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A Brief History of ELT Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "A Brief History of ELT Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Brief History of ELT Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

2 LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TIME 1: ? - Меnd. - Mend. - Chini nern kemb? - Mini nern Kermen. Chini nern kemb? - Mini nern Anton. - Tanla tanldkhdan bairldzhanav! - Tanla tanldkhdan bairldzhanav! Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

3 REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

4 POLAND Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

5 YOU 1.Find someone who was born in the same month as you. 2.Find someone who likes the same food. 3.Find someone who likes your favourite movie. 4.Find someone who likes your favourite book. 5.Find someone who has similar hobbies as yourself. Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

6 YOU AS A TEACHER 1.What does your classroom look like? 2.Whats the most important thing about your lessons? 3.Whats necessary for students to be successful? 4.What are your favourite activities? 5.How do you feel about using technology in the classroom? 6.How do you and your students feel in class, before and after? Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

7 YOUR TEACHING ASSOCIATIONS?, Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

8 YOUR ELT GURUS Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

9 LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TIME 2: LATIN Errare humanum est. Veritas vos liberabit. Vox populi vox dei. Amor vincit omnia. Facta non verba. In vino veritas. Memento mori. Tempus fugit. Nil desperandum. Docendo discimus. Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

10 METHODS, APPROACHES, PROCEDURES, TECHNIQUES ? Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

11 METHODS, APPROACHES, PROCEDURES, TECHNIQUES Approach – theories about the nature of language and language learning; it describes how people learn languages and conditions for successful learning Method – practical realization of the approach; a set of procedures and techniques Technique – e.g. running dictation or silent viewing Procedure – an ordered sequence of technique Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

12 What is a BLT sandwich? Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

13 What is a BLT sandwich? Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

14 ELT BLTs PPP, TTT, ARC, DOGME, TPR, CLL, TBL, ESA, CLIL, 121, LAD Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

15 ELT METHODS TIMELINE Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

16 ELT METHODS TIMELINE 1800 Grammar Translation 1900 Direct Method 1930 The Oral Approach/Situational Language Learning 1945 The Audio-Lingual Method 1950 Silent Way Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

17 ELT METHODS TIMELINE 1970 Suggestopedia 1970 Total Physical Response 1970 Neuro Linguistic Programming 1977 The Natural Approach 1980 Communicative Approach 1983 Multiple Intelligences 1987 Task Based Learning 1990 Lexical Approach 2002 Dogme Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

18 Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012 LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TIME 3: GERMAN

19 Ein Mann geht ins Lokal, sucht die Dame seiner Wahl. Und mit Worten oed und schal bringt dieselbe er zu Fall. Und das geht so: Dideldum didieldei, ist da noch ein Platzerl frei? So allein, schoene Frau? Mei san ihre Augen blau! Tirili, irgendwie,tirilo, kenn' ich Sie von irgendwo. Schalali, schalala, Herr Ober, bringen's uns no zwa!! Pommery, Pommeru, stoss' ma an und sog'n ma Du! Und weil wir so einsam san, trink' ma aus und geh'n ma ham. Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

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21 DIRECT METHOD the Natural Method (Saveur) leading to the Direct Method (Berlitz) 1900s revolutionary, encouraging direct and spontaneous use of language classroom instructions only in target language only every day vocabulary and sentences taught oral progression through systematic question-answer exchanges between teacher and students use of demonstration, objects, pictures Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

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23 THE ORAL APPROACH / SITUATIONAL LANGUAGE LEARNING movement lead by Palmer and Hornby in 1930s vocabulary control (frequency studies) focus on grammar content selection (spoken language grammar) principles of selection, gradation, presentation new language practised situationally Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

24 LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TIME 4: FRENCH Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

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31 54ho Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

32 AUDIO- LINGUALISM 1945 stems from behaviourist models of learning stimulus – response – reinforcement drills used to form habits language de-contextualised Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

33 so Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

34 THE SILENT WAY by Caleb Gategno, 1950s teacher says as little as possible learner discovers and creates language learner in the driving seat, teacher facilitates Cuisenaire rods, pointing at objects Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

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36 NOAM CHOMSKY ON LANGUAGE ACQUISITION CARTOON s Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School nFJk&feature=related What are the main points?

