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Warm-up How might the situation depicted here have caused anger and resentment on the part of the Germans? After WWI, Germany had to pay off huge war.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-up How might the situation depicted here have caused anger and resentment on the part of the Germans? After WWI, Germany had to pay off huge war."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Warm-up How might the situation depicted here have caused anger and resentment on the part of the Germans? After WWI, Germany had to pay off huge war debts while also dealing with poverty at home. Here children use German marks, worth less than a penny, as building blocks.

3 The Road To War (1931~1941)

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5 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS Why is it important to distinguish between historical facts and interpretations? What kinds of sources offer the best insight into the causes, course, and effects of World War II?

6 TIMELINE 1931 ~ Japan overruns Manchuria 1933 ~ Adolf Hitler is named Chancellor of Germany the same year that FDR is elected president of the United States.

7 TIMELINE ~ continued 1934 – Stalin begins the great purge in the USSR 1934 – Chinese Communists flee in the long march ~ Congress passes the first Neutrality Act. This bans the sale of arms to countries at war.

8 TIMELINE 1936 ~ Italy conquers Ethiopia Roosevelt is reelected ~ Chamberlain and Hitler meet at the Munich Conference.

9 TIMELINE 1939 ~ Invasion of Poland begins WWII 1939 ~ Congress repeals the arms embargo 1940 ~ Roosevelt sends 50 destroyers to Britain in exchange for military bases in the Western Hemisphere ~ Germany defeats France and attacks Britain by air ~ Roosevelt proposes lend-lease program to aid the Allies.

10 TIMELINE 1941 ~ Japan bombs Pearl Harbor and the U.S. enters the war.

11 VOCABULARY TOTALITARIAN FASCISM PURGE NAZISM AXIS POWERS APPEASEMENT

12 KEY PERSONALITIES Adolph Hitler Neville Chamberlain Benito Mussolini Franklin D. Roosevelt Joseph Stalin Winston Churchill Mao Zedong Harry S. Truman Jiang Jieshi

13 Best Supporting Actors General Dwight D. Eisenhower George Marshall Albert Einstein

14 TOTALITARIAN Where the government exerts total control over a nation. It dominates every facet of life. Uses terror to suppress individual rights Silences opposition

15 TOTALITARIAN Hitler acted as a totalitarian when he held the Nuremberg Party Rally. 180,000 people gathered. Lasted one week. Nazi Party had political meetings, parades, and the Oath under the Cathedral of Light. Hitler leads the audience in a holy oath

16 The Faces of Totalitarianism (pg 531) Fascist ItalyNazi GermanyCommunist Soviet Union Extreme nationalism Militaristic expansion Charismatic leader Private property with strong government control Anticommunist Mussolini (El Duce)

17 FASCISM A philosophy of governing style which emphasizes the importance of the nation or an ethnic group AND the supreme authority of the leader.

18 FASCISM Hitler and Mussolini were both fascists. They relied on a strong, dictatorial government Neither one of them respected individual rights and/or freedoms. Historically, Fascists and Communists are fierce enemies, even though they both rely upon a strong, dictatorial government.

19 BENITO MUSSOLINI Italian middle class demanded strong leadership Inflation and unemployment were high Established the Fascist party Preyed upon fear of economic collapse Used NATIONALISM Il Duce the leader Black Shirts – his army Anticommunist Charismatic

20 Il Duce Italy wants peace, work, and calm. I will give these things with love if possible, with force if necessary.

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22 STALIN Focused on creating a Communist state GOALS: Agricultural and Industrial growth Economy – placed under state management 1937 – The Soviet Union had become the worlds second largest industrial power. Millions died from famine caused by this restructuring

23 PURGE A political term that means to remove enemies and undesirable people from power. Stalin used purges to purify his Communist party. The Great Purge began in 1934 with show trials. The only possible verdict was GUILTY. By 1939 his agents arrested 7 million people. A million were executed Several millions ended up in forced labor camps. Most victims were innocent. Purge successfully eliminated all threats to his power.

