Presentation on theme: "Sports in Society: Issues & Controversies"— Presentation transcript:
1Sports in Society: Issues & Controversies Chapter 14Sports in High School and College:Do Varsity Sports ProgramsContribute to Education?
2Arguments For and Against Interscholastic Sports Involve students in activitiesBuild self-esteemEnhance fitness and lifetime participationGenerate spirit and unityPromote supportDevelop and rewards valued skillsArguments Against:Distract attention from academicsCreate dependenceIncrease passivity and injuriesCreate superficial and transitory spiritWaste resourcesCreate pressure and distort status system
3Experiences of Varsity Athletes in High Schools Research shows differences between those who play varsity sports and those who do notResearch suggests that differences are primarily due to selection and filtering processesThose who play varsity sports often have characteristics that make them different from those who don’t play sports
4Methodological Problems Research on the consequences of playing varsity sports is difficult to do becauseGrowth and development among students is related to many factorsMeanings given to sport participation vary by context and from one person to another
5Do Athletes Rule U.S. High Schools? Data on this issue are scarce; research is needed on the following:How many students have been physically and/or verbally mistreated by athletes?How many students know of cases where athletes have mistreated others?Are some athlete more likely than others to harass or intimidate other students?
6Student Culture in High Schools Being a student-athlete often is a source of status and popularityMore so for men than for womenSports are sites for major social occasions in the schoolSports often reproduce dominant ideologies related to gender, social class, and race and ethnicity
7Interscholastic Sports Are Valuable If They Enable students to be noticed, rewarded, and taken seriously as human beingsConnect young people with adult advocates in their livesProvide occasions to learn things that are applicable beyond sports
8Intercollegiate Sports and the Experiences of College Students Intercollegiate sports are not all the sameThey vary by Division in the NCAAThey vary greatly from big-time entertainment-oriented programs to smaller, less expensive, athlete-oriented programs
9Characteristics of Big-time (Div. I) Programs Usually have a primary emphasis on football or men’s basketball and their revenue generating potentialLess than 1 in 5 programs make moneyFull scholarships are available to some athletes in many of the sportsTeams often travel extensivelyQuality of skills & competition is high
10Varsity Athletes in Big-time Programs Participants in revenue (FB & Basketball) sports usually have scholarshipsTime and energy commitments to sport are exceptionally high, and participants often must choose between:Working out and practicing sportsDoing courseworkEngaging in social activitiesAcademic detachment is a commonly used coping strategy among male athletes
11Varsity Athletes in Most College Programs (Div. II & III) Most play without athletic scholarshipsTime and energy commitments vary greatly depending on coaches and sportsAcademic demands may be accommodatedThe economic consequences of games and matches are minimalLess likely than “big-time” athletes to be separated from the rest of the student body or used to promote the school
12Grades & Graduation Rates Among College Athletes Graduation data are confusing because there are many different ways to compute statisticsInformation on grades must be qualified because athletesOften are overrepresented in certain courses and majorsIn entertainment-oriented sports come to college with lower grades and test scores(continued)
13Grades & Graduation Rates Among College Athletes (continued) Graduation rates among all varsity athletes are slightly higher than rates for all studentsGraduation rates in many big-time revenue sports are shamefully lowWomen athletes have higher graduation rates than men athletesBlack athletes have graduation rates higher than black students as a whole, but lower than rates for white athletes.
14Academic Integrity in College Sports Restoring academic integrity is difficult in programs where athletic success is tied to millions of dollars of revenue and to the emotions & identities of boosters and alumniRaising academic standards is important, but it must be done so it does not unfairly exclude certain studentsBeing considered: Prevent schools from participating in post-season bowls and games if graduation rates fall below a certain level
15Questions About the Benefits of Interscholastic Programs School spirit often is enhanced, but does this improve the overall academic climate?Most programs lose money, but are the expenditures worth it in academic and developmental terms?Are the public & community relations functions of varsity sports worth their costs?
16Varsity Sports & School Budgets Most high school programs have small athletic budgets except in cases where high profile teams are promotedSolving high school or college budget problems with corporate sponsorships may create integrity problems for schoolsBudget issues in college sports often are very complex
17Indirect Benefits of Intercollegiate Programs High profile sport teams can be used in connection with fund raising effortsSport teams may attract attention among potential studentsSports provide on-campus social events and occasions
18Figure 14.2“I told you we sent our daughter to a top-notch school! Her basketball teams just beat Duke University.”
19Indirect Costs of Intercollegiate Programs Maintaining sport teams and recruiting athletes may compromise academic standards in admissions and classroomsAcademic matters are given low priority in the “culture of sport” on many campusesThe lives of athletes are increasingly separate from the lives of other studentsSports may take resources away from other extracurricular activities
20Varsity High School Sports: Problems & Recommendations Overemphasis on sports development and big-time modelsNeed for regular critical assessments and new sports focused on lifetime and co-ed participationLimited participation accessNeed more teams in more sports where size and strength are not primaryNeed gender equity and opportunities for students with disabilities (continued)
21Varsity High School Sports: Problems & Recommendations Emphasis on varsity sports may distort status system among studentsSchools should work to eliminate distorted, sport-based systems of privilegeSchools should give equal attention and recognition to the achievements of students in activities other than sports
22Intercollegiate Sports: Problems & Recommendations Emphasis on entertainment and commercial valuesImpose cost containment and spending limits on athletic departments and sports; create a financially level playing fieldLack of athletes’ rightsAthletes must be voting members of decision-making athletic department committeesUniversities must employ independent ombudspersons for appeals and advocacyDrop the myth of amateurism in revenue sports
23Intercollegiate Sports: Problems & Recommendations Gender inequitiesCut football expenses through cost containmentFund women’s sports on an investment basis to foster development (men played for a century before making money in their sport programs)Distorted priorities related to race relations and educationAggressively recruit ethnic minority students, faculty and administratorsEmploy strategies to create culturally diverse campus cultures
24Figure 14.4 After having all the toys boys may feel that sharing with the girls is unfair to them.