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Youth Sports. Do you know what the #1 reason children cite for their participation in a sports program? to have funWinning the game ranks near the bottom.

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Presentation on theme: "Youth Sports. Do you know what the #1 reason children cite for their participation in a sports program? to have funWinning the game ranks near the bottom."— Presentation transcript:

1 Youth Sports

2 Do you know what the #1 reason children cite for their participation in a sports program? to have funWinning the game ranks near the bottom of the list.

3 Youth Sports Athletic endeavors that provide children and youth with a systematic sequence of practices and contests 39 million youth participate in nonschool sponsored programs 7 million youth participate in interscholastic sports

4 Youth Sports Why are so many children involved? –Trend toward earlier participation A 4-year-old holds the age group record for running a marathon –Increase in female participation The number of interscholastic sports for girls has increased from 14 (1971) to 41 (1999)

5 Youth Sports Why are so many children involved? –Children are beginning to get involved in what used to be considered nontraditional sport activities Tennis, cycling, bowling, ice hockey, cross- country skiing –Rule changes Even the youngest child can experience success

6 Youth Sports Why are so many children involved? –There is an increased in the number of disabled children who participate American Wheelchair Bowling Association Handicapped Scuba Association National Foundation of Wheelchair Tennis National Wheelchair Softball Association Special Olympics United States Quad Rugby Association

7 Youth Sports Benefits of youth sport activities –Academic performance improvement –Physical fitness –Self-esteem enhancement –Deterrent to negative behavior

8 Where Children Participate in Sports Agency sponsored sports Little league baseball Pop Warner football Club sportsPay for services (gymnastics, tennis) Recreational sport programs Everyone plays Intramural sportsMiddle, junior, senior high school Interscholastic sportsMiddle, junior, senior high school

9 Most Popular Interscholastic Sports GirlsBoys BasketballFootball Outdoor track & fieldBasketball VolleyballOutdoor track & field Fast pitch softballBaseball Soccer Cross-countryWrestling TennisCross-country Swimming & divingGolf Competitive spirit squadsTennis GolfSwimming & diving

10 Why Children Participate in Sports To have fun To improve skills To be with friends To be part of a team To experience excitement To receive awards To win To become physically fit (Wankel & Kreisel, 1985)

11 Why Children Participate in Sports Wankel and Kreisel (1985) –Emphasis should be on involvement, skill development, and enjoyment of doing the skills –According to the children, winning and receiving rewards for playing are of secondary importance

12 Why Children Participate in Sports 10 Most Important Reasons I Play My Best School Sport (Athletic Footwear Association, 1990) 1.To have fun 2.To improve my skill 3.To stay in shape 4.To do something Im good at 5.For the excitement of competition 6.To get exercise 7.To play as part of a team 8.For the challenge of competition 9.To learn new skills 10.To win

13 Why Children Drop Out of Sports Contrary to popular belief, children do not drop out of sports because of stress More often, withdrawing from a sport is due to interpersonal problems Pursue other leisure activities Researchers report that a majority of dropouts reenter the same or new sport –Caution should be used when using the term sport dropout

14 Why Children Drop Out of Sports 11 Most Important Reasons Children Stop Playing a Sport (Athletic Footwear Association, 1990) 1.I lost interest 2.I was not having fun 3.It took too much time 4.Coach was a poor teacher 5.There was too much pressure 6.I wanted a nonsport activity 7.I was tired of it 8.I needed more study time 9.Coach played favorites 10.The sport was boring 11.There was an overemphasis on winning

15 Why Children Drop Out of Sports Six Most Important Changes Children Would Make in a Sport That Was Previously Dropped (Athletic Footwear Association, 1990) BOYSGIRLS 1.Practices were more fun 2.I could play more 3.Coaches understood players better 4.There was no conflict with studies 5.Coaches were better teachers 6.There was no conflict with social life 1.Practices were more fun 2.There was no conflict with studies 3.Coaches understood players better 4.There was no conflict with social life 5.I could play more 6.Coaches were better teachers I would play again if

16 Sport Participation: Controversies Medical Issues –Football –Baseball –Soccer –Downhill skiing –In-line skating –Overuse injuries –Are youth sports injuries avoidable? –Nutrition –Making weight

17 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Football Football is classified as a contact/collision sport Injury rate increases as players mature in age and grade level 65% of the injuries occur in offensive players However overall injury rate for youth football is low (~5%)

18 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Football Most prone injury sites –Hand/wrist –Knee –Shoulder/humerus Most common injuries –Fractures Epiphyseal fractures –Sprains –Contusions –Strains

19 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Baseball Relatively safe sport for youth –Two major injuries: chest and eye injuries Chest trauma –Commotio cordis – batter struck in chest with pitched ball; catcher struck by foul tipped ball –Occurs more often in boys under 16 yr –2-4 deaths reported each year

