Presentation on theme: "Spinal Trauma Remember: SMR needs to be in an anatomical neutral position specific for each patient to be neutral for spinal cord and airway. Although."— Presentation transcript:
0International Trauma Life Support, 7e Spinal Trauma11Key Lecture PointsCover the anatomy of the spine briefly.Reinforce that any trauma patient who has an altered level of consciousness must be presumed to have a cervical spine injury until proven otherwise. Appropriate precautions must be taken.Stress that not only must the cervical spine be protected, but also the entire spine, including the lumbar and dorsal spine.Briefly discuss the signs, symptoms, and treatment of neurogenic shock.Stress documentation of the brief neurological exam (movement and sensation of hands and feet) before and after extrication or movement of the patient with a suspected spinal injury.Stress that full SMR includes cervical collar, head immobilizer, and appropriate strapping applied to the patient on a long spine board.Stress that cervical collars alone offer little to no protection of the cervical spine. ITLS teaches that SMR is manually maintained by a team member until the patient is secured to the long spine board.Emphasize that SMR on a long spineboard MANDATES airway protection by the rescuer due to the patient being prevented from protecting himself.Discuss the indications for rapid extrication (without using short boards or KED-type devices). Primary survey of the patient identifies a condition that requires immediate intervention that cannot be done in the entrapped area, such as:Airway obstruction that cannot be relieved by jaw thrust or finger sweepCardiac or respiratory arrestChest or airway injuries requiring ventilation or assisted ventilationDeep shock or bleeding that cannot be controlledNote that there are other situations that are so desperate that you may not have time to use any technique, and emergency rescue is warranted to pull the patient to safety. The need for emergency rescue is identified during the scene survey with circumstances that may immediately endanger the patient and the rescuers.Fire or immediate danger of fireDanger of explosionRapidly rising waterStructure in danger of collapseContinuing toxic exposureMention that short backboard type SMR devices may be difficult to apply and ineffective in pregnant and very obese patients.Briefly clarify management of unusual circumstances, such as:Closed space rescueWater rescueProne and standing patientsPediatricsGeriatricsHelmet removal (stress that studies have found that rescue scissors will not efficiently remove face masks)Obese patientsNeck or face wounds
1Spinal TraumaRemember: SMR needs to be in an anatomical neutral position specific for each patient to be neutral for spinal cord and airway. Although texts often recommend age ranges (including ITLS), SMR is principle-driven. Appropriate padding should be used for all age groups and situations (elderly, American football shoulder pads, infants, obesity, etc).Courtesy of Louis B. Mallory, MBA, REMT-P
2Overview Spinal anatomy and physiology Spinal motion restriction (SMR) Mechanisms of injury indicating needProcess of applicationEmergency Rescue and Rapid ExtricationHistory and assessment indicating no needSpecial situations indicating need for alterationNeurogenic and hemorrhagic shock
3Spinal Trauma Devastating and life-threatening Skillfully assess mechanism of injury and patientSpinal motion restriction (SMR)ITLS recommendations are guidelinesBased on careful evaluation of mechanism, reliable patient condition, special situationsKnow your local protocolPrevious terms: traction and immobilization. This term more accurately reflects proper treatment and reality in field, because in certain patients, especially in prehospital environment, spine cannot be completely immobilized.No prospective randomized controlled clinical trials that compare methods of spinal motion restriction. No Class I evidence and no formal standards of care.
4Spinal Column IMAGE: Figure 11-1: Anatomy of spinal column. IMAGE: Figure 11-2a: Vertebra viewed from above . Spinal cord passes through vertebral foramen (on page 162).NOTE: Differentiate spinal column from spinal cord.Bony tube composed of 33 vertebrae.Supports body in an upright position, allows use of our extremities, and protects delicate spinal cord.Column's 33 vertebrae are identified by their location: 7 cervical (the C-spine), 12 thoracic (the T-spine), 5 lumbar (the L-spine), and remainder fused together as posterior portion of pelvis (5 sacral and 4 coccygeal). Vertebrae are numbered in each section, from head down to pelvis. Third cervical vertebra from head is designated C-3, sixth is called C-6, and so forth. Thoracic vertebrae are T1–T12, and each attaches to one of 12 pairs of ribs. Lumbar vertebrae are numbered L1–L5, with L5 being last vertebra above pelvis.Vertebrae are each separated by a fibrous disc that acts as a shock absorber.Spinal column is aligned in a gentle S-curve that is most prominent at C5–C6 and T12–L1 levels in adults, making these areas most susceptible to injury.
