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SOCIOLOGY OF SPORTS Society and Sports from a Sociological Perspective.

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1 SOCIOLOGY OF SPORTS Society and Sports from a Sociological Perspective

2 SPORTS: FROM SPARE TIME ACTIVITY TO ITS MODERN MEANING Desportare: (Latin) having fun, hanging around Desportare: (Latin) having fun, hanging around Desport: (French) to entertain, to amuse Desport: (French) to entertain, to amuse Sport: (English) using spare time, entertainment, hobby Sport: (English) using spare time, entertainment, hobby

3 DEFINITION OF SPORT A physical and spare time activity with a set of rules and institutions, resembling both a game and a profession, applied in a form of competition (Georges Magnane) A physical and spare time activity with a set of rules and institutions, resembling both a game and a profession, applied in a form of competition (Georges Magnane) An institutionalized physical activity based on competition which lies in a place between game and profession (G. Luschen) An institutionalized physical activity based on competition which lies in a place between game and profession (G. Luschen)

4 DEFINITION OF SPORT A worship of intensive and habitualized muscular activity which depends on the will for progress and even for risks which might lead to situations including danger. (Pierre de Coubertin) A worship of intensive and habitualized muscular activity which depends on the will for progress and even for risks which might lead to situations including danger. (Pierre de Coubertin) Physical practices which possess their own values, rules and rituals in a form of joyful competition. (Carl Diem) Physical practices which possess their own values, rules and rituals in a form of joyful competition. (Carl Diem)

5 INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF SPORTS Rules of the activity gets standardized. Rules of the activity gets standardized. Organizing actors supervise the application of and obedience to these rules Organizing actors supervise the application of and obedience to these rules Increasing significance of the organizational and technical sides of the activity Increasing significance of the organizational and technical sides of the activity Formalisation of acquiring game skills Formalisation of acquiring game skills

6 WHY STUDY A SOCIOLOGY OF SPORTS? Sports as a part of human social life. Sports as a part of human social life. Sports as a cultural determinant Sports as a cultural determinant Many actors within the realm of sports, with direct or indirect participations and roles. Many actors within the realm of sports, with direct or indirect participations and roles.

7 GENERAL THEMES SPORTS AND SOCIAL CLASS SPORTS AND SOCIAL CLASS SPORTS AND GENDER SPORTS AND GENDER SPORTS AND POLITICS SPORTS AND POLITICS SPORTS, IDEOLOGY AND PROPOGANDA SPORTS, IDEOLOGY AND PROPOGANDA SPORTS, ETNICITY AND NATIONALISM SPORTS, ETNICITY AND NATIONALISM SPORTS AND ECONOMY SPORTS AND ECONOMY

8 GENERAL THEMES SPORTS AND GLOBALISATION SPORTS AND GLOBALISATION SPORTS AND IDENTITY SPORTS AND IDENTITY SPORTS AND VIOLENCE SPORTS AND VIOLENCE SPORTS AND IMPERIALISM SPORTS AND IMPERIALISM SPORTS AND EDUCATION SPORTS AND EDUCATION

9 DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISCIPLINE CONTRIBUTIONS OF ANTHROPOLOGY CONTRIBUTIONS OF ANTHROPOLOGY HEINZ RIESSE AS THE FIRST TO USE THE TERM SOCIOLOGY OF SPORTS (1921) HEINZ RIESSE AS THE FIRST TO USE THE TERM SOCIOLOGY OF SPORTS (1921) JOHANN HUIZINGA: HOMO LUDENS (THE PLAYING HUMAN), 1938 JOHANN HUIZINGA: HOMO LUDENS (THE PLAYING HUMAN), 1938 INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF SPORT SOCIOLOGY (1966) INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF SPORT SOCIOLOGY (1966)

