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The Cold War and the American Dream, 1945–1960

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1 The Cold War and the American Dream, 1945–1960
Conflict develops between the United States and the Soviet Union. Americans react to the economic prosperity and rapid change of the postwar period. The Final Frost Barrier!—a magazine advertisement for General Motors’ Frost-Proof Imperial Freezer (1959). NEXT

2 The Cold War and the American Dream, 1945–1960
SECTION 1 Peacetime Adjustments and the Cold War SECTION 2 The Korean War and McCarthyism SECTION 3 The Fifties NEXT

3 Peacetime Adjustments and the Cold War
Section 1 Peacetime Adjustments and the Cold War Americans look for prosperity after World War II. They also fight Communism in the Cold War. NEXT

4 Peacetime Adjustments and the Cold War
1 SECTION Peacetime Adjustments and the Cold War Adjusting to Peace • Industries lay off workers, returning servicemen flood job market • Veterans win out over female workers for jobs • Women get jobs in traditional women’s fields, office work, teaching Image NEXT

5 1 SECTION The Postwar Economy • People want more goods, factories start making needed products • Controls on prices lifted, people have money, few goods to buy • Demand for goods increases, prices skyrocket • William Levitt applies assembly-line technique to home building • Start mass-producing affordable homes to meet demand for houses Chart NEXT

6 Labor Unrest and Civil Rights
1 SECTION Labor Unrest and Civil Rights • Over 1 million workers join strikes, includes railway workers (1946) • President Harry S. Truman threatens to draft railway workers into army • WW II raises hopes of African Americans for more equality • African Americans still face prejudice, especially in the South • Truman wants Congress to pass equal rights laws, South resists proposals • Truman backs off issues, makes equal rights national issue NEXT

7 1 SECTION The Fair Deal • Republican Congress blocks Truman’s proposals, limits power of unions • Few people believe Truman will win 1948 presidential election • Truman takes campaign to the people, wins upset victory Chart • Calls for Fair Deal, projects that: - create jobs, build public housing, end discrimination in hiring • Republicans, Southern Democrats block most of the programs NEXT

8 1 SECTION Origins of the Cold War Chart • The West, Soviets allied against Nazis, Soviets free Eastern Europe • Stalin promises free elections but imposes Communism in Eastern Europe • Does not want anti-Soviet governments on the borders of Soviet Union • U.S. thinks Soviet leader Joseph Stalin wants to spread Communism • Cold War—U.S./Soviet conflict, never directly fight on battlefield NEXT

9 Containing Communism Abroad
1 SECTION Containing Communism Abroad • Containment—use military, non-military ways to contain Communism • Truman Doctrine—promises to aid people resisting threats to democracy • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): - includes U.S., Canada, 10 Western European countries - formed to counteract Communist control of Eastern Europe • Soviet Union, Eastern Europe form Warsaw Pact Map NEXT

10 Marshall Plan and Berlin Airlift
1 SECTION Marshall Plan and Berlin Airlift • Marshall Plan—$13 billion to help rebuild Western, Southern Europe • After WW II, Germany is divided into 4 zones controlled by: - Soviet Union - United States - France - Great Britain • Berlin in Soviet zone, city divided between East, West powers Continued . . . NEXT

11 • Soviets afraid Western powers will unite Germany
1 SECTION continued Marshall Plan and Berlin Airlift • Soviets afraid Western powers will unite Germany • Block access to Berlin, Truman approves Berlin airlift: - U.S., British planes carry supplies to city’s residents Map • Soviets call off blockade, Germany divided into: - Communist East Germany - Democratic West Germany NEXT

12 Fear of Communism at Home
1 SECTION Fear of Communism at Home • Fear of Communism in the U.S. grows • Alger Hiss accused of giving military info to Soviets, sentenced 5 years • Ethel, Julius Rosenberg executed for passing atomic secrets to Russians • President Truman orders loyalty checks for federal workers • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) issues blacklists: - names people (many in movie industry) thought to be Communists Image NEXT

13 The Korean War and McCarthyism
Section 2 The Korean War and McCarthyism The Cold War and the Korean War produce a far-reaching form of AntiCommunism. NEXT

14 The Korean War and McCarthyism
2 SECTION The Korean War and McCarthyism Origins of the Korean War • Communists defeat U.S.-supported nationalists in China • Mao Zedong becomes head of Communist China • Communist takeover of China fuels Americans’ fear of communism • After WW II Korea is divided at the 38th parallel, or line of latitude: - Soviets troops north of parallel - U.S. troops south of parallel • Soviets aid Communist government in North Korea NEXT