5Spinal Cord IMAGE: Figure 11-3 Spinal nerves. IMAGE: Figure 11-2b: Vertebra with spinal cord viewed from top.IMAGE: Figure 11-4: Relationship of spinal cord to vertebrae.Extension of brain stem down to level of first lumbar vertebra and at that point separates into nerves.Cord is 10 to 13 mm in diameter and is suspended in middle of vertebral foremen.Cord is soft and flexible like a cotton rope, and is surrounded and bathed by cerebrospinal fluid along its entire length.Fluid and flexibility provide some protection to cord from injury.Composed of specific bundles of nerve tracts that are arranged in a predictable manner.Spinal cord passes down vertebral canal and gives off pairs of nerve roots that exit at each vertebral level.Roots lie next to intervertebral discs and lateral part of vertebrae, making nerve roots susceptible to injury when trauma occurs in these areas.Nerve roots carry sensory signals from body to spinal cord and then to brain.Roots also carry signals from brain to specific muscles, causing them to move.Signals pass back and forth rapidly, and some are strong enough to cause actions on their own, called reflexes.Strong signals also can overwhelm spinal cord's ability to keep signals moving separately to brain.Integrity of spinal-cord function is tested by motor, sensory, and reflex functions.Level of sensory loss is most accurate for predicting level of spinal-cord injury.Muscle strength is another function that is easy to assess in conscious patient.Reflexes are helpful for distinguishing complete from partial spinal-cord injuries, but are best left for hospital assessment.Spinal cord is also an integrating center for autonomic nervous system, which assists in controlling heart rate, blood vessel tone, and blood flow to skin.Injury to this component of spinal cord results in neurogenic shock (commonly called spinal shock), which is discussed later.
6Spinal Injury IMAGE: Table 11-1 Mechanism of Blunt Spinal Injury Hyperextension(excessive posterior movement of the head or neck)Hyperflexion(excessive anterior movement of head onto chest)Compression(weight of head or pelvis driven into stationary neck or torso)Rotation(excessive rotation of the torso or head and neck, moving one side of the spinal column against the other)Lateral Stress(direct lateral force on spinal column, typically shearing one level of cord from another)Distraction(excessive stretching of column and cord)
7Incidence Spinal Injury Model Spinal Cord Care SystemUS 40 per million persons per year250,000 living survivors4:1 male to female ratio50% are years oldChildrenMVC leading causeOver 65% not wearing a seatbeltCervical cord most common siteSpinal-cord injury occurs throughout the world with an annual incidence of 15 to 40 cases per million.The majority of demographic and epidemiological data related to traumatic spinal-cord injury has been collected in North America and Europe. Data collected by the Model Spinal Cord Care Systems and are published by the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Centerin the United States, the incidence of spinal injury is about 40 per million persons per year, with approximately 250,000 living survivors of spinal-cord injury in the United States in 2010.The male-to-female ratio of individuals with spinal-cord injury in the United States is 4:1.More than 50% of all cases of spinal-cord injuries occur in persons aged 16–30 years. Greater mortality is reported in older patients with spinal injury.Motor-vehicle crashes account for 56% of them. Among children so injured, 67% of those injured in a motor-vehicle collision were not wearing a seatbelt.Under age 8, the relatively large size of the head makes the upper end of the cervical cord the most common site of injury, which can be devastating.
