Presentation on theme: "Cultural Diversity In & Through Sport Lesson Six: Sexism and Sport."— Presentation transcript:
1Cultural DiversityIn & Through SportLesson Six:Sexism and Sport
2This project has been funded with support from the European Commission This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
3Learning Outcomes By the end of the session you should be able to: Describe the term sexismIdentify how sexism is manifested using sporting examplesExamine own attitudes towards sexismExplain the consequences of prejudice and discriminationIdentify ways in which attitudes can be challenged
4Task: Warm Up In groups discuss the following questions: Are certain sports more suitable for males than females and vice versa?Are there stereotypes for males and females who play certain sports?Why do you think fewer females play sport than males?
5Gender Stereotypes The culture of sport presents problems: It is seen as male dominatedMale traits – competitive, aggressiveness, physical strengthNot feminine or ‘girly’
6Task: Gender Stereotypes What do you think the stereotypes are for the following athletes?:Male gymnastFemale rugby playerMale hockey playerFemale bodybuilderBusy lives, exercise is not a priorityPE puts ¼ of girls off sport for lifeWomen’s sport is ‘short-changed’ in terms of its profile, investment and leadershipFacilities – a lot are not suitable for femalesToday’s Agenda is to be thin, not healthy
7Definition of Gender Discrimination Gender discrimination is prejudice or discrimination based on a person’s genderAttitudes, conditions, or behaviors are often based on stereotypical ideas of gender rolesGender discrimination is not only on a person-to-person basis but can also be institutionalisedIt is often associated with ‘gender supremacy’, in that one gender is better than the other
8Task: Sexism in the Media In groups discuss the following questions:How does media encourage sexist attitudes?Discuss how film, TV, newspapers and books encourage sexismThink about male and female stereotypes and characters
9Sexism in the MediaSports women continue to be underrepresented in news coverageOften women are referred to in in a sexual or demeaning mannerDescriptors involving sports skills are often absent from descriptions of women athletesDescriptors used for men – big, strong, brilliant – are different from those used to describe women – weary, fatigues, vulnerableWomen in the news are more likely to appear in stories about accident, natural disasters or domestic violence than stories about professional abilities or expertise.
10Task: Sexism in Sports Coverage In groups, look at the sports section of the newspaper providedDiscuss the quantity and quality of women’s sports coverageConsider the photographs usedWhat is the ratio of coverage between male and female sporting events and/or athletes
11Sexism in the MediaAccording to Women's Sport and Fitness Foundation, only 5% of all sports coverage in the media is of women’s sportsIn a sports fan research survey carried out in 2012, 61% of participants would like to see more women's sportsA report by the Commission on the Future of Women's Sport found that women’s sports only gets 0.5% of all sponsorship in the UK61% of the female respondents in the Women's Sport and Fitness Foundation survey agreed that seeing successful sports stars encouraged them to get involved in sportsWomen in the news are more likely to appear in stories about accident, natural disasters or domestic violence than stories about professional abilities or expertise.
12Case Study: Sexism in the Media 1 Study of basketball commentators:Men’s basketballWomen’s basketball146 descriptors suggesting strength95 descriptors suggesting strength38 descriptors suggesting weakness103 descriptors suggesting weaknessRatio 3.84:1Ratio 0.92:1
13Case Study: Sexism in the Media 2 Study of tennis commentators:Men’s basketballWomen’s basketball59 descriptors suggesting strength51 descriptors suggesting strength10 descriptors suggesting weakness24 descriptors suggesting weaknessRatio 5.9:1Ratio 2.1:1
14Case Study: Sexism in the Media 3 Study found that in tennis, last names were used much more for men while first names were used for womenFemales were referred to by first name 52.7% of the timeMales were referred to by first name 7.8% of the time
15Case Study: Sexism in the Media 4 Sky Sports presenters in the UK, Andy Gray and Richard Keys were sacked for making sexist comments about a female linesman:Click here.
