and Models 3
Coaches, teachers, parents and peers can influence perceived competence Females rely more on feedback from significant others Athletes who receive corrective information see it as reflecting lower ability Athletes who receive praise see it as a reflection of high ability
Arousal Level Arousal is the intensity of our motivation – there is an ideal level of motivation for any sport. This ideal level of intensity will differ between sports. However, if we are too motivated or not motivated enough in a sport we are less likely to be successful.
Drive Theory Hull (1951); Spence (1956) Drive theory suggests that the higher the arousal level in a performer the greater the level of their performance. For example a top-class tennis player will perform better in front of a large crowd. Performance Arousal
When the learning goal has been achieved, the desire to continue with the same task decreases. The initial drive to learn is strong, but once the skill has been learned the drive is reduced and the performance of the skill will decline Therefore the drive to learn should be maintained, by setting goals/targets, providing rewards, making practices fun!!
The Inverted U Theory Original Theory: Optimum performance occurs at a moderate arousal level. Modified theory: Position of optimum arousal depends upon: Type of Activity Skill level of performer Personality of performer Performance Arousal
Loi de Yerkes-Dodson appliquée aux sports Weinberg et Hunt, 1976 Contrôle moteur GrossiermodéréFin
Where does each sport fit in? 3 Inverted U graph A B C Performance Arousal
Catastrophe Theory Here performances increases as arousal increases but when arousal gets too high, performance dramatically decreases. This is usually caused by the performer becoming anxious. Performance Arousal
Reticular Activating System (RAS) This is a system within the brain which controls arousal Extroverts have lower levels of intrinsic arousal than introverts – therefore extroverts seek situations of high arousal and introverts seek low arousal situations As a general rule which sports would extroverts and introverts tend to play?
Extroverts Vs Introverts Football Rugby Swimming Tennis Shot Putt Snooker Hockey Badminton Marathon Runner Netball Chess Extroverted Sports Introverted Sports
Competition Time: effect of personality… Shooting Competition:- Aim to score as many points as possible with three shots, you can shoot from a distance and score 3 points, or close and score 1 point.
NAch Vs NAF Need to Achieve This personality type likes a challenge and likes feedback. They are not afraid of failure and have a high task persistence. Need to Avoid Failure This personality type avoids challenges, often gives up and does not want feedback A rockclimber with a high NAF would choose the easiest way up a mountain but a rockclimber with a high Nach would choose a harder route to gain maximum satisfaction
Conclusion What different things motivate a performer? Task and Ego orientations Perceived Compentence Arousal Level Personality (NAch and NAF) Success and failure
Weiners Attribution Theory (1985, 1986) We explain success & failure with reference to ability, effort, task and luck Basic Attribution Categories Basic Attribution Categories Stability Causality Controllability Stable Unstable Internal External In Ones Control Out of Ones Control
Conclusion - continued Arousal level depends on: The level they play at Type of activity Personality of the performer Motivation is very important in determining whether a performer is successful or not, why is this true? … Pleasure for effort !
In search of Pleasure TRADITIONAL VIEW: - Signals carried by dopamine - travel from one specific site NEW MODEL: - Signals carried by opioids - sites are distributed
ACTIVATE TO CREATE PLEASURE Finger movement + Visual perception Finger movement + Visual perception Proprioception Whole body movement + Visual perception Proprioception Equilibrium
Working hypothesis? Best performance and pleasure needs: Focussed attention on action goals (internal corrective loops) Exogenous attention to let automatic motor organisation of sensory loops Intentional mode of action (task orientation of motivation) because activates more brain areas than stimulus based mode.
Further Reading Duda, J.L. & Hall, H. (2001) Achievement goal theory in sport: Recent extensions and future directions, in R.N. Singer, H.A. Hausenblas and C. Janelle (eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology (pp. 417-443). New York: Wiley. Harwood, C. and Biddle, S. (2002) The Application of Achievement Goal Theory in Youth Sport, in I. Cockerill (ed.) Solutions in sport psychology (pp. 58-73). London: Thomson. Marcus, B. and Forsyth, L.H. (2003) Motivating People to be Physically Active. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Roberts, G. C. (2001) (ed) Advances in Motivation in Sport and Exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Vallerand, R.J. and Fortier, M.S. (1998) Measures of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Sport and Physical Activity: A Review and Critique, J.L. Duda (ed.), Advances in Sport and Exercise Psychology Measurement (pp. 81-101). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.