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The Final Frost Barrier!a magazine advertisement for General Motors Frost-Proof Imperial Freezer (1959). NEXT The Cold War and the American Dream, 1945–1960.

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Presentation on theme: "The Final Frost Barrier!a magazine advertisement for General Motors Frost-Proof Imperial Freezer (1959). NEXT The Cold War and the American Dream, 1945–1960."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Final Frost Barrier!a magazine advertisement for General Motors Frost-Proof Imperial Freezer (1959). NEXT The Cold War and the American Dream, 1945–1960 Conflict develops between the United States and the Soviet Union. Americans react to the economic prosperity and rapid change of the postwar period.

2 NEXT SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 Peacetime Adjustments and the Cold War The Korean War and McCarthyism The Fifties The Cold War and the American Dream, 1945–1960

3 NEXT Americans look for prosperity after World War II. They also fight Communism in the Cold War. Section 1 Peacetime Adjustments and the Cold War

4 Adjusting to Peace NEXT Industries lay off workers, returning servicemen flood job market 1 SECTION Veterans win out over female workers for jobs Peacetime Adjustments and the Cold War Women get jobs in traditional womens fields, office work, teaching Image

5 NEXT 1 SECTION People want more goods, factories start making needed products William Levitt applies assembly-line technique to home building Demand for goods increases, prices skyrocket Controls on prices lifted, people have money, few goods to buy The Postwar Economy Start mass-producing affordable homes to meet demand for houses Chart

6 NEXT 1 SECTION Over 1 million workers join strikes, includes railway workers (1946) African Americans still face prejudice, especially in the South WW II raises hopes of African Americans for more equality President Harry S. Truman threatens to draft railway workers into army Truman backs off issues, makes equal rights national issue Truman wants Congress to pass equal rights laws, South resists proposals Labor Unrest and Civil Rights

7 The Fair Deal NEXT 1 SECTION Republican Congress blocks Trumans proposals, limits power of unions Truman takes campaign to the people, wins upset victory Few people believe Truman will win 1948 presidential election Republicans, Southern Democrats block most of the programs Calls for Fair Deal, projects that: -create jobs, build public housing, end discrimination in hiring Chart

8 Origins of the Cold War 1 SECTION The West, Soviets allied against Nazis, Soviets free Eastern Europe U.S. thinks Soviet leader Joseph Stalin wants to spread Communism Does not want anti-Soviet governments on the borders of Soviet Union Stalin promises free elections but imposes Communism in Eastern Europe Cold WarU.S./Soviet conflict, never directly fight on battlefield NEXT Chart

9 Containing Communism Abroad NEXT 1 SECTION Containmentuse military, non-military ways to contain Communism Soviet Union, Eastern Europe form Warsaw Pact North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): -includes U.S., Canada, 10 Western European countries -formed to counteract Communist control of Eastern Europe Truman Doctrinepromises to aid people resisting threats to democracy Map

10 Marshall Plan and Berlin Airlift 1 SECTION Marshall Plan$13 billion to help rebuild Western, Southern Europe After WW II, Germany is divided into 4 zones controlled by: -Soviet Union -United States -France -Great Britain Berlin in Soviet zone, city divided between East, West powers Continued... NEXT

11 1 SECTION Soviets afraid Western powers will unite Germany Block access to Berlin, Truman approves Berlin airlift: -U.S., British planes carry supplies to citys residents continued Marshall Plan and Berlin Airlift Soviets call off blockade, Germany divided into: -Communist East Germany -Democratic West Germany Map

12 Fear of Communism at Home 1 SECTION Fear of Communism in the U.S. grows Alger Hiss accused of giving military info to Soviets, sentenced 5 years Ethel, Julius Rosenberg executed for passing atomic secrets to Russians NEXT President Truman orders loyalty checks for federal workers House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) issues blacklists: -names people (many in movie industry) thought to be Communists Image

13 The Cold War and the Korean War produce a far-reaching form of AntiCommunism. Section 2 The Korean War and McCarthyism NEXT

14 Origins of the Korean War NEXT 2 SECTION Communists defeat U.S.-supported nationalists in China After WW II Korea is divided at the 38th parallel, or line of latitude: -Soviets troops north of parallel -U.S. troops south of parallel Communist takeover of China fuels Americans fear of communism Mao Zedong becomes head of Communist China The Korean War and McCarthyism Soviets aid Communist government in North Korea

