Presentation on theme: "Sport Management Defining Sport and Sport Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sport Management Defining Sport and Sport Management Scope of Sport IndustrySport Industry ModelsProduct TypeEconomic Impact ModelSport Activity ModelHow is Sport Management UniqueFuture Challenges
2 Sport: DefinedSport can be work (professional athlete), a means of employment (sports tourism director), or a business (sport marketing agency).
3 Sport: Defined Sport has five characteristics: Loy (1968) Play-like in natureInvolves some competitionBased on physical prowessHas elements of skill, strategy, and chanceHas an uncertain outcomeLoy (1968)So are there “sports” that don’t fit this definition?
4 Sport: Further Defined Competitive physical activity, utilizing specialized equipment and facilities, with unique dimensions of time and space, in which the quest for records is of high significance (VanderZwaag, 1998)Is institutionalized competitive activity that involves rigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex physical skills by participants motivated by personal enjoyment and external rewards (Coakley, 2001)
5 Sport Management: Defined Any combination of skills related to planning organizing, directing, controlling, budgeting, leading, and evaluating within the context of an organization or department whose primary product or service is related to sport or physical activity (Desensi, et al., 1990)
6 Sport Industry: Scope Sport in Social Agencies School/College Academic programProfessional SportAmateur SportPrivate Club SportCommercial Sport EnvironmentsArenas, Stadia, etcCommunity Rec ProgramIndustrial Sport ProgramSport in Social AgenciesMilitarySport Marketing and ConsultingDevelopmental Programs (Sports Foundations)Corporate SponsorshipSporting GoodsSports MediaAcademia
7 Sport Management Components: How do they fit together ? Industrial ModelsProduct Type Model (Pitts, Fielding, & Miller, 1994)Economic Impact Model (Meek, 1997)Sport Activity Model (Li, Hofacre, & Mahoney, 2001)
8 Product Type Model (Pitts, Fielding, & Miller, 1994) PerformanceOffered to consumeras a participant orspectatorProductionNeeded to influence thequality of sport performancePromotionTools to promote theSport productPromotional merchandisingproductsPromotional eventsMediaSponsorshipEndorsementsAthletics- Amateur, ProfessionalPrivate SportTax Supported SportMembership SupportedSportNon-Profit SportSport EducationFitness and Sport FirmsOutfitting ProductsEquipment, apparelPerformance ProductionFitness trainermedical careSports FacilitiesGoverning Bodies
9 Economic Impact Model (Meek, 1997) Sport ProductsSportEntertainmentSport SupportOrganizationsTrade ShowsMarket AnalStagingProAmatuerSportTeamsPro/AmMarketingR&DEventsManagementProcurementAthletesManufactureHotelDistributionSoft GoodsHard GoodsTourismRestaurantsServicesActive footwearActive SportswearTVMediaRetailRadioInternetPublications
10 Economic Impact Model (Meek, 1997) Associated economic impact which is monies spent by sports participants, spectators, and sponsors1995: Sport industry economic size for $152 billions with an additional $259 billion in economic activity generated by sport.
11 Sport Activity Model (Li, Hofacre, & Mahoney, 2001) Proposed a model based on the single characteristic that differentiates the sport industry from other industries: sport activitiesFirms and organizations that produce sport activitiesFirms and organizations that provide products and services to support sport activitiesFirms and organizations that sell and trade products that support sport activities
12 Sport Activity Model (Li, Hofacre, & Mahoney, 2001) Support Sector VIState, MunicipalSport Councils &AuthoritiesSupport Sector IAdministration &Regulatory bodiesSPORT PRODUCING SECTORProfessional and semi-pro teamsIntercollegiate teamsMunicipal and County RecreationsSport/Fitness ClubsIndependent Sport Entities(e.g., personal trainers)Support Sector VSport Management(marketing, publicRelations, events,Agents)Support Sector IISport GoodsManufactureWholesale & RetailSupport Sector IVSport MediaSupport Sector IIIFacilities andBuildings
13 Unique features of Sport Management: A couple of examples Sport MarketingSport consumed as quickly as producedNot accompanied by guarantees of satisfaction
14 Unique features of Sport Management: A couple of examples Financial StructuresRevenues are generated from activities extraneous to the primary source of interest (the event) such as television rights, concessions, road games returns, parkingColleges such as A&M use students fees, private donations, taxes, rentals, or licensing fees.Sports need to attract individuals that are often willing to spend more money forperipherals items than on the event itself –this presents a rather unique circumstance for the sport manager
15 Unique features of Sport Management: A couple of examples Social InstitutionSport offers a distinctive social activity that can be the basis of an individual’s or group’s social identityManagers social responsibility in marketing, promoting
16 Future Issues for Sport Management Infusion of technologyChanges in sport deliveryEthicsGender, race and class issuesAcademic integrity and sportPreparation of athletes (youth sports and beyond)Owner’s, player’s, and fan’s loyaltiesSocial ResponsibilityAdvertising and sponsorshipsTax payers and facilitiesSport gamblingNot too far removed from some of the issues discussed inSport Psychology section