Presentation on theme: "Sport in Australia Prof Peter Brown Dept of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel & Sport Management."— Presentation transcript:
Sport in Australia Prof Peter Brown Dept of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel & Sport Management
2 What are we covering today? 1.Australian sport – preliminary impressions 2.What is sport? 3.Overview of the Australian Sport System 4.Socio-historical influences on sport in Australia 5.The role and place of women in Australian sport 6.Comparisons with the Norwegian sport system
4 Australian sport – some preliminary impressions 1.List three words or phrases that reflect your impressions of sport in Australia 2.Can you name one Australian sportsman and one Australian sportswoman? 3.It has been argued that sport has a special place in Australian culture. What factors do you feel may have influenced the development of sport in Australia?
5 Australian – A sporting paradise? Social commentators from within Australia and outside have declared that Australians are obsessed with sport WHY?
6 What is sport? Amusement, diversion, fun; pastime, game ( Australian Concise Oxford Dictionary ) A range of activities which generally involve rules, physical exertion and/or coordination and competition between participants ( Lynch & Veal, 1996 ) An institutionalised game demanding the demonstration of physical prowess ( Loy 1979 ). Covers activities on a continuum from play, through games to highly competitive sport
7 One view of Australian sport Sport plays a vital role in the Australian community and touches almost every part of Australian life. It has helped to define our national identity and is one of the things that unifies our country. It also brings us a range of social and economic benefits: participants gain better health, social contacts and a better quality of life; our economy gains reduced health costs, higher productivity, increased employment and increases tourism. Australias success in a wide range of sports has enhanced our international reputation. Paul Keating - CAS Patron (February, 1996)
Another view of Australian Sport Nationally 9.1 million persons (62.4% of the pop.) participated in physical activities for recreation, and 7 million (48.2% of the pop.) attended at least one sports event in 2002. The most popular organised sport for boys is soccer (22.2% of pop) and for girls is netball (18.1% of pop) 6.5 million registered sport participants 30,000 clubs and associations 1.4 million volunteers Approx 140,000 employees $1 billion annual expenditure by government at all levels Accounts for 8% of the economy (Gross Domestic Product) Service delivery by Public sector - all levels of government Private / for-profit sector Not for profit / community sector
10 The Australian sport system PARTICIPANTS (players, officials, spectators) PROVIDERS Economic influences Political Influences Legal Influences Socio-historical influences
11 Elite Level Sport Intermediate Level Sport Mass Participation Sport PYRAMID BASED SPORT SYSTEM
12 The Australian sport system Three sector model: –Government –Community –Commercial/private Important web site – peak government agency - Australian Sports Commission www.ausport.gov.au
13 Government sector – support of sport Commonwealth/Federal – policy Participation vs. Elite, activity programs, National Sport Organisation (NSO) funding, elite athlete support State – major event support, State Sport Organisation (SSO) funding, venue development Local (75% of all funding) – facility provision, club support, volunteer training
14 Why should governments involve themselves in sport? ?
15 Community sector – support of sport Volunteers at club level Officials, coaches, administrators, players Facility management Fundraising Player development Sustains the system
16 Commercial/private sector – support of sport Equipment supplies Event management Venue management Athlete management Media Sponsorship (eg Greg Norman Australias first golfing millionaire) Professional sport leagues
Contemporary Sport Structure International Sport Federations National Sporting Organisations Australian Sports Commission Local Government Australian Institute of Sport District/Regional Associations/Clubs State Depts of Sport & Recreation State Sport Institutes/Academies State Sporting Organisations Elite Sport Sport Organisation Funding/Facilities Regional Sport Institutes/Academies
The history of women in Australian sport Video – Women and sport
20 Key themes surrounding the history of women in Australian sport History of exclusion Biological myths Social conventions Patriarchal nature of sports organisations Media representations of gender relations
21 Hegemonic processes associated with sports media The relative visibility of women in sports news The containment of women in sports news. Stereotypical representations of gender in sports news.
22 How visible are women in sports news? TV - 2% of total sports broadcasting Radio - 1.4% of total sports broadcasts Sports magazines - 6.8% of sports coverage Newspapers - 10.7% of coverage (Source ASC 1997)
23 Volume of coverage for female sport (NH & SMH), 1890-1990
24 Proportional volume of coverage for female and male sport, NH & SMH, 1890-1990
25 To what extent are women contained in sports reports? Positioning of articles Timing of coverage Sports covered
26 Gender stereotyping in sports news Text Images
28 Workshop time Groups of 4 15 minutes to create a list of differences and similarities between the Australian and Norwegian sport systems in 4 areas: –Government policy and programs –Community sport –Professional sport –Historical and cultural influences AND list any questions you may have about Australian sport?