Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE SEARCH"— Presentation transcript:
1INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE SEARCH A Brief Guide to Information Searching for Students of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Madaprepared by Literature Searching TeamLibrary, Faculty of Medicine, UGM 2012
2OUTLINE : What is literature search? Background of literature search Types of publicationsSearch toolsStages in searchingTips for Effective Searches
3WHAT IS LITERATURE SEARCH? Literature search is an exhaustive search for published information on a subject conducted systematically using all available bibliographic finding tools, aimed at locating as much existing material on the topic as possible, an important initial step of any serious research project.
4BACKGROUND OF LITERATURE SEARCH Availability of various types of academic/scientific publications that support learning, teaching, and research activities.These publications are growing enormously over years, in line with the advancement of information and communication technology.Literature search is one of core academic skills that students and academicians as learned societies need to master to help in learning, doing research project or other academic tasks.
5OBJECTIVES OF LITERATURE SEARCHING AT FM UGM To introduce types of scientific publications in health/medicineTo introduce search tools used in literature searchTo introduce scientific publications available locally at the Library, Faculty of Medicine, GMU and show how to access and locate themTo introduce health information on the Internet (online resources) and how to access themTo practice searching
7SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS Written by and aimed at academic community (students, lecturers, researchers, experts)Disseminate research findingsArticles cite resources and are peer reviewedHigh quality and reliable informationSlow to be published due to review processAccess if often fee-based
8NON SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS Entertaining, relaxingReadable and light weightCurrent, popular issues/topicsNot always reliableTransient, easily replaced by newer issues
9CHALLENGES IN LITERATURE SEARCH Growing quantity of publications may cause problems in searching and browsing (recall vs precision)Quality of information (unreliable for some reasons)Availability of information neededConstraints in access due to various reasons (technical, economical, policy)
10SKILLS IN LITERATURE SEARCH Able to identify various kinds of publicationsAble to know and use various search toolsAble to conduct efficient and effective searches and implement relevant search strategiesAble to evaluate the quality of information
12CATALOGA comprehensive list of the books, periodicals, maps, and other materials in a given collection, arranged in systematic order to facilitate retrieval (usually by author, title, and/or subject).In most modern libraries, the card catalog has been converted to machine-readable bibliographic records and is available online.
13WEB SEARCH ENGINEA web search engine is a tool to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are usually presented in a list of results and are commonly called hits. The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_search_engine)Search engines:Google and Google Scholar – find out the differences
14SEARCH TERMSSearch term are sometimes also referred as keywords. They can be a subject, topic, or any distinct word used as a point of access.Using appropriate search terms is essential in the process of searching.Thus, before conducting a search it is necessary to brainstorm for possible search terms that represent our search queries.
15SUBJECT HEADINGSSubject headings are a list of controlled language commonly used to classify library material housed in the collection. They represent the key topic of a publication.An example is MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM)
16BOOLEAN LOGICBoolean is a system of logic developed by the English mathematician George Boole ( ) that allows the user to combine words or phrases representing significant concepts when searching an online catalog or bibliographic database by keywords. (http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/searchODLIS.aspx)Logical commands or “operators” commonly used in searching are AND, OR and NOT.In some databases AND operator is represented by a symbol + and sometimes it is only used implicitly (no need to type it between terms).
17AND Operator (to combine two concepts and narrow a search) BOOLEAN OPERATORAND Operator (to combine two concepts and narrow a search)the AND operator is used to combine two concepts e.g. hip AND fracture – in the shaded area; retrieves items containing all the search terms
18BOOLEAN OPERATOR OR Operator (to broaden search by including synonyms and related terms in the query)renal OR kidney – in the shaded area with the overlap in the middle having both search terms; retrieves items containing either search term or both search terms
19(to exclude unwanted records from search results) BOOLEAN OPERATORNOT operator(to exclude unwanted records from search results)pig NOT guinea – in the shaded area; eliminates items in 2nd term (guinea) or both terms
20GROUPING/NESTINGNesting, represented by symbol ( ), is a technique of searching that considers similar concepts, indicated by logical command OR and expressed in different terms, as a single term.Examples :(fever OR febrile)(paracetamol OR acetaminophen)(kidney OR renal)
21TRUNCATION/WILDCARDTruncation is a searching technique used in database in which a word ending is replaced by simbols.(http://library-resources.cqu.edu.au/learning-objects/truncation.htm)Symbol of truncation can be (*) , (?) or ($) depending on the databaseExamples :When we type child* the result of our search will be documents that contain the words child, children, childhood, or childcare
22LIMITS/FILTERSMost databases offer limit functions to help users limit search results that are too broad or too manyLimits are commonly specified according to:- date of publication- type of publications (books, journals, news, etc)- age group- language- sex (male/female)- type of files
23STAGE IN SEARCHING Define search topics Choose appropriate search terms/keywords that represent the topicDecide where to search/which sources to use (e.g. library catalog, online databases)Develop search strategy by optimizing search toolsObserve search resultsRevise the search as necessary
24SEARCHING IN PUBMED: An example Search Phrase Pubmed ( 30-07-2012) (child* OR infant*)2,191,167(child* OR infant) AND malaria OR tuberculosis210,899(child* OR infant*) AND malaria AND tuberculosis466(child* OR infant*) AND malaria OR tuberculosis AND Southeast Asia2,29922
25TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE SEARCHES Plan your search – identify the words that represent the topic of your searchAvoid using too broad or general terms, use specific terms instead to get limited but relevant results.Use limit/filter functions as necessaryCreate an account. Most online databases allow you to sign up for an account/personal folder in their database that helps you manage searches, search results or references, set up preferences, alerts, and many others.
26SEARCHING PRACTICE AT FM UGM Sessions for searching practice are carried out in smaller groups of students at different slot of time; some are undertaken in parallel.The materials include local collections (books, journals, research papers, multimedia) and online databases (ScienceDirect, EBSCO Medline with Full Text, Pubmed, ClinicalKey and other relevant sources in the Internet).Grouping of students in smaller size will be announced prior to practice.
27This Power Point Presentation is compiled by Team of Literature SearchingLibrary Faculty of Medicine, UGM.