24 NAZISM A political party – Nazi Party. A form of Fascism In 1919 the Nazi party was small. Otherwise known as the National Socialist German Workers Party Party philosophy was shaped by Hitlers fanatical ideas about German nationalism and racial superiority.

25 ADOLF HITLER Extreme nationalism Forwarded racism – Aryans were a master race Believed in private property with strong government control Anticommunist Der Fuhrer believed Germany needed lebensraum 1932 – Nazi party was strongest

26 Japanese Invade Manchuria

27 MILITARISM IN JAPAN Militarist leaders also believed in the need for living space Japanese militarists seized Manchuria in 1931 Province is rich in natural resources and is about twice the size of Texas League of Nations investigated Japan was condemned Japan quits league

28 FRANCO in Spain Rebelled against the republic 3,000 Americans formed up to fight against Franco in an attempt to stop fascism in Soviet Union sent equipment and advised Hitler and Mussolini to support Franco. Franco becomes Spains fascist dictator. Cost of victory = 500,000 lives The Axis is born

29 LEAGUE of NATIONS Condemned Japan, but did not take action Hitler noticed this and pulled Germany out of the League The League did not even stop Hitler when he violated the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler had sent troops into the Rhineland. Mussolini invades Ethiopia and the League launched an economic boycott

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31 THINK NATIONALISM ~ What is it? Did you say……. Devotion to ones nation??? Nationalism usually suggests that a nations people believe themselves, their ideals, and their goals to be superior to those of other nations. Are YOU a NATIONALIST???

32 AXIS POWERS In 1936 Germanys Hitler signed an agreement with Italys Mussolini. This agreement created what Mussolini called an axis between Rome and Berlin. Germany and Italy, who were joined later by Japan, were known as the Axis Powers.

33 SECTION TWO WAR IN EUROPE

34 VOCABULARY BLITZKRIEG COLLABORATION RESISTANCE ALLIES APPEASEMENT NONAGGRESSION PACT

35 BLITZKRIEG Lightening Warfare Hitler unveiled this strategy during the invasion of Poland. Involved a fast, concentrated air and land attack that took the enemys army by surprise. Stuka (dive-bombing warplane), then the panzers, then the infantry. Using this tactic the German troops overran Poland in less than a month.

36 COLLABORATION Close cooperation General Petain had Vichy France adopt a policy of collaboration with Germany. Vichy France – southern region of France that was the only place left unoccupied by the German army. Vichy was a town that was both a vacation resort as well as the commanding headquarters for the French.

37 ALLIES The group of countries who opposed the Axis Powers. { Great Britain, United States, Soviet Union } { Great Britain, United States, Soviet Union }

38 APPEASEMENT Giving in to a competitors demands. Britain practiced a policy of appeasement in order to keep the peace. Hitler demanded the Sudetenland ~ an industrial region of western Czechoslovakia with a heavily German population.

39 NONAGGRESSION PACT Signed by Stalin and Hitler Promised never to attack each other A second secret pact was signed whereas Hitler agreed to give the Soviet Union a portion of Poland.

40 THE PHONY WAR Once Poland fell, French and British troops sat on the Maginot Line German troops sat on the Siegfried Line staring back a few miles away Sitzkrieg Hitler invades Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands in two months

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42 FALL OF FRANCE Germans trapped 400,000 British and French soldiers at Dunkirk A few days later, Italy entered the war and sided with Germany

43 RESISTANCE Consisted of groups of French citizens who distributed anti-German leaflets. Led by Charles de Gaulle Free France – a government in exile in London Largely an underground movement

44 BATTLE OF BRITAIN The German Luftwaffe began bombing runs over Britain 15 August 1940 – Hitler had 2,000 planes fly over Britain and run bombing raids for two straight months Never in the field of human conflict, was so much owed so many by so few

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47 BATTLE OF BRITAIN Why is this significant? Much of Europe had fallen to German and Soviet aggression. France, Britains chief ally, had surrendered to Germany. The British army had been forced to retreat from the continent. The outcome was crucial because Britain was the last powerful nation in Europe fighting against Germany. Britains victory led Hitler to call off the invasion of Britain indefinitely.

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49 Thanks for playing!

