2What is a Skill? Personal Definition: Definition of Skill: This is something that is gained as opposed to something that you already have. Skill involves learning via practice and experience.Definition of Skill:The capability of producing a performance result with maximum certainty, minimum energy, or minimum time; developed as a result of practice.
3A Skilled Performer learns to be effective and efficient in…. 1. Meeting the performance goal or ‘end result’ with maximum certainty e.g a dart player throwing into the bulls eye with a high degree of certainty on demand.2. Minimization of the energy required for performance i.e. the reduction or elimination of unwanted or unnecessary movement e.g a skilled wrestler who saves energy for the last few minutes of a match.3. Minimising the movement time in which the goal is achieved e.g sprinter or jab of a boxer
4Factors Influencing Your Performance Ability LevelA Person’s ability is dependent on genetics as well as environment e.g. the reason someone is physically strong could be a result of their natural body type or because they are involved in strenuous physical activity.Learners displaying greater levels of strength, co-ordination, balance or reflexes cope with demands of a new skill better than others. This occurs due to upbringing or can be a genetic advantage through what sort of build they have.
5Ability LevelAbilitylevelGenesChemical material passed on through family members from one generation to the next. Determines our physical characteristics, strengths and weaknessesEnvironmentBackground we have experienced growing up in- what we have experienced, who has influenced us e.g. playing on bars and beams, children learn balance and develop strength and co-ordination.Allows a person to develop in certain areas- effects can be positive and negative.
6Previous ExperienceA person with previous experience in an activity (iefamiliar with skills, rules etc) will be morecomfortable performing the activity than someonewho is performing the activity for the first time,simply because they know what to do.Learning a new skill can take hundreds of hours toperfect. The practicing of a skill involves refiningtechnique in order to eliminate errors from themovement pattern. Those who have had previousexperience are more advanced in working throughthese phases than those who have had noexperience.
7SkillUsually had some advice or coaching on how to perform the main skills needed to participate in the activityEquipmentMore likely to be better prepared because they know what equipment is ideally needed for the activity.Rules and TacticsKnows the basic rules and patterns of play needed to participate in the activity successfully
8Negative ExperiencesPeople who have had negative experiences associated with an activity may be discouraged (and my discourage others) from wanting to participate in the activity in the future. E.g. Someone who couldn’t do it well and got laughed at by players and coach so therefore hates the sport
9Transfer of Learning Positive transfer Information or skills related to one topic/sport can sometimes becarried over to help or hinder the acquisition of information or skillsrelated to another topic/sport.Positive transfer- Recognizes common features among concepts, principles, or skills;- Consciously links the information in memory; and- Sees the value of using what was learned in one situation in anotherNegative Transfer- Learner incorrectly believes there are common features- Improperly links the information while encoding it- Incorrectly sees some value in using information from one setting in anotherE.g. Skill at tennis may cause a person to make mistakes at Badminton.
10Skill & Knowledge of a Sequence These phases apply to all movements of skill performance.Preparation phase- The person is preparing the body for the movement they are about to complete.Execution phase- the movement itself is completedFollow-through phase- the body slows down in controlled manner to prevent injury and allow the execution phase to be completed at maximumBack-Swing(Preparation phase)Action(Execution phase)Effect phase(Follow-through)
11Sub-RoutinesAll skills are made up of individual parts called sub routines. All sub-routines must be mastered and performed in the correct order to perform a skill successfully. E.g’s of subroutines are grip, body position, swing or strike, a weight transfer and follow through.Sub routines can be used to help mental psychology/choking e.g Sharapova or Nadal
12Amount & Quality of Practice Role of Practice? What is it?Practice allows a person to become familiar with therequirements of a skill. Practice is very important in masteringa skill, as it allows the performer to repeat a movement overand over again, reinforcing through succeeding and failing.