8Blunt Spinal-Column Injury Requires significant forceUnless preexisting weakness or defect in boneHigher risk: elderly, severe arthritisSudden movement of head or trunkFrequently injured in more than one placeSpinal cord involvementColumn injuries with cord injury:14%Cervical region: 40%In cervical spine region it is much more common to have cord injury, with almost 40% of column injuries having cord damage.
9Blunt Spinal-Column Injury Signs and symptomsPain most common symptomFrequently masked by other injuresBack pain with or without movement of backTenderness along spinal columnObvious deformity or woundsParalysisWeaknessParesthesiaNOTE: Paresthesia (tingling or burning feeling to skin).
10Blunt Spinal-Cord Injury Primary damageAt time of forceCut, torn, crushed, cut off blood supplyUsually irreversibleSecondary damageAfter time of forceHypotension, generalized hypoxia, blood vessel injury, swelling, compression from hemorrhageGood prehospital care may help preventSpinal-cord injury results in a defective signal-conducting function, presenting as a loss of motor function and reflexes, loss or change in sensation, or neurogenic shock. The delicate structure of the spinal cord's nerve tracts makes it very sensitive to any form of trauma.Primary spinal-cord injury occurs at the time of the trauma itself. Primary spinal-cord injury results from the cord being cut, torn, or crushed or by its blood supply being cut off. The damage is usually irreversible despite the best trauma care.Secondary spinal-cord injury occurs from hypotension, generalized hypoxia, injury to blood vessels, swelling, compression of the cord from surrounding hemorrhage or injury to the cord from movement of a damaged and unstable spinal column. Emergency efforts are directed at preventing secondary spinal-cord injury through attention to the ABCs, medications, and careful packaging of the patient.
12Neurogenic Shock Cervical or thoracic cord injury Signs and symptoms High-space shockMalfunction of autonomic nervous systemSigns and symptomsHypotensionNormal skin color and temperatureInappropriately slow heart rateDiagnosis of exclusionMay have both neurogenic and hemorrhagicNOTE: See also Chapter 8 for high-space shock.In healthy patient, blood pressure maintained by controlled release of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) from adrenal glands.Sensors in aortic and carotid arteries monitor blood pressure. Catecholamines cause constriction of blood vessels, increase heart rate and strength of heart contraction, and stimulate sweat glands. Brain and spinal cord signal adrenal glands to release catecholamines to keep blood pressure in normal range. In pure hemorrhagic shock, these sensors detect hypovolemic state and compensate by constricting blood vessels and speeding heart rate. High levels of catecholamines cause pale skin, tachycardia, and sweating.Mechanism of shock from spinal-cord injury is just opposite.There is no significant blood loss, but injury to spinal cord destroys ability of brain to regulate release of catecholamines from adrenals (the spinal cord cable is out), so no catecholamines are released. When levels of catecholamines drop, blood vessels dilate, causing blood to pool. This drop in preload causes blood pressure to fall. Brain cannot correct this because it cannot get message to adrenal glands.Patient with neurogenic shock cannot show signs of pale skin, tachycardia, and sweating because cord injury prevents release of catecholamines.