20 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Baseball Eye injuries –Softer ball used because of the concern for commotio cordis –Fewer commotio cordis injuries result –However, physicians are concerned that a softer ball will allow more of the ball to enter the eye orbit, resulting in a greater number of eye injuries

21 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer Soccer is classified as a contact/collision sport One of North Americas fastest growing sports Studies suggest that youth soccer is a relatively safe activity –Most injuries are from person-to-person contact

22 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer Classic study (Nilsson & Roaas, 1978) –Examined injury rate from in two tournaments (Norway Cup) –Ages: yr –n= 25,000 youth –2987 matches –1343 injuries –Girls had a higher injury rate Reason - lower skill development and training Greater injury rate during final rounds However, most injuries are minor

23 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer Heading the ball in soccer can result in –Headaches 49% of players complained after heading a ball –Mild to severe deficits in attention –Problems with concentration –Mild to severe deficits in memory

24 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer Common injury site –Thigh –Ankle –Foot –Torso –Head & neck Type of injury –Contusions –Muscle strains –Sprains –Fractures –Heat illness –Concussions

25 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer Cause of injury –Person-to person contact 43% –Repetitive overload 20.4% –Contact with ground 17.5% –Contact with goal post, etc. 6.5% Effect of injury –Missed one game 38.5% –Missed all remaining games 19.3%

26 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer How can soccer injuries be reduced? –Closer officiating –Pregame warnings for playing tactics (take downs, hacking) –Coaching within the spirit of the rules –Protective padding for players and goal posts –Remove all sideline objects (chairs, water coolers, etc.)

27 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Downhill Skiing Classified as a limited contact/impact sport Injury occurs due to contact with ground or stationary object –Contact usually occurs at a high velocity Girls are more prone to injury than boys Injury rate increases up to age 13 yr of age Injury rate levels off between age 13 and 15 yr

28 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Downhill Skiing Out of 3456 participants, 423 injuries reported Most of the injuries occurred in 12 and 13 year olds Common injuries –51.0% ~ sprains –11.1% ~ fractures (Garrick & Requa, 1979)

29 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ In-line Skating Fastest growing recreational sport in the US Excessive speed is the main cause for injury (speeds of 30 mph are not uncommon) 35% of all falls result in injury 60% of all injury occurs in youth between 10 and 14 years of age

30 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ In-line Skating Prevention of injuries –Players should wear all protective gear available to them Wrist guards Elbow pads Knee pads Helmet Often, children do not use protective equipment because discomfort, cost, and unsightly appearance

31 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries Youth are specializing in sport at earlier ages which involves year round training Overuse injuries occur as a result of placing the body under repeated stress over a long period of time Common sites: epiphyseal plates, cartilage of the apophyses, articular cartilage, stress fractures

32 Little Hercules Sandrak Website

33 Ironically, there are child labor laws in many countries that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to childrens sports

34 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries Traction apophyses injuries –Osgood-Schlatter disease Insertion of the patellar tendon at the tibial tubercle –Severs disease Insertion of the Achilles tendon into the calcaneous Both injuries occur because the skeleton is growing faster than soft tissue elongation

35 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries Little League elbow –Repeated stress to the medial and lateral structures of the elbow Rule changes are designed to protect the young pitcher –T-ball, ball is not pitched to the batter –Some leagues no longer allow the curve ball –Limit the number of innings/wk that a young player may pitch

36 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries Significant increase in Runners knee injuries –Inappropriate tracking of the kneecap

37 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Avoidable? Make sure young athletes have been properly conditioned Avoid overtraining Provide qualified adult supervision Change rules to create a safe environment Match competitors according to body size and weight

38 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Avoidable? Require use of appropriate safety equipment Do not allow an injured child to return to competition until the injury has been fully rehabilitated Do not allow children to partake in questionable practices designed to create a competitive edge Use coaches who are certified National Center for Sports Safety –Online certification course

39 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Nutrition Childs appetite should dictate need The practice of fasting (wrestling) and quick weight gain (football) should be avoided Vitamin supplements are not necessary when the young athlete is eating a balanced meal

40 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Making Weight Some adults have used unacceptable practices to give their child a competitive edge –Exercising in a sauna –Not letting child drink water –Not allowing child to swallow spit –Administering diuretics –Exercising in a rubber suit –Fasting

41 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Making Weight Dangers of rapid dehydration –Cells, urine output, blood volume and sweating mechanisms do not function properly –3% weight loss will decrease physical performance –5% weight loss can lead to heat exhaustion –7% weight loss can lead to hallucinations –10% weight loss can lead to heat stroke and circulatory collapse

42 Sport Participation: Controversies Psychological issues –Stress Unpleasant emotional state –Reducing competitive stress Are young athletes being exposed to too much competitive stress?