37 NOAM CHOMSKY THEORY OF ACQUISITION 1950s – 1970s principle of innateness children have natural pre-condition for language learning babies are born with the innate knowledge of language structure LAD is a mental model of how languages work Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

38 STEPHEN KRAHSEN ON LANGUAGE ACQUISITION s Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

39 LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TIME 6: ENGLISH an outrageous statement the age of individual variation digest food to point out counter examples comprehensible input come as a bit of surprise emerge gradually break into component parts silent period teachers fault affective filter hypothesis Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

40 THE NATURAL APPROACH By Steven Krashen, 1970s all students learn in the same way comprehensible input in a low anxiety environment speaking does not help learning the quiet listening stage motivation / self-esteem / zero anxiety Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

41 LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TIME 7: ITALIANO CANTARE CHITARRA PIANO ITALIANO BUON GIORNO AL DENTE PRESIDENTE FINESTRA ARTISTI AMORE MARIA MALINCONIA CAFE RISTRETTO Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

42 OVER TO YOU NLP MI Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

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44 Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School =yX4JFEUgqlg Lonny Gold 1/5 Lonny loves teaching and baroque music

45 SUGGESTOPAEDIA by Georgi Lozanov, 1970s physical surroundings and atmosphere in the classroom infantilisation, parent-teacher relationship part 1: oral review, previously learnt material used for discussion part 2: presentation and discussion of new dialogue material part 3: concert – baroque music and listening to teacher reading the dialogue music frequently used in class Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

46 LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TIME 8 MAYBE Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

47 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE by James Asher foreign language learning similar to first language acquisition actions, physical response language processing matched with physical response pre-speaking stage important qyQA [Gerngross] qyQA Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

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50 Nim Chimpsky The story of Nim, the chimpanzee who in the 1970s became the focus of a landmark experiment which aimed to show that an ape could learn to communicate with language if raised and nurtured like a human child. dscreen&NR=1&v=-qXJMFxiEyU Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

51 LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TIME 9: ENGLISH Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

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53 COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING by Charles Curran, a Jesuit priest and professor in psychology in Chicago students sit in a circle students decide what they want to talk about a counsellor standing on the outside provides correct language students utterances recorded to be analyzed later class is community Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

54 HUMANISTIC TEACHING influenced by CLL and Suggestopaedia Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Classroom, Gertrude Moscowitz making students feel good and remember happy times while at the same time practising the language working with real lives and feelings using the students themselves as the topic [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U6s3XAtfG0Q[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U6s3XAtfG0Q] Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

55 THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH a desire to communicate a communicative purpose content not form variety of language no teacher intervention no materials control Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

56 PRESENTATION, PRACTICE, PRODUCTION A variation on audio-lingualism a situation gives context P: presentation makes use of a picture P: cue-response drill practice P: production: immediate creativity Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

57 TBL - TASK BASED LEARNING popularized by N Prabhu, working with schools in India 1985 focus on non-linguistic problem deep end strategy stages: pre-task / task cycle / language focus teacher no longer in control Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

58 WWW Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

59 THE INTERNET The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2011, more than 2.2 billion people – nearly a third of Earth's population use the services of the Internet. [1]commercializationEarth's population [1]

60 Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

61 MOVIES INSPIRED ELT METHODOLOGY? Dogme'95 is the movement of filmmaking within avant-garde. The movement started in 1995 by Lars Von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg, Danish directors and creators of the Vow of Chastity, a signed transcript for all Dogme'95 Filmmakers to certify that their work follows the Dogme'95 manifesto and rules. 0 Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

62 OVER TO YOU CLIL DOGME Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

63 DOGME, SCOTT THORNBURY popularized by Scott Thornbury (2002) interactivity and engagement dialogic processes and scaffolded conversations emergence, affordance voice, empowerement critical use, relevance Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

64 CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING foreign language used as the medium to introduce curriculum subjects e.g. Vichy France, Nazi Germany, the Spanish Civil War builds intercultural knowledge and understanding develops intercultural communication skills increases learners' motivation and confidence in both the language and the subject being taught Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

65 THE SECRET HISTORY OF METHODS SCOTT THORNBURY AT NEW SCHOOL, NEW YORK 2U Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

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67 HOW DO TEENAGERS LEARN TODAY? sourrounded by info, news, films in English modern tools curiosty independence in need of entertainment in need of respect teacher as a facebook friend Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

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70 KHAN ACADEMY interviews/v/khan-academy--the-future-of- education 1.Whats different about it? 2.Whats the role of the teacher? 3.What are the implications for ELT? Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

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72 WHY ARE WE DOING IT? &feature=youtu.be Magdalena Fijalkowska, Warsaw Summer School 2012

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