13Massed Practice Massed Practice Learning that takes place under conditionsin which all practice trials occur with nointerval between - in other word, in onecontinuous period of time. These sessionsare good for athletes with high level offitness and experience and are mostsuited to fixed practicee.g. perform 50 baseball pitches, practice tennis serve for 1 hour
14Distributed Practice Distributed Practice Distributed practice is a technique whereby the studentdistributes his/her study effort in a given course overmany study sessions that are relatively short in duration.These sessions are good for athletes with lower levels offitness and experience and are most suited to variablepracticee.g. work on forward rolls for 5mins, then spend 5 mins ofhandstands, repeat after 2 minute break, do 10 lineouts,10 scrums and then 10 ruck/maul drills
15Skill Break Down Simple Skill Complex Skill A simple skill is one that is straightforward with very fewsubsections to go through to perform the skill. This skill alsorequires little concentration and cognitive ability of theperformer.Complex SkillA complex skill involves a large attention span because theyare complicated and are practiced in training repeatedly tomake it easier to perform in competition.
16Simple Skill Complex Skill Catching ball with 2 hands Catching over longer distanceCatching with one handCatching one hand while runningCatching with bad handCatching ball with one hand while doing another movement, i.e. runningComplex Skill
17Open SkillOpen SkillSports such as Netball, Football, and Hockey usually involveopen skills. This is because the environment is constantlychanging and so movements have to be continually adapted.Therefore, skills are predominantly perceptual. The skill ismostly externally paced, for example a pass in football.
18Closed Skill Closed skills. These skills take place in a stable, predictable environmentand the performer knows exactly what to do and when.Therefore, skills are not affected by the environment and tendto be habitual. Movements follow set patterns and have aclear beginning and end. The skills tend to be self-paced, forexample a free throw in Basketball, and serving in Squash orTennis.
19Cognitive or Understanding Stage Learn what has to be done to perform the skill successfully and isachieved by gaining a good knowledge of the technique by seeingthe skill done correctly and listening to advice. Performing the skillrequires all of the athlete’s attention so usually a large number ofErrors made in this phase. This phase usually has a success rate of 2or 3 out of 10 attempts.Assist learning:Correct feedback from experienced coach or playerCorrect demonstrations/ knowledgeLots of timeLearning cues
20Associative or Practice Phase (longest phase) Performances are becoming more consistent as motor programmesare being formed. While the simpler parts of the skill now look fluentand are well learned, the more complex elements requires most ofthe spare attention. The athlete is starting to get a sense of internal'kinaesthetic' feedback when they perform the skill well. They arestarting to detect and correct their own errors and success rate hasrisen to 5-7 out of 10.Assist learning:Correct feedback/coachingTime
21Autonomous or Automatic Phase In the final stage of learning, performances have become consistent, fluid and automatic. The motor programmes involved are well learned and stored in the long-term memory. There is now spare attention which can be focused on opponents and tactics. To stay at this level they should continually practice. Success is now 9 out of 10.
22Whole Learning Whole Learning Refers to learning by wholes rather than parts. For exampledribbling a Ball.PositivesExcellent for teaching a simple skillNegatives:Can get complicated and maybe making a small error thateffects the whole skill i.e. bad stance
23Part Learning Part Learning Skill is broken down into parts (called subroutines) and learntone part at a time e.g. golf swing (grip, stance, prep, exec)PositivesIdeal for teaching a difficult skillNegativesCan be long and boring
24MotivationMotivation is thought to be a combination of the drive within us to achieve our aims and the outside factors which affect it. With this in mind, motivation has the following two forms:
25Intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation This is motivation from within. A desire to perform well andsucceed. The following will be true:Desire to overcome the problem or taskDevelopment of skills and habits to overcome that problemRehearsal of successful habits until they are perfectA feeling of pride and enjoyment in performing the skillRepeated goal setting in order to progress and maintain motivation
26Extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation comes from a source outside of theperformer. These are things which can encourage the athleteto perform and fall into two groups:Tangible rewards:Physical rewards such as medals and money. These should beused sparingly with young athletes to avoid a situation wherewinning a prize is more important than competing wellIntangible rewards:Praise, recognition and achievements. These should be usedon a regular basis to encourage the athlete to repeat thebehaviour which earned the praise.
27Confidence Confidence: Confidence is: assurance: freedom from doubt; belief inyourself and your abilities; a feeling of trust (in someone orsomething).People that perform skills with higher confidence are more positive and therefore have better levels of success.Those that do so with low confidence are negative in what they do, doubt their ability and therefore experience less success.