15 Fighting Breaks Out in Korea NEXT 2 SECTION North Korean forces cross 38th parallel into South Korea North Koreans push South Koreans to Pusan Korean WarNorth Korean forces fight U.S., UN, South Korean forces Pursue enemy into North Korea MacArthur, troops push North Koreans back across 38th parallel U.S. General MacArthur commands UN forces Women serve in armed forces, also join Army, Navy Nurse Corps Map

16 China Enters the Conflict NEXT 2 SECTION China warns UN forces not to advance further, UN ignores warning President Truman denies MacArthurs request to blockade, bomb China Chinese troops force UN troops south to the 38th parallel Truman fires MacArthur, orders him home MacArthur goes over the presidents head to win support: -speaks, writes to newspapers, magazine publishers -writes Republican leaders

17 War Ends in Stalemate 2 SECTION Korean War becomes unpopular in U.S., truce talks begin Republican General Dwight D. Eisenhower wins presidency (1952) Agrees to a compromise to end the war (July 1953) 2 Koreas left where they had been in 1950, border near 38th parallel Communism is contained in Korea NEXT

18 McCarthy and Communism NEXT 2 SECTION Senator Joseph McCarthy uses Korean War to fan fear of Communism Senate holds Army-McCarthy hearings: -McCarthy accuses Army of coddling Communists -Army accuses McCarthy of improper conduct Term McCarthyism stands for reckless charges against innocent Conducts hunt for Communists in U.S. that ruins the careers of many Image

19 Eisenhower and the Cold War 2 SECTION Secretary of State John Foster Dulles favors brinkmanship: -U.S. going to the brink of war to combat Communism Arms raceU.S., Soviets race to develop more destructive weapons Continued... U.S. builds hydrogen bomb, H-bomb, Soviets soon develop weapon U.S., Soviet Union help allies, weaken enemies around the world NEXT Chart

20 NEXT 2 SECTION Britain, U.S. withdraws aid to Soviet-friendly Egypt Egypt seizes Suez Canal; Britain, U.S., Israel attack Egypt continued Eisenhower and the Cold War Soviet Union threatens to support Egypt, UN imposes cease-fire Space raceU.S., Soviet Union race to build satellites in space Soviets shoot down U.S. spy plane, talks, U.S., Soviets collapse Image

21 NEXT Section 3 The Fifties With the United States locked in a Cold War, social and economic changes take place in American life.

22 The Domestic Scene in the Fifties NEXT In 1957, one out of every five live in poverty, many live in cities 3 SECTION More well-to-do move to suburbsresidential areas surrounding a city Mexican immigrants increase greatly, many cross border illegally The Fifties Some Mexicans stay in U.S. illegally after bracero program ends President Eisenhower pleases liberals, conservatives Keeps most New Deal programs, sets up Highway Act (1956)

23 Changes Sweep America 3 SECTION During 1950s, U.S. has baby boomsharp birthrate increase after WW II Car sales explode because owning a car in the suburbs is a necessity Shopping centers, restaurants built on former farmland, serve suburbs Baby boom spurs growth of suburbs Many people move to sunbeltwarmer states in South, Southwest NEXT

24 The American Dream in the Fifties 3 SECTION Life for millions of white Americans in suburbs, the American Dream Women have defined roles, limited job choices, some feel confined Critics, people in suburbs forced to fit mold, willing to conform Enjoy good schools, shopping malls, safe environment Owning the latest car, appliance is symbol of social standing, success Industry churns out goods, advertising encourages consumers to buy NEXT Chart Image

25 Pop Culture and Rock n Roll NEXT 3 SECTION Hollywood cranks out westerns, musicals, romances Sitcoms show what many consider to be ideal families Popularity of TV causes movie attendance to drop Rock n Rollstyle of popular music, has black, white musicians Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, beatniks criticize shallow U.S. society Elvis Presley becomes the king of rock n roll Chart Image

26 The Election of 1960 NEXT 3 SECTION 1960 presidential election, one of closest in U.S. history Kennedy, Nixon stage 1st televised presidential debates Richard M. Nixon, Republican candidate Senator John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Democratic candidate Kennedys youthful energy, confidence helps him to win Kennedy is nations youngest president, 1st Catholic president

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