10 DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISCIPLINE HARRY EDWARDS HARRY EDWARDS JAY COAKLEY JAY COAKLEY NORBERT ELIAS NORBERT ELIAS ERIC DUNNING ERIC DUNNING JEAN MARIE BROHM JEAN MARIE BROHM

11 SOCIOLOGY OF SPORTS IN TURKEY MUSTAFA ERKALS SPORTS FROM A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE (1978) AS THE FIRST STUDY IN TURKEY. MUSTAFA ERKALS SPORTS FROM A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE (1978) AS THE FIRST STUDY IN TURKEY. İBRAHİM ARMAĞANS SOCIOLOGICAL BASIS OF SPORTS (1981) İBRAHİM ARMAĞANS SOCIOLOGICAL BASIS OF SPORTS (1981) YILMAZ ÇOBANOĞLUS SOCIOLOGY OF SPORTS (1996) YILMAZ ÇOBANOĞLUS SOCIOLOGY OF SPORTS (1996) CAN İKİZLERS SPORTS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES (2000) CAN İKİZLERS SPORTS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES (2000)

12 HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF SPORT The Neolithic Age: Survival and the need for physical strength The Neolithic Age: Survival and the need for physical strength Social division of labor and the warriors class. Social division of labor and the warriors class. Specialization and professionalisation in warfare (archery, horseback riding...) Specialization and professionalisation in warfare (archery, horseback riding...) Settled communities and the phenomenon of spare time. Settled communities and the phenomenon of spare time.

13 HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF SPORT Spare time as a consequence of the slave mode of production Spare time as a consequence of the slave mode of production Ancient Greek city states: birthplace of first organized sports activities. Ancient Greek city states: birthplace of first organized sports activities. In addition to spare time, struggle against nature and other societies contributed to the genesis of sports In addition to spare time, struggle against nature and other societies contributed to the genesis of sports Defensive-offensive sports as the first sporting activities (wrestling, boxing, archery...) Defensive-offensive sports as the first sporting activities (wrestling, boxing, archery...)

14 ANCIENT GREEK EXPERIENCE Gender dimension: Masculine monopoly Gender dimension: Masculine monopoly Social class dimension: Male citizens only Social class dimension: Male citizens only Philosophical dimension: Ideal state with an education system based on sports as well as philosophy, arts and sciences. Philosophical dimension: Ideal state with an education system based on sports as well as philosophy, arts and sciences. The Gymnasium The Gymnasium The Palaestra The Palaestra

15 FIRST ORGANIZED SPORTS: THE OLYMPICS (776 B.C.) In addition to local competitions held in sacred festivals in various Greek city states, the Olympic games is considered to be the first organized sports activity. In addition to local competitions held in sacred festivals in various Greek city states, the Olympic games is considered to be the first organized sports activity. Olympics as worship: dedication to the Olympians (Gods and Goddesses) Olympics as worship: dedication to the Olympians (Gods and Goddesses) Olympics as a tool for sacred truce in the Hellenic world (Ekecheiria) Olympics as a tool for sacred truce in the Hellenic world (Ekecheiria) Only male Greek citizens allowed to watch and attend the Games Only male Greek citizens allowed to watch and attend the Games Naked status of sportsmen Naked status of sportsmen

16 MYTHOLOGICAL BASIS OF SPORTS AND BODY IMAGE Age of Heroes and the strong hero image Age of Heroes and the strong hero image Hercules (Herakles) as the forthcoming hero of mascular strength Hercules (Herakles) as the forthcoming hero of mascular strength Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.) and the legend of Pheidippides Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.) and the legend of Pheidippides Atalante: the she-warrior Atalante: the she-warrior Odysseus and his bow Odysseus and his bow

17 ANCIENT ROMAN EXPERIENCE Sports for the entertainment of the free citizens Sports for the entertainment of the free citizens Slave warriors: gladiators Slave warriors: gladiators Ex-slave trainsmen Ex-slave trainsmen The audience, the arena and social control The audience, the arena and social control