15 Fighting Breaks Out in Korea
2 SECTION Fighting Breaks Out in Korea Map • North Korean forces cross 38th parallel into South Korea • Korean War—North Korean forces fight U.S., UN, South Korean forces • U.S. General MacArthur commands UN forces • North Koreans push South Koreans to Pusan • MacArthur, troops push North Koreans back across 38th parallel • Pursue enemy into North Korea • Women serve in armed forces, also join Army, Navy Nurse Corps NEXT

16 China Enters the Conflict
2 SECTION China Enters the Conflict • China warns UN forces not to advance further, UN ignores warning • Chinese troops force UN troops south to the 38th parallel • President Truman denies MacArthur’s request to blockade, bomb China • MacArthur goes over the president’s head to win support: - speaks, writes to newspapers, magazine publishers - writes Republican leaders • Truman fires MacArthur, orders him home NEXT

17 2 SECTION War Ends in Stalemate • Korean War becomes unpopular in U.S., truce talks begin • Republican General Dwight D. Eisenhower wins presidency (1952) • Agrees to a compromise to end the war (July 1953) • 2 Koreas left where they had been in 1950, border near 38th parallel • Communism is contained in Korea NEXT

18 McCarthy and Communism
2 SECTION McCarthy and Communism • Senator Joseph McCarthy uses Korean War to fan fear of Communism • Conducts hunt for Communists in U.S. that ruins the careers of many • Term McCarthyism stands for reckless charges against innocent • Senate holds Army-McCarthy hearings: - McCarthy accuses Army of “coddling Communists” - Army accuses McCarthy of improper conduct Image NEXT

19 Eisenhower and the Cold War
2 SECTION Eisenhower and the Cold War • Secretary of State John Foster Dulles favors brinkmanship: - U.S. going to the brink of war to combat Communism • Arms race—U.S., Soviets race to develop more destructive weapons Chart • U.S. builds hydrogen bomb, H-bomb, Soviets soon develop weapon • U.S., Soviet Union help allies, weaken enemies around the world Continued . . . NEXT

20 • Britain, U.S. withdraws aid to Soviet-friendly Egypt
2 SECTION continued Eisenhower and the Cold War • Britain, U.S. withdraws aid to Soviet-friendly Egypt • Egypt seizes Suez Canal; Britain, U.S., Israel attack Egypt • Soviet Union threatens to support Egypt, UN imposes cease-fire • Space race—U.S., Soviet Union race to build satellites in space Image • Soviets shoot down U.S. spy plane, talks, U.S., Soviets collapse NEXT

21 Section 3 The Fifties With the United States locked in a Cold War, social and economic changes take place in American life. NEXT

22 The Fifties The Domestic Scene in the Fifties 3
SECTION The Fifties The Domestic Scene in the Fifties • In 1957, one out of every five live in poverty, many live in cities • More well-to-do move to suburbs—residential areas surrounding a city • Mexican immigrants increase greatly, many cross border illegally • Some Mexicans stay in U.S. illegally after bracero program ends • President Eisenhower pleases liberals, conservatives • Keeps most New Deal programs, sets up Highway Act (1956) NEXT

23 3 SECTION Changes Sweep America • During 1950s, U.S. has baby boom—sharp birthrate increase after WW II • Baby boom spurs growth of suburbs • Shopping centers, restaurants built on former farmland, serve suburbs • Car sales explode because owning a car in the suburbs is a necessity • Many people move to sunbelt—warmer states in South, Southwest NEXT

24 The American Dream in the Fifties
3 SECTION The American Dream in the Fifties • Life for millions of white Americans in suburbs, the American Dream • Enjoy good schools, shopping malls, safe environment • Critics, people in suburbs forced to fit mold, willing to conform • Women have defined roles, limited job choices, some feel confined • Industry churns out goods, advertising encourages consumers to buy Chart • Owning the latest car, appliance is symbol of social standing, success Image NEXT

25 Pop Culture and Rock ’n’ Roll
3 SECTION Pop Culture and Rock ’n’ Roll • Hollywood cranks out westerns, musicals, romances • Popularity of TV causes movie attendance to drop Chart • Sitcoms show what many consider to be ideal families • Rock ’n’ Roll—style of popular music, has black, white musicians • Elvis Presley becomes the king of rock ’n’ roll Image • Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, “beatniks” criticize shallow U.S. society NEXT

26 3 SECTION The Election of 1960 • 1960 presidential election, one of closest in U.S. history • Senator John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Democratic candidate • Richard M. Nixon, Republican candidate • Kennedy, Nixon stage 1st televised presidential debates • Kennedy’s youthful energy, confidence helps him to win • Kennedy is nation’s youngest president, 1st Catholic president NEXT

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