43 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Stress Appraisal Individual evaluates his/her ability to meet the demands of the situation Consequences Withdraw and try a new sport; Withdraw permanently Emotional Response Unfavorable appraisal leads to physiological and cognitive stress Situation Individual views outcome as important Model depicting the development of stress and potential behavioral outcomes Passer, 1982

44 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Another Viewpoint Youth sport participation is not the only stress encountered in the daily life of a young person Precompetitive state anxiety –Study by Simon & Marten (1979) –468 children in youth sports –281 children who competed in a physical education softball game, school test, group competition in band, and band solo competition

45 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ State Anxiety Childrens precompetitive state anxiety in 11 sport activities. The precompetitive state anxiety scale ranges from Result: note the greatest level of precompetitive state anxiety is for band solo students

46 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Reducing Stress Change something about the sport so that success occurs more often than failure –T-ball uses stationary batting tee instead of a pitcher Skill training instills confidence –More time should be spent on teaching and less time on scrimmaging

47 Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Reducing Stress Children who perceive themselves as competent are less threatened and perform better Winning/losing should be placed in perspective –Child may feel that he/she has disappointed parents or coach Help child set realistic goals

48 Youth Sport Coaching Whos coaching our children? –mostly volunteers 90% lack the necessary formal preparation to coach –9 out of 10 volunteer coaches are men Safe on First –An organization designed to run background checks on those who coach children in US –Sex offenders, criminal record, etc.

49 Youth Sport Coaching Why do people volunteer? –Involvement of coach's child in league –Personal enjoyment –Skill development of players –Character development of players –Personal challenge

50 Youth Sport Coaching - Education The annual turnover rate for coaches is 50% There is a rise in the number of lawsuits directed toward youth sport coaches and organizations because of alleged negligence during practices and games

51 Youth Sport Coaching - Education The National Standards for Athletic Coaches (US) National Coaching Certification Program (Canada) Technological advances now allow educators to reach more potential youth sport coaches to obtain coaching education and certification

52 Youth Sport Coaching Arguments against mandatory coaching certification –Due to the increase in participation, more sport offerings are required, and therefore, additional coaches are needed –Demand for coaches exceeds supply Programs may have to be cut –Certification process is expensive

53 Youth Sport Coaching Guidelines to Enhance Youth Sport Experienced Healthy philosophy of winning by coach Appropriate reactions to desirable behaviors Appropriate reactions to mistakes Appropriate reactions to misbehaviors, lack of attention, and maintaining discipline Appropriate behavior by the coach

54 Parental Education: Curbing Violence There has been a significant increase in violent behavior from parents during the last 15 years –Occurrences range from attacks to murder

55 Parental Education: Curbing Violence Organizations are requiring parental education –Sportsmanship training –Parents Association for Youth Sports (PAYS) Parent beats a volunteer coach to death in front of his children after a youth ice hockey game for ten year olds

56 Bill of Rights of Young Athletes 1.Right of the opportunity to participate in sports regardless of ability level 2.Right to participate at a level that is commensurate with each childs developmental level 3.Right to have qualified adult leadership 4.Right to participate in safe and healthy environments 5.Right of each child to share in the leadership and decision making of his/her sport participation 6.Right to play as a child and not as an adult 7.Right to proper preparation for participation in the sport 8.Right to an equal opportunity to strive for success 9.Right to be treated with dignity by all involved 10.Right to have fun through sport

57 Correlates of PA in youth –Individual Demographic factors Psychological factors Social factors –Environmental Opportunity Accessibility Safety Aesthetics

58 Correlates of PA in youth –Individual Demographic factors Psychological factors Social factors –Environmental Opportunity Accessibility Safety Aesthetics Sex Family Income Age

59 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (WHO, 2002) Sex

60 Family Income Estabrooks & Gyurcsik (2000)

61 Age

62 Correlates of PA in youth –Individual Demographic factors Psychological factors Social factors –Environmental Opportunity Accessibility Safety Aesthetics Enjoyment Self-efficacy Self-esteem

63 Correlates of PA in youth –Individual Demographic factors Psychological factors Social factors –Environmental Opportunity Accessibility Safety Aesthetics Peers Family Coaches/Others Cultural constraints

64 Correlates of PA in youth –Individual Demographic factors Psychological factors Social factors –Environmental Opportunity Accessibility Safety Aesthetics Sidewalks Parks Local Clubs/Teams

65 Correlates of PA in youth –Individual Demographic factors Psychological factors Social factors –Environmental Opportunity Accessibility Safety Aesthetics Cost Pollution Bike Lanes

66 Correlates of PA in youth –Individual Demographic factors Psychological factors Social factors –Environmental Opportunity Accessibility Safety Aesthetics Crime/Violence Lighting Traffic

67 Correlates of PA in youth –Individual Demographic factors Psychological factors Social factors –Environmental Opportunity Accessibility Safety Aesthetics Friendly Trees/Flowers Traffic

68 Correlates of PA in youth –Individual Demographic factors Psychological factors Social factors –Environmental Opportunity Accessibility Safety Aesthetics

69 Correlates of PA in youth –Individual Demographic factors Psychological factors Social factors –Environmental Opportunity Accessibility Safety Aesthetics Built Environment


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