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© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sport Programs and Professions Chapter 5 Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sport Programs and Professions Chapter 5 Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sport Programs and Professions Chapter 5 Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport Daryl Siedentop

2 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 2 Discussion Questions 1. In what ways do participating and spectating positively and negatively influence each other?

3 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 3 Discussion Questions 2. What would be the benefits and liabilities of increasing local, state, and federal government involvement in child and youth sport? 2. What would be the benefits and liabilities of increasing local, state, and federal government involvement in child and youth sport?

4 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 4 Discussion Questions 3. What would school sport be like if it were based on the an inclusionary, rather than a an exclusionary model?

5 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 5 Discussion Questions 4. If a program for coaching certification were to be required, what criteria would you want coaches to meet?

6 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6 Discussion Questions 5. What opportunities for athletes between the ages of 18 and 23 to continue to develop in their sport if they do not go to college and are not skilled enough to be hired as professional athletes? 5. What opportunities for athletes between the ages of 18 and 23 to continue to develop in their sport if they do not go to college and are not skilled enough to be hired as professional athletes?

7 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 7 Discussion Questions 6. How should school sport be financed? How should recreational sport be financed? 6. How should school sport be financed? How should recreational sport be financed?

8 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 8 Discussion Questions 7. How does the sport experience differ for (a) the athlete with a disability, (b) the masters athlete, (c) the scholarship athlete, and (d) the child athlete?

9 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 9 Discussion Questions 8. In what ways will the quality of preparation for nonparticipant vocation be related to the future development of sport?

10 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 10 Introductory points Indicators of this being the era of Sport: The number and variety of venues The participation levels across age levels and gender $$$ spent of sport (equipment, spectating etc.) Time allotted to Sport on TV Globally, Sport has exploded in the last half of the 20 th Century. Globally, Sport has exploded in the last half of the 20 th Century.

11 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 11 Untangling the Leisure Myths General belief: Modern societies work less and have more time for leisure activities. General belief: Modern societies work less and have more time for leisure activities. Beware of the data on this: Amount of leisure time Time Population Average Individuals Remember the Greeks and Romans...

12 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 12 Child and Youth Sport Types of Sport participation Informal games and activities. Out-of-school community sponsored programs. Fee-for-service, Sport specialization instruction programs. Sport-specific, fee-for-service programs w. age-related competition (incl. Select travelling teams). State sanctioned inter-scholastic sport competition. National Council on Youth Sports (www.ncys.org) Dedicated to advancing values of participation and developing and educating leaders. Nationwide participation estimates: 65% of US children/youth (~ ).

13 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 13 Child and Youth Sport Informal Participation Includes participant-designed pick-up games. Games typically are modified from parent game. They typically include: Lots of (scoring) action. Optimized personal development. Close game scores. Reaffirmation of participants friendships. New trend >> Skate park activities. Part of the Extreme Sport movement.

14 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 14 Child and Youth Sport Out-of-school, Non-profit Community Sport Approx youth participate in at least one sport (e.g., Little League Baseball; Pop Warner Football)). Starting age is coming down. Dropout rates are up (higher for girls) Drop out, in part, a consequence of the exclusionary nature of interscholastic Sport.

15 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 15 Child and Youth Sport Fee-for-service, Sport Specialization Instructional Programs Fee-for-service, Sport Specialization Instructional Programs Their emergence is part of the increased cultural importance of Sport, along w. its commercialization. Types include: Individualized training programs (especially individual sports, e.g., Tennis, Gymnastics, Figure Skating). Commercial Summer Sport Camps. Sport fitness conditioning programs.

16 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 16 Child and Youth Sport Fee-for-service, Sport Specialization Instructional Programs (contd.) Fee-for-service, Sport Specialization Instructional Programs (contd.) American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has issued warning statement against over-specialization at early ages.

17 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 17 Child and Youth Sport Sport-specific, fee-for-service organizations Includes clubs that offer year-around competition opportunities. Opportunities for players to compete on select teams that travel extensively. Provide showcase for College recruitment efforts. Clubs also offer a range of competition levels from recreational to select team levels.