50 SECTION 3 Japan Builds an Empire Food for Thought : Why did Japan look beyond China for future expansion?

51 VOCABULARY MANCHURIAN INCIDENT PUPPET STATE BURMA ROAD GREATER EAST ASIA CO-PROSPERITY SPHERE

52 MANCHURIAN INCIDENT 1900s ~ Japan has a population explosion 1930 ~ Population = 65 million OBVIOUS NEEDS ~ Raw Materials and Markets as well as land to feed her rising population. September 1931 – A Japanese army stationed in Manchuria claimed that Chinese soldiers tried to blow up a railway line. Japanese army captured several cities. Japans government tried to call off the army. By February 1932 – all of Manchuria had been seized.

53 PUPPET STATE Japan announced that the invaded land of Manchuria was now called Manchukuo. Manchukuo was a puppet state. Manchukuo was independent from China, but was ruled / advised by Japanese leaders. DEFINITION: An independent country under the control of a powerful outsider (usually a geographic neighbor).

54 BURMA ROAD A 700 mile long highway linking Burma to China. Presently Burma is Myanmar. Japan had seized the major cities of Beijing and Tianjin by Jiang Jieshi fiercly resisted. Japanese weaponry was far superior. Japan bombed cities. Rape of Nanjing – 100,000 civilians were brutalized or killed by the Japanese soldiers.

55 BURMA ROAD (2) Roosevelt condemned these actions. the epidemic of world lawlessness is spreading He called for a peaceful nations to quarantine themselves. Neutrality Acts Burma road was used by the Soviet Union and Britain. Both sent a steady stream of supplies to the Chinese to help them defend against Japanese invasions.

56 GREATER EAST ASIA CO-PROSPERITY SPHERE A title given to the area of Japanese control which had extended from Manchuria to the Dutch East Indies. Similar to Hitlers Lebensraum (living space).

57 TRIPARTITE PACT 1940 ~ Japan allied itself with Germany and Italy through this pact. Japan is getting ready to challenge the Europeans and the Americans for supremacy in Asia.

58 AMERICA MOVES TOWARD WAR

59 NEUTRALITY ACTS A series of acts which was an attempt to prevent involvement in WWII ~ banned the U.S. from selling weapons to nations at war 1936 ~ banned the U.S. from loaning money to countries at war 1937 ~ permitted trade of nonmilitary goods with warring nations.

60 NEUTRALITY ACTS Roosevelt said that the neutrality acts actually encouraged aggression. What do you think? By the end of 1938 – Italy had conquered Ethiopia, Japan had invaded China and Germany had taken Austria and the Sudetenland. The United States stood back and watched. This was FDRs argument made in hindsight.

61 VOCABULARY NEUTRALITY ACTS CASH AND CARRY AMERICA FIRST COMMITTEE LEND-LEASE ACT

62 CASH AND CARRY An American policy which stated that warring nations could trade nonmilitary good with the U.S. as long as they paid cash and transported the cargo for themselves.

63 AMERICA FIRST COMMITTEE A group of isolationists who wanted to block further aid to Britain ~ France fell to Germany and now Britain stood alone to defend against Hitler. Many Americans wanted to support Britain with all aid short of war 50 destroyers This group was at 800,000 members during at its height.

64 LEND-LEASE ACT Churchill (Britain) told FDR (who had just been reelected to a third term) that his country was nearly bankrupt. The Lend-Lease Act was a program designed by FDR to provide supplies to Britain without expecting immediate payment. Passed in 1941 and gave the president the power to aid any nation whose defense was vital to American security.

65 LEND-LEASE ACT (2) By the end of the war, the United States had extended $49 billion dollars worth of lend-lease aid to 40 nations. Is the United States still neutral??

66 AMERICANS AT WAR 1941 ~ Hitler invades the Soviet Union and Hong Kong falls to Japan. December 7 th, 1941 ~ Japan attacks Pearl Harbor 1942 ~ Japan conquers the Philippines 1942 ~ The U.S. defeats the Japanese navy at the Battle of Midway. Japanese Americans are interned in camps.