18 MIDDLE AGES The Feudal system and two sides of sports The Feudal system and two sides of sports Knighthood competitions Knighthood competitions Noble sports for the aristocracy Noble sports for the aristocracy Common sports for spending spare time for the peasants Common sports for spending spare time for the peasants Pre-modern forms of football Pre-modern forms of football

19 RISE OF THE EUROPEAN BOURGEOISIE AND SPORTS Rise of modern sports Rise of modern sports More disciplined, organized and with rules More disciplined, organized and with rules Sports as a uniting tool for promoting the ideals of Western liberalism: freedom, brotherhood, equality and coexistence. Sports as a uniting tool for promoting the ideals of Western liberalism: freedom, brotherhood, equality and coexistence. Sports: a reflection of the capitalist way of life; competition. Sports: a reflection of the capitalist way of life; competition. Common team sports for the proleteriat: football Common team sports for the proleteriat: football

20 THE BIRTH OF FOOTBALL British imperialism and the UK as the global exporter of sports British imperialism and the UK as the global exporter of sports British bureaucrats as sports missionaries all around the Empire. British bureaucrats as sports missionaries all around the Empire. Sports and imperialism: sports imperialism Sports and imperialism: sports imperialism

21 THE BIRTH OF FOOTBALL Revival of a middle-age common spare time activity among Cambridge students (1848) Revival of a middle-age common spare time activity among Cambridge students (1848) Popularisation of football in a short period Popularisation of football in a short period More spare time for the proleteriat by means of legal regulations on work hours More spare time for the proleteriat by means of legal regulations on work hours Weekend off after Saturday afternoon Weekend off after Saturday afternoon Advancements in public transport Advancements in public transport

22 Sports and class: the UK case Working class and football Working class and football The Roman Method: canalization of the energy of the ordinary masses The Roman Method: canalization of the energy of the ordinary masses Good and loyal citizens via a collective belonging Good and loyal citizens via a collective belonging While elite sports in the UK remained to be While elite sports in the UK remained to be mostly individual sports; common sports like football rose as team sports. mostly individual sports; common sports like football rose as team sports. First football clubs founded by trade unions or simply workers of single factories First football clubs founded by trade unions or simply workers of single factories Church teams (Aston Villa,Birmingham,Bolton,Everton) Church teams (Aston Villa,Birmingham,Bolton,Everton)

23 EXPORT OF FOOTBALL TO CONTINENTAL EUROPE 1878: Copenhagen 1878: Copenhagen 1887: Hamburg 1887: Hamburg 1888: Paris 1888: Paris 1885: Vienna 1885: Vienna 1893: Genova 1893: Genova 1886: Budapest 1886: Budapest

24 THE MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES Baron Pierre de Coubertin Baron Pierre de Coubertin 1896 First Olympic Games in Athens 1896 First Olympic Games in Athens

25 THE USE OF OLYMPIC GAMES AS A POLITICAL TOOL Internationalisation of sports and use of sports as a tool of international politics Internationalisation of sports and use of sports as a tool of international politics 1920 Anvers Games 1936 Berlin Games 1948 London Games 1972 Munich Games 1980 Moscow Games 1984 Los Angeles Games

26 OLYMPISM and its CRITIQUES Olympism as an ideal for sports and society both on the national and global scales Olympism as an ideal for sports and society both on the national and global scales Critiques of olympism as the tool of European capitalism and imperialism Critiques of olympism as the tool of European capitalism and imperialism The anti-democratic status of the Olympic administrative organs The anti-democratic status of the Olympic administrative organs Coubertins anti-feminism Coubertins anti-feminism

27 SPORTS BRANCHES Individual and team sports Individual and team sports Survival sports and spare-time sports Survival sports and spare-time sports Elite sports and common sports Elite sports and common sports