18 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 18 Child and Youth Sport Sport-specific, fee-for-service organizations (contd.) Sport-specific, fee-for-service organizations (contd.) Fees cover basic cost (e.g., travel, uniforms, tournament fees). Includes local, state, regional and national organizations (e.g., AAU). Main marketing focus: Help youth gain College Scholarships.

19 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 19 Child and Youth Sport Supporting Organizations They include: Youth Sport Coalition of NASPE Institute for International Sport National Alliance for Youth Sport (NAYS) NASPE Their main focus: Develop guidelines to assist parents. Set standards for parents, volunteers, administrators, coaches & officials. (See also Box 5.2)

20 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 20 Child and Youth Sport Bill of Rights for Young Athletes (NASPE, 1999) Children and Youth have the right to: Participate in sports. Participate at a level commensurate to their maturity and ability. Qualified adult leadership. Play as a child not as an adult. Share in the leadership and decision-making.

21 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 21 Child and Youth Sport Bill of Rights for Young Athletes (NASPE, 1999) (Contd.) Bill of Rights for Young Athletes (NASPE, 1999) (Contd.) Students have the right to: Participate in safe and healthy environments. Proper preparation for participation in sports. Be treated with dignity. Have fun in sport.

22 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 22 Child and Youth Sport Coaching for Child and Youth Sport Most of the approx coaches lack any formal training in coaching youth. Coaching approach is based on personal experiences as player and spectator. Paid coaches are generally seen only at the more advanced/elite levels of competition. In the USA, there is no government oversight of coaching education/-certification efforts.

23 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 23 Child and Youth Sport Coaching for Child and Youth Sport A peek beyond our borders: Coach education is more formalized w. extensive certification programs: No Certification? = No Coaching! Significant government oversight. NAYS includes a Coach Education as one of its missions: Since 1981 it has trained 1, coach volunteers and supports local efforts (See Box 5.3).

24 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 24 Interscholastic Sport Education is a State function! Interscholastic Sport is uniquely American Significant participation increases since early 1970s (notably among girls). Significant participation increases since early 1970s (notably among girls). 2-3 sport athlete number has decreased (one-sport specialization). 2-3 sport athlete number has decreased (one-sport specialization).

25 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 25 Interscholastic Sport Organization. Schools are grouped for competition based on size of student body (A ;AA; AAA; AAAA). Privately organized State Associations govern all aspects of interschool sport: Organization Participation rules Season length Rules Practice schedules Competition & playoffs schedules

26 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 26 Interscholastic Sport Financing. Either supported through regular tax revenues (i.e., part of regular school budget)... Self-funded through: Gate receipts Fund-raising Booster club efforts Sales of concessions, school logo clothing etc. Pay-to-play fees (as high as $200.00) OR

27 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 27 Interscholastic Sport School Coaches. During the 1960s most coaches were licensed Physical Education teachers. Currently, most are not certified teachers (again w. little, if any, formal preparation for coaching. Qualification oversight rests with the states... Difficult to enforce

28 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 28 Interscholastic Sport School Coaches. (Contd.) Current Coaching Certification programs: National Council for Accreditation of Coaching Education (NCACE) services and supports coaching education programs. American Sport Education Program (ASEP) Program for Athletics Coaches Education (PACE) National Federation of State High School Association (NFSHSA) University-based programs (e.g., West Virginias ACE program).

29 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 29 Interscholastic Sport School Coaches. (Contd.) National Standards for Sport Coaches, developed by NASPE, cover: Philosophy and ethics Safety and injury prevention Physical conditioning Growth and development Teaching and communication Sport skills and tactics Organization and administration Evaluation

30 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 30 Collegiate Sport Programs School Coaches. (Contd.) National Standards for Sport Coaches, developed by NASPE, cover: Philosophy and ethics Safety and injury prevention Physical conditioning Growth and development Teaching and communication Sport skills and tactics Organization and administration Evaluation


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