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Sport Programs and Professions

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1 Sport Programs and Professions
Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport Daryl Siedentop Chapter 5 Sport Programs and Professions

2 Discussion Questions In what ways do participating and spectating positively and negatively influence each other?

3 Discussion Questions What would be the benefits and
liabilities of increasing local, state, and federal government involvement in child and youth sport?

4 Discussion Questions What would school sport be like if it were based on the an inclusionary, rather than a an exclusionary model?

5 Discussion Questions If a program for coaching certification were to be required, what criteria would you want coaches to meet?

6 Discussion Questions What opportunities for athletes between
the ages of 18 and 23 to continue to develop in their sport if they do not go to college and are not skilled enough to be hired as professional athletes?

7 Discussion Questions How should school sport be financed?
How should recreational sport be financed?

8 Discussion Questions How does the sport experience differ for (a) the athlete with a disability, (b) the masters athlete, (c) the scholarship athlete, and (d) the child athlete?

9 Discussion Questions In what ways will the quality of preparation for nonparticipant vocation be related to the future development of sport?

10 Indicators of this being the era of Sport:
Introductory points Indicators of this being the era of Sport: The number and variety of venues The participation levels across age levels and gender $$$ spent of sport (equipment, spectating etc.) Time allotted to Sport on TV Globally, Sport has exploded in the last half of the 20th Century.

11 Untangling the Leisure Myths
General belief: Modern societies work less and have more time for leisure activities. Remember the Greeks and Romans . . . Beware of the data on this: Individuals leisure time Amount of Population Average Individuals Time

12 Types of Sport participation
Child and Youth Sport Types of Sport participation Informal games and activities. Out-of-school community sponsored programs. Fee-for-service, Sport specialization instruction programs. Sport-specific, fee-for-service programs w. age-related competition (incl. Select travelling teams). State sanctioned inter-scholastic sport competition. National Council on Youth Sports (www.ncys.org) Dedicated to advancing values of participation and developing and educating leaders. Nationwide participation estimates: 65% of US children/youth (~ ).

13 Informal Participation
Child and Youth Sport Informal Participation Includes participant-designed pick-up games. Games typically are modified from “parent game.” They typically include: Lots of (scoring) action. Optimized personal development. Close game scores. Reaffirmation of participants’ friendships. New trend >> Skate park activities. Part of the Extreme Sport movement.

14 Out-of-school, Non-profit Community Sport
Child and Youth Sport Out-of-school, Non-profit Community Sport Approx youth participate in at least one sport (e.g., Little League Baseball; Pop Warner Football)). Starting age is coming down. Dropout rates are up (higher for girls) Drop out, in part, a consequence of the exclusionary nature of interscholastic Sport.

15 Fee-for-service, Sport Specialization Instructional Programs
Child and Youth Sport Fee-for-service, Sport Specialization Instructional Programs Their emergence is part of the increased cultural importance of Sport, along w. its commercialization. Types include: Individualized training programs (especially individual sports, e.g., Tennis, Gymnastics, Figure Skating). Commercial Summer Sport Camps. Sport fitness conditioning programs.

16 Fee-for-service, Sport Specialization Instructional Programs (cont’d.)
Child and Youth Sport Fee-for-service, Sport Specialization Instructional Programs (cont’d.) American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has issued warning statement against over-specialization at early ages.

17 Sport-specific, fee-for-service organizations
Child and Youth Sport Sport-specific, fee-for-service organizations Includes clubs that offer year-around competition opportunities. Opportunities for players to compete on “select” teams that travel extensively. Provide showcase for College recruitment efforts. Clubs also offer a range of competition levels from recreational to select team levels.

18 Sport-specific, fee-for-service organizations
Child and Youth Sport Sport-specific, fee-for-service organizations (cont’d.) Includes local, state, regional and national organizations (e.g., AAU). Fees cover basic cost (e.g., travel, uniforms, tournament fees). Main marketing focus: Help youth gain College Scholarships.

19 Supporting Organizations
Child and Youth Sport Supporting Organizations They include: Youth Sport Coalition of NASPE Institute for International Sport National Alliance for Youth Sport (NAYS) NASPE Their main focus: Develop guidelines to assist parents. Set standards for parents, volunteers, administrators, coaches & officials. (See also Box 5.2)

20 “Bill of Rights for Young Athletes” (NASPE, 1999)
Child and Youth Sport “Bill of Rights for Young Athletes” (NASPE, 1999) Children and Youth have the right to: Participate in sports. Participate at a level commensurate to their maturity and ability. Qualified adult leadership. Play as a child not as an adult. Share in the leadership and decision-making.

21 “Bill of Rights for Young Athletes” (NASPE, 1999)
Child and Youth Sport “Bill of Rights for Young Athletes” (NASPE, 1999) (Cont’d.) Students have the right to: Participate in safe and healthy environments. Proper preparation for participation in sports. Be treated with dignity. Have fun in sport.

22 Coaching for Child and Youth Sport
Most of the approx coaches lack any formal training in coaching youth. Coaching approach is based on personal experiences as player and spectator. Paid coaches are generally seen only at the more advanced/elite levels of competition. In the USA, there is no government oversight of coaching education/-certification efforts.

23 Coaching for Child and Youth Sport
A peek beyond our borders: Significant government oversight. Coach education is more formalized w. extensive certification programs: No Certification? = No Coaching! NAYS includes a Coach Education as one of its missions: Since 1981 it has trained 1, coach volunteers and supports local efforts (See Box 5.3).

24 Interscholastic Sport
Education is a State function! Interscholastic Sport is uniquely American Significant participation increases since early 1970s (notably among girls). 2-3 sport athlete number has decreased (one-sport specialization).

25 Interscholastic Sport
Organization. Schools are grouped for competition based on size of student body (A ;AA; AAA; AAAA). Privately organized State Associations govern all aspects of interschool sport: Organization Participation rules Season length Rules Practice schedules Competition & playoffs schedules

26 Interscholastic Sport
Financing. Either supported through regular tax revenues (i.e., part of regular school budget) . . . OR Self-funded through: Gate receipts Fund-raising Booster club efforts Sales of concessions, school logo clothing etc. Pay-to-play fees (as high as $200.00)

27 Interscholastic Sport
School Coaches. During the 1960’s most coaches were licensed Physical Education teachers. Currently, most are not certified teachers (again w. little, if any, formal preparation for coaching. Qualification oversight rests with the states . . . Difficult to enforce

28 Interscholastic Sport
School Coaches. (Cont’d.) Current Coaching Certification programs: American Sport Education Program (ASEP) Program for Athletics Coaches Education (PACE) National Federation of State High School Association (NFSHSA) University-based programs (e.g., West Virginia’s ACE program). National Council for Accreditation of Coaching Education (NCACE) services and supports coaching education programs.

29 Interscholastic Sport
School Coaches. (Cont’d.) National Standards for Sport Coaches, developed by NASPE, cover: Philosophy and ethics Safety and injury prevention Physical conditioning Growth and development Teaching and communication Sport skills and tactics Organization and administration Evaluation

30 Collegiate Sport Programs
School Coaches. (Cont’d.) National Standards for Sport Coaches, developed by NASPE, cover: Philosophy and ethics Safety and injury prevention Physical conditioning Growth and development Teaching and communication Sport skills and tactics Organization and administration Evaluation


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