28 BOXING Civilizing process and sports: Boxing as a good example regarding this context (N.Elias) Civilizing process and sports: Boxing as a good example regarding this context (N.Elias) Historical origins date back to ancient Mesopotamia Historical origins date back to ancient Mesopotamia Classical Boxing in ancient Greece and Rome Classical Boxing in ancient Greece and Rome

29 EARLY BOXING & MODERN BOXING Rules (from a no-rule and no-referee violent showgame to modern boxing): punchable body parts, standart durations for rounds and breaks, points earned, medical staff...etc. Rules (from a no-rule and no-referee violent showgame to modern boxing): punchable body parts, standart durations for rounds and breaks, points earned, medical staff...etc. Weight divisions (no divisions in former) Weight divisions (no divisions in former) Use of accessories (from bandages and wooden spikes to gloves and headguards) Use of accessories (from bandages and wooden spikes to gloves and headguards) Ethics: from warrior ethos of honor to fairplay Ethics: from warrior ethos of honor to fairplay From a fully offensive game towards an offensive/defensive one From a fully offensive game towards an offensive/defensive one

30 BOXING AND CONTROL OF VIOLENCE N.Elias: Civilizing society, civilized ways of settling personal disputes among males rather than gun duels. N.Elias: Civilizing society, civilized ways of settling personal disputes among males rather than gun duels. Use of the fists as a more civilized way Use of the fists as a more civilized way Modern society, social rules and its reflection on sports: modern boxing Modern society, social rules and its reflection on sports: modern boxing Violence limited and controlled by game rules Violence limited and controlled by game rules

31 TENNIS Historical roots in medieval France Historical roots in medieval France Badminton and croquet Badminton and croquet Field tennis in Britain as an elite sport Field tennis in Britain as an elite sport The significance of the lawn in elite activities The significance of the lawn in elite activities From the field to the lawn: Walter Clopton Wingfield as the founder of modern tennis (1873) From the field to the lawn: Walter Clopton Wingfield as the founder of modern tennis (1873)

32 TENNIS BECOMING WORLDWIDE Mary Outerbridge and the import of tennis to USA (1874) Mary Outerbridge and the import of tennis to USA (1874) The First Wimbledon Championships (1877): local British tournament The First Wimbledon Championships (1877): local British tournament Tennis goes international: The Davis Tournaments of 1900 Tennis goes international: The Davis Tournaments of 1900 International Lawn Tennis Federation (1912) International Lawn Tennis Federation (1912)

33 TENNIS AND CLASS Pacification of the British upper classes in the 18th century. Pacification of the British upper classes in the 18th century. Pacification of political conflicts among upper classes and pacification in other areas of social life Pacification of political conflicts among upper classes and pacification in other areas of social life Combination of rural customs and upper- class manners: elite sports like cricket and tennis Combination of rural customs and upper- class manners: elite sports like cricket and tennis

34 BASEBALL Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games From Britain to USA From Britain to USA Alexander Cartwright as the founder of modern baseball (1845) Alexander Cartwright as the founder of modern baseball (1845) The 19th century: popularization of baseball in the US and becoming a national sport. The 19th century: popularization of baseball in the US and becoming a national sport. National League established in 1876 National League established in 1876

35 BASEBALL Negro National League in 1933 Negro National League in 1933 Jackie Robinson as the first black player in the US National League (1947) Jackie Robinson as the first black player in the US National League (1947) Races united dating from the 60s Races united dating from the 60s Babe Ruth League (1947) for the popularization of baseball among the American youth Babe Ruth League (1947) for the popularization of baseball among the American youth

36 BASKETBALL James Naismith as the founder of basketball (1891) James Naismith as the founder of basketball (1891) A team sport available indoors during cold winter A team sport available indoors during cold winter Colleges and the popularization of basketball as a common sport Colleges and the popularization of basketball as a common sport Foundation of the NBA (1949) Foundation of the NBA (1949) Afro-Americans and basketball Afro-Americans and basketball


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