13Assessment ITLS Primary and Secondary Surveys Motor and sensory functionConsciousMotor: move fingers and toesSensation: abnormal is suspiciousUnconsciousMotor: pinch fingers and toesSensation: pinch fingers and toesFlaccid paralysis, no reflexes or withdrawal means injuryNOTE: More detailed neurological exam in Chapters 2 and 10.Document these findings later in written report. Not only does this pre-extrication neurological exam alert you to any spinal injury, it also provides documentation on whether or not there was loss of function before extrication was begun.Courtesy of Louis B. Mallory, MBA, REMT-P
14Clues to Spinal Injury Mechanism Blunt trauma above clavicle Diving accidentMotor vehicle or bicycle accidentFallStabbing or impalement near spinal columnShooting or blast injury to torsoAny violent injury with forces acting on spine
15Clues to Spinal Injury Patient complaints Neck or back pain Numbness or tinglingLoss of movement or weakness
16Clues to Spinal Injury Signs revealed during assessment Pain on movement of back or spinal columnObvious deformity of back or spinal columnGuarding against movement of backLoss of sensationWeak or flaccid musclesLoss of control of bladder or bowelsErection of penis (priapism)Neurogenic shock
17Management Spinal motion restriction (SMR) Modification required Minimize movement to avoid aggravating injuryNo specific device proven more effectiveSMR success depends on application processModification requiredImmediate danger of deathCritical degree of ongoing danger that requires an intervention within 1–2 minutesSMR and Rapid Extrication are covered in skill stations. Give basic principles and foundations.Document details of any situation requiring emergency rescue or Rapid Extrication.Modification to SMRImmediate danger of death:Critical degree of ongoing danger that requires an intervention within 1 or 2 minutes:
18Management Emergency rescue Rapid extrication Reserved for immediate (within seconds) environmental threat to life of victim or rescuerMove to safe area in manner that minimizes riskRapid extricationConsidered for medical conditions or situations that require fast intervention to prevent deathOne or two minutes, but not secondsEmergency rescueImmediate environmental threat of life:Fire or immediate danger of fire or explosion.Hostile environment, gunfire, or other weapons.Danger of being carried away by rapidly moving water.Structure in immediate danger of collapse.Continuing immediately life-threatening toxic exposure.Rapid extricationMedical condition or situation that requires an intervention within 1 or 2 minutes:Airway obstruction that cannot be relieved by modified jaw thrust or finger sweep.Cardiac or respiratory arrest.Chest or airway injuries requiring ventilation or assisted ventilation.Deep shock or bleeding that cannot be controlled.
19Technique may vary however the principle is the same Neutral AlignmentTechnique may vary however the principle is the sameIMAGE 11-5: Neutral alignmentProper padding is often required to obtain and maintain neutral alignment of patient's cervical spine when you perform spinal motion restriction.A truly neutral cervical-spine position for an adult is usually obtained with use of 1 to 2 inches of occipital padding on a long backboard. This slightly elevates head and brings neck into a neutral position that tends to make patient more comfortable and also makes endotracheal intubation easier if needed. This is accomplished with head pad on a cervical motion-restriction device or padding that is used with many backboard devices.Elderly patients whose necks have a natural flexed posture will require more padding.Children, because their heads are proportionately larger, usually require padding under shoulders to prevent neck flexion on backboard.
20Log Roll Single unit: spinal-column, head, pelvis Patients lying prone or supineModification requiredPainful arm, leg, chestRoll onto uninjured sideUnstable fractured pelvisScoop stretcherLift carefully by four or more rescuersCourtesy of Louis B. Mallory, MBA, REMT-P
22Complications of SMR Airway compromise and aspiration Head and airway are in fixed positionHead and low back painDirectly related to being on hard backboardLife-threatening hypoxiaObeseCongestive heart failurePressure soresUneven skin pressureThe head and airway are in a fixed position, which can produce airway compromise and aspiration if the patient vomits.The patient will be uncomfortable and will often complain of head and low back pain that is directly related to being strapped onto the hard backboard.Obese patients and those with congestive heart failure can suffer life-threatening hypoxia.On a rigid board there is uneven skin pressure that can result in pressure sores.