16Sexulisation of Female Athletes Sport is still considered a masculine domain in our society.It is very clear that the institution of sport promotes compulsory heterosexualityFemale athletes can feel a pressure to conform to a heterosexual image which is often hypersexualised.
17Sexulisation: Case Study Anna Kournikova is a retired Russian professional tennis player.She was one of the best known tennis stars in the world, yet she never won a singles title.Most of her fame has come from the publicity surrounding her looks and her personal life.
18Celebrating All Athletes BBC Sports Personality of the YearNominations made by sports editors:In 2012, a bookmakers gave the follows odds for a male versus a female winner:1:2 that the winner will be male1:6 that the winner will be female
19Accessing Opportunities Women tend to have less opportunities to participate in sports:Sport is dominated by male athletes, coaches, managers, commentatorsEquipment is often designed for men; in 1996 Spalding produced the first baseball glove for womenRoyal and Ancient Golf Club in Scotland lifted its longstanding ban of women playing in the Open Championship in 2005Women in sport receive less money than their male counterparts; Wimbledon has only offered equal price money since 2007
20Men v Women’s Pay: Cricket Captain’s of England*: The difference between men & women’s pay in cricket:Women’s TeamMen’s TeamNameCharlotte EdwardsAndrew StraussAge2932TeamKentMiddlesexEarnings£35,000-£40,000£175,000-£200,000 + bonuses* Details correct as of August 2012
21Men v Women’s Pay: Football Captain’s of England*: The difference between men & women’s pay in football:Women’s TeamMen’s TeamNameCasey StoneySteven GerrardAge3032TeamLincoln LadiesLiverpoolEarnings£35,000-£40,000£8.5million + bonuses* Details correct as of August 2012
22Power CommentsSepp Blatter, FIFA President was asked in January 2004 how women's football could be made more popular. He said:"Let the women play in more feminine clothes like they do in volleyball. Female players are pretty, if you excuse me for saying so, and they already have some different rules to men – such as playing with a lighter ball. That decision was taken to create a more female aesthetic, so why not do it in fashion?"
23Positions of Power: Case Study International Olympic Committee:Reached their goal of having 10 % female members in 2000.Of the 106 national Olympic committees, 5 have female presidents.Out of the 34 international sport federations that participate in the Olympic Games, two are led by a woman.
24Task: Challenging Sexism Working in groups, identify ways in which sexism can be challenged and women can be given equal opportunities
25Female Role ModelsTwo of Team GBs best female athletes, Sally Gunnell and Jessica Ennis:Click here.
26Women in SportA brief overview of women’s achievements in sport through history:Women's singles tennis competition started at Wimbledon.Charlotte Cooper became the first British women to win a gold medal at the Olympics1952 – Jeannette Altwegg became the first British women to win an individual gold medal at the Winter Olympics1960 – Anita Lonsbrough became the first female BBC Sports Personality of the Year after winning a gold medal in RomeMary Rand became the first British women to win an Olympic gold medal in athleticsMary Peters won the Women's Pentathlon at the Munich OlympicsSally Gunnel wins gold at the 1992 Olympics in the 400m hurdles in BarcelonaDame Kelly Holmes won two gold at the Athens Olympics and Dame Tanni Grey-Thompson won her 11th gold Paralympics’ gold medal in Athens.Team GB women won 7 gold medals in total at the Beijing games.
27A Long Way to GoBBC Sports Presenter, Gabby Logan, made a documentary in April 2012 about sexism in football:She was reluctant to even do the documentary because: “No-one wants to look like they are moaning.”She was shocked that “in 2012 some people have been locked out of training grounds for being a woman.She also noted a “lack of representation at the top of the game with Karen Espelund the only female on the Uefa executive committee.”For the full article, click here.
28Challenging SexismTo challenge sexism in sport, it is important to have:Women’s Development Officer postsIncreased opportunities for women to participateRole modelsMore women in positions of powerLegislation
29Thought for the DayAn anti-sexism advert from the Kick it Out campaign:Click here.