67 1943 ~ Jews in the Warsaw ghetto rebel ~ Mussolini is overthrown and Hitler invades Italy 1943 ~ Americans help defeat Axis armies in North Africa ~ American troops in the Pacific take Guadalcanal and begin the island-hopping campaign.

68 D-Day 7 August 1942

69 Marines Cross A River

70 Protecting The Airfield

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73 AMERICANS AT WAR (2) 1944 ~ American and British troops lead the D-Day invasion of France 1944 ~ Japan begins Kamikaze attacks ~ De Gaulle leads Allies into Paris ~ Truman becomes president after FDRs death.

74 AMERICANS AT WAR (3) 1945 ~ American troops liberate Western Germany ~ The United States drops the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945 ~ Hitler commits suicide 1945 ~ Germany and Japan surrender

75 VOCABULARY SELECTIVE TRAINING AND SERVICE ACT GI OFFICE OF WAR MOBILIZATION LIBERTY SHIP VICTORY GARDEN

76 SELECTIVE TRAINING AND SERVICE ACT Required all males aged 21 to 36 to register for military service. Some men were selected from this pool to serve one year in the army. September 1940 ~ First peacetime draft The United States is preparing for war

77 Four Freedoms Speech FDRs vision of what the troops would be fighting for. We look forward to a world founded on four essential freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression….The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way…. The third is freedom from want [need]…. The fourth is freedom from fear.

78 GI Government Issue More than 16 million Americans served as soldiers Soldiers who were getting pounded by enemy gunfire and crossing hot deserts and turbulent seas. Their experience during war was often a daily struggle to stay alive.

79 Office of War Mobilization This office served as the superagency for the centralization of resources The Ford Motor Company was converted to build B-24 Liberator bombers.

80 Liberty Ships Mass production techniques were introduced into shipbuilding. Cut the time to build one ship from 200 days down to 40 days. These were large sturdy merchant ships used to carry both supplies and troops.

81 Victory Garden A home vegetable garden planted to add to the home food supply and to replace farm produce that was being sent to the soldiers. A way to enlist public support from home By 1943 victory gardens produced one third of the countrys fresh vegetables.

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85 Unit 2 ~ Section 2 RETAKING EUROPE

86 VOCABULARY ATLANTIC CHARTER CARPET BOMBING D-DAY BATTLE OF THE BULGE

87 ATLANTIC CHARTER A declaration of principles that were secretly decided upon aboard a warship off the coast of Newfoundland in August of Atlantic Charter members were mainly Winston Churchill and FDR. This becomes the basis for the United Nations.

88 Atlantic Charter

89 CARPET BOMBING A style of bombing where warplanes scatter large numbers of bombs over a wide area. This technique was created by the RAF Initially German and British warplanes tried to pinpoint strategic targets Later resorted to simple carpet bombing

90 The eight principal points of the Charter were: no territorial gains were to be sought by the United States or the United Kingdom; territorial adjustments must be in accord with the wishes of the peoples concerned; all people had a right to self-determination;self-determination trade barriers were to be lowered; trade barriers there was to be global economic cooperation and advancement of social welfare; the participants would work for a world free of want and fear; the participants would work for freedom of the seas;freedom of the seas there was to be disarmament of aggressor nations, and a postwar common disarmament.

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92 D-DAY The day the invasion of Western Europe began. June 6 th 1944 ~ 4,600 English warships 1,000 RAF bombers 23,000 British and American airborne troops 1,000 American bombers 150,000 Allied troops landed on 60 miles of coastline of Normandy, France.

93 D-Day (2) Allies suffered 2,000 casualties at Omaha beach alone Within a week a half a million men had come ashore By late July, the Allied forces in France numbered some 2 million troops

94 BATTLE OF THE BULGE 1944 ~ mid December ~ The name given to the German attack that smashed into the U.S. First Army and pushed it back, forming a bulge in the Allied line. Hitler was using thousands of 15 year old soldiers as new draftees to reinforce his line. Largest battle in Western Europe Largest battle ever fought by the U.S. Army Involved 600,000 GIs 80,000 killed, wounded or captured German losses totaled 100,000

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