Presentation on theme: "Sports in Society: Issues & Controversies"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sports in Society: Issues & Controversies Chapter 11Sports and the Economy:What Are the Characteristicsof Commercial Sports?
2 Conditions for Emergence & Growth of Commercial Sports A market economyLarge, densely populated citiesPeople who have time, money, transportation, & media accessLarge amounts of capitalCulture emphasizing consumption and material status symbols
3 Class Relations and Commercial Sports The preferences and priorities of people with power and wealth often influence which sports are commercialized – for example:Golf is enjoyed by wealthy and powerful; it receives much TV coverage despite low ratingsFootball reproduces an ideology that privileges men & celebrates masculinity
5 Why have sports become so popular in society today? The quest for excitementEmphasis on success ideologyWidespread organized, competitive youth sportsWidespread media coverage
6 Economic Motives and the Globalization of Commercial Sports Sport organizations look for global marketsFIFA, the NFL, the NBA, etc. seek global media exposure and expansionCorporations use sports as vehicles for global expansionOne goal is to make moneyAnother goal is to sponsor enjoyment and pleasure to establish ideological outposts in the minds of people around the world
7 Figure 11.1 CEOs and owners often play games that ignore athletes
8 Ideological Outposts in Action: Branding Sports Sport places have been brandedSport events have been brandedAthletes have been branded-Corporate branding is now accepted by many people as necessary, non-political, even “natural”Question: Isn’t that sure sign of outposts in action?
10 Commercialization and Changes in Sports Changes may occur in the:Structure and goals of sportsOrientations of athletes, coaches, and sponsorsOrganizations that sponsor and control sports
11 Changes in Structure and Goals Rule changes are made to make action more exciting, understandable, and profitable bySpeeding up actionIncreasing scores and scoring chancesBalancing competitionMaximizing dramatic momentsProviding commercial breaksGOAL: Total Entertainment Experience
12 Why did the XFL fail? Too much commercialization, or not the right kind?
13 The Origins of Heroic Action in Sports Commercial sports are ENTERTAINMENTCommercial entertainment depends on attracting a mass audienceMembers of a mass audience lack technical knowledge about a sportEntertaining people without technical knowledge requires heroic action actions
14 Commercial Sports Involve A Shift From Aesthetic to Heroic Orientations Beauty and pleasure of movementEmphasis on mastery of technical skillsWillingness to explore limitsCommitment to staying involvedHeroicOrientationsDanger & excitement of movementEmphasis on style & dramatic expressionWillingness to go beyond limitsCommitment to success of sponsor
15 Shifting orientations: what happens when there is a need to entertain a mass audience
16 The Promotional Culture of Professional Wrestling Events are dramatic spectaclesPlayers display carefully constructed personasEmphasis is on heroic actionStorylines are simple; they emphasize domination, gender differences, & capricious bosses
17 Spectator Appeal in Sports Depends on: The uncertainty of an event’s outcomeThe stakes associated with an eventThe anticipated display of excellence, heroics, or dramatic displays by participants
18 With commercialization: Sport OrganizationsWith commercialization:Control shifts away from athletes; decisions are less likely to reflect their interestsControl shifts toward owners, corporate sponsors, advertisers, media personnel, marketing & publicity staff, professional management staff, accountants, & agentsAthletes accept the decisions of these people, because their financial interests are at stake
19 Owners, Sponsors, & Promoters of Professional Sports When the diversity of professional sports is taken into consideration:Owners are a diversified collection of people – usually white men.Profits may be great in leagues where monopoly control and TV revenues are high; but losses may be great under other conditions.
20 This looks extreme, but hasn’t it already happened? "
21 Advantages of Monopoly Team owners in the major men’s pro sports have established monopolies enabling them to:Control athlete movementNegotiate high media rights feesPrevent the formation of new teamsShare revenues
22 Forms of Public Assistance for Team Owners Use of public funds to construct and maintain facilitiesDeduction loopholes to use on tax returnsTax breaks and rebatesControl of revenues in public facilities
23 Stadium Subsidies: Arguments For A stadium and team create jobsStadium construction infuses money into the local economyTeam will attract other businessesTeam will attract media attention that boosts tourism, product sales and economic developmentTeam will create positive psychic and social benefits
24 Stadium Subsidies: Arguments Against Stadium jobs are seasonal and low paying except for athletes & execsConstruction materials often are purchased outside the local areaNew businesses often are franchises headquartered in other citiesDiscretionary money is limited and may be shifted away from other businessesPromoting macho orientations does not benefit everyone in a community
25 Sources of Income for Team Owners Gate receipts/ticket salesSale of media rights (TV/radio)Stadium revenuesLeases on club seats and luxury boxesConcessions/parking/leasing spaces to othersSale of naming rights and site advertisingSpecial events/concerts/meetingsLicensing fees and merchandise sales
27 Amateur SportsAre self-funded and dependent on corporate sponsors, or funded through a central government sports authorityAre controlled by organizations with an interest in two things:PowerMoney
28 Legal Status of Athletes in Pro Team Sports Forms of the “reserve system” have been used to restrict the freedom of athletes to play where they wishPlayers’ associations and unions have challenged this system and struggled for “free agency”Free agency has been achieved to varying degrees in major team sportsLabor rights for athletes in minor sports are limited
29 Legal Status of Athletes in Individual Sports Varies greatly from sport to sport and athlete to athleteStatus often depends on what athletes must do to support their training and competitionStatus may be partially protected by professional associations formed by the athletes
30 Income: Team SportsThe large majority of pro athletes make limited incomeThe super-contracts and mega-salaries of a few athletes have distorted popular ideas about athlete incomeIncome among top athletes has risen recently becauseLegal status and rights have improvedLeague revenues have increased
31 Professional athletes in the major men’s spectator sports did not earn exceptionally high salaries until after 1976 when they could become “free agents” and sell their skills to the highest bidding team. In 1950 an average NBA player was only slightly more than the median U.S. family income; in 2004 it was 84 times higher than the median US family income! At the same time, the average salary of a WNBA player was nearly two thousand dollars lower than the median family income.
35 “I make $20 million a year, and I don’t feel guilty!” Athletes salaries don’t affect ticket prices; owners charge whatever people will pay for tickets regardless of what they pay athletes.SIDELINES“I make $20 million a year, and I don’t feel guilty!”
36 Income: Individual Sports Many athletes do not make enough to pay expensesThere are increasing disparities between top money winners and other athletesTop male heavyweight boxers have traditionally made the most moneyQuestion: does this mean that athletes are rewarded for reaffirming certain ideologies?
37 Amateur AthletesRights depend on the governing bodies that control various sportsIncome depends onThe rules of governing bodiesEndorsements that vary with celebrity status and corporate interestMost intercollegiate athletes in the U.S. are controlled by the NCAA; they have few rights
38 Tickets for NFL and Notre Dame games cost the same, but college players make a fraction of what the NFL players make