23Complications of SMR Injury to rescue personnel Delayed scene time Lifting and transferring patient to and with the SMRDelayed scene timePenetrating to chest or abdomenNot in proximity to spineNo symptoms of spinal injuryAnimation: Textbox on bottom of screen will dissolve in on next mouse clickLifting the patient and the board can cause injuries to rescue personnel.Patients with penetrating trauma to the chest or abdomen are critical load-and-go patients, the extra time it takes to perform SMR can have a devastating effect on survival. When you have a patient with a gunshot or stab wound of the trunk that is not in proximity to the spine and no symptoms of spinal injury, you should carefully but quickly load the patient on the stretcher and transport immediately.Similarly, isolated gunshot wounds to the head may not require SMR.SMR should be applied appropriately to those who will most likely benefit, and it should be avoided if not necessary.SMR should be applied to those who will benefit and avoided if not necessary
24Controversy with SMRGeneral belief SMR should be done until injury ruled outMaine ProtocolNo solid evidence (Class 1)Malaysia/USA studySMR done based on logic not scienceThe widely held belief is that injured patients must have SMR performed until an injury can be ruled out.However, as mentioned above, there are no Class I studies to confirm this, and some countries do not perform SMR.One study has been done comparing the EMS systems of a country that performs no SMR (Malaysia) and one that consistently performs SMR (the United States). The study concluded that prehospital SMR had little or no effect on neurological outcome in patients with blunt spinal trauma.This is not to condemn SMR, but to remind us that what we are doing is based on logic and not actually based on scientific evidence.
25SMR Situations Low-risk situation High-risk situation SMR not requiredHigh-risk situationSMR performedUncertain situationManually stabilizeAssess for signs of spinal injuryDetermine if SMR is requiredSMR is not required if there is no mechanism of injury that would damage the spine (foot crushed by a car).If the mechanism is a high-risk event, SMR is performed regardless of other clinical findings. High-risk situations include high-speed motor-vehicle collisions, falls of greater than three times the patient's height, penetrating wounds into or near the spinal column, sports injuries to the head or neck, diving accidents, and any trauma situation in which the patient remains unconscious.If the danger of spinal injury is uncertain (ground-level fall, low-speed “fender bender”), the rescuer should manually stabilize the spine and then assess the patient for signs of spinal injury.
26Maine Protocol for SMR IMAGE: 11-8: decision Tree for SMR Studies have resulted in a clinical pathway referred to as the Maine Protocol for Spinal Motion Restriction, which was published in 1994 by Peter Goth, MD (Figure 11-8).This protocol is supported by the National Association of EMS Physicians. (See Table 11-3 for NAEMSP's position paper on spinal motion restriction.)You must assess the mechanism of injury, interview and examine the patient, then use this information to determine which patients need SMR. From the scene size-up, history, and assessment come the clues that identify the patients who do not need SMR.(Reprinted by permission of Peter Goth, MD)
27SMR Decision Reliable patient Unreliable patient Calm Cooperative SoberAlertNo distracting injuriesAcute stress reactionHead/brain injuryAltered mental statusIntoxication with drugs and/or alcoholDistracting injuriesThe patient must be reliable enough to understand the EMS provider and answer the questions accurately, so children and patients with altered mental status or acute stress reactions are excluded. The patient is assessed for evidence of intoxication or distracting injuries that may not allow the patient to clearly feel the pain associated with a spinal injury. The patient is asked if he has pain in the area of the spinal column. If no pain is present in the neck or back, and no other injuries are so painful as to distract the patient from comprehending back or neck pain, the rescuer then carefully examines the spinal column and performs a neurological exam. If there is any tenderness on palpation of the spinal column area or if the patient complains of midline pain when asked to move his back, SMR is performed. SMR is also performed if there are alterations in the motor or sensory exam.If the patient has no high-risk mechanism of injury, no alteration of mental status, no distracting injuries, is not intoxicated, has no pain or tenderness along the spine, and has no neurological deficits, the patient may be treated and transported without SMR. This protocol has proven effective in research studies but, like all medical protocols, must be approved for local use by medical direction and followed up with a quality assurance program.
28Airway InterventionPatient loses some ability to maintain their airwayRescuer assume responsibilityAirway manipulation causes spinal column movementRisk versus benefitIMAGE 11-9: Controlling airwaySMR in any manner, the patient loses some of her ability to maintain her own airway.The rescuer must then assume this responsibility until the patient has a controlled airway or has the spinal column cleared in the emergency department and is released from the motion-restricting equipment.Nasotracheal, orotracheal, or cricothyroid intubations all induce some bony movement.The risk of dying with an uncontrolled airway is greater than the risk of inducing spinal-cord damage using a careful approach to intubation.(Courtesy of Stanley Cooper, EMT-P)
29Special SMR Situations Closed-space rescueSafety is first priorityIn line with long axisIMAGE Figure 11-10: Closed space rescueClosed-Space Rescues.Safety of the rescuer is of prime importance in all closed-space rescues. Asphyxia, toxic gases, and structure collapse are dangers of closed-space rescue and may require the use of emergency rescue.Never enter a closed space unless you are properly trained, equipped (air pack, safety line, and so on), and sure of scene safety.The only general rules that can be applied to these rescues are to prevent gross spinal movement and to move patients in line with the long axis of the body (Figure 11-10).Courtesy of Roy Alson, MD
30Special SMR Situations Water emergenciesBackboard floated underSecure then removeIMAGE Scan 11.1: Water rescueWater Emergencies.You can perform water rescues by moving the patient in lineThe backboard is floated under the patient, and the patient is then secured and removed from the water.Safety of both rescuers and patients is of paramount importance. If you are not trained in water rescue, do not attempt to rescue victims in hazardous situations such as deep or swift water.
31Special SMR Situations Prone, seated or standingMinimize movement into supine positionProne patients are log-rolled onto a backboard, with careful coordination of head and chest rescuers.Seated patients may be stabilized using short backboards or their commercial adaptations. Used appropriately, short backboards provide initial stabilization of cervical and thoracic spine and then facilitate movement of patient onto a long backboard.Standing patients may be placed against long board while upright and then strapped in place. The board is then gently lowered to supine position.Courtesy of Louis B. Mallory, MBA, REMT-PCourtesy of Louis B. Mallory, MBA, REMT-P
33Special SMR Situations Protective gearRemove athletic helmet when:Face mask not removed timelyAirway cannot be controlledDoes not hold head securelyHelmet prevents stabilizationNote:Cut chin strap; do not unhook(Courtesy of Jeff Hinshaw, MS, PA-C, NREMT-P)IMAGES 11-14a: Face guardIMAGE b: Pruning sheersFootball and ice hockey helmets are custom fitted to individual. Unless special circumstances exist, such as respiratory distress coupled with an inability to access airway, helmet should not be removed in prehospital setting.Athletic helmet design will generally allow easy airway access once face guard is removed.Best method to remove face guard is with screwdriver (cordless screwdriver is best), but sometimes screw slot strips out and face guard will have to be cut off.Excellent device made specifically for cutting off four face guard mounting strips exists (Face Mask Extractor by Collins Sports Medicine), but at this time it is extremely expensive.Next best choice is to use anvil pruning shears.Rescue scissors have been advocated in past, but studies have found them to be unsuitable for this task.Unhooking chin strap may cause movement of spine. It is better to cut chin strap.(Courtesy of Jeff Hinshaw, MS, PA-C, NREMT-P)
35Special SMR Situations Protective gearMotorcycle helmet: removalPoorly fitted to patientSignificant neck flexionFull face and open faceNote:Remove to evaluate and manage airwayIMAGE 11-16: Motorcycle helmetNOTE: This skill is covered in skill stations.Motorcycle helmets often removed in prehospital setting.Removal technique is modified to accommodate different design.Motorcycle helmets are often designed with a continuous solid face guard that limits airway access.These helmets are not custom designed and frequently are poorly fitted, and their large size usually produces significant neck flexion if left in place when patient is positioned on a backboard.Motorcycle helmets will make it difficult to stabilize neck in a neutral position, may obstruct access to airway, and may hide injuries to head or neck.Helmet should be removed in prehospital setting, using techniques described in Chapter 12.(Courtesy of Bob Page, NREMT-P)
37SummaryUnstable or incomplete spinal damage is not completely predictable.Unconscious trauma or dangerous mechanism affecting head, neck, trunk should have SMR.Uncertain mechanisms may not require SMR.Special cases may require special techniques.Maintain neutral alignment specific for patient.Be prepared